Anesthetics, Local

Name
Anesthetics, Local
Accession Number
DBCAT000661
Description

Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.

ATC Classification
Drugs
DrugDrug Description
LidocaineA local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures.
RopivacaineAn analgesic drug used for local or regional anesthesia for surgery and short-term management of pain.
BupivacaineA local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures.
DyclonineAn topical anesthetic used prior to examination to suppress the gag reflex or for pain relief from canker sores and fever blisters.
ProcaineA local anesthetic used for anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal nerve block.
PrilocaineA local anesthetic used in dental procedures.
ProparacaineA topical anesthetic used for ophthalmic practice.
MepivacaineA local anesthetic used for local or regional analgesia or anesthesia.
LevobupivacaineFor the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management
BenzocaineA topical local anesthetic used for the temporary relief of pain and itching associated with minor burns, sunburn, scrapes and insect bites or minor skin irritations.
ChloroprocaineA local anesthetic agent indicated for intrathecal injection in adults for the production of subarachnoid block, or spinal anesthesia.
EtidocaineEtidocaine is marketed under the name Duranest. It is an injectable local anesthetic during surgery, labor, and delivery. Etidocaine has a long duration of activity, but has the main disadvantage...
ArticaineA local anesthetic used for inducing local, infiltrative, or conductive anesthesia in both simple and complex dental procedures.
TetracaineA local anaesthetic agent used to induce local analgesia in the eyes and skin during medical procedures.
Ethyl chlorideEthyl chloride, or chloroethane, has a chemical formula C2H5Cl. It was commonly used in the production of tetraethyllead (TEL), which is an additive for gasoline. It was also used in...
OxybuprocaineA local anesthetic used in ophthalmology.
PhenolAn antiseptic and disinfectant used in a variety of settings.
CinchocaineAn anesthetic used for local or regional anesthesia.
CocaineAn ester local anesthetic used during diagnostic procedures and surgeries in or through the nasal cavities.
DiphenhydramineA H1 receptor antihistamine used in the treatment of seasonal allergies, and various allergic reactions including sneezing, runny nose, itchy/watery eyes, itching of nose or throat, pruritus, urticaria, insect bites/stings, and allergic rashes.
TetrodotoxinFor the treatment of chronic and breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients as well as for the treatment of opioid dependence.
Benzyl alcoholAn antiparasitic agent used for the topical treatment of head lice infestation in patients 6 months of age and older.
PropoxycainePropoxycaine is a local anesthetic medication. It was used beginning in the 1950s during dental procedures . It has been combined with procaine to accelerate its onset of action and...
PramocaineA local anesthetic and antipruritic agent found in various topical preparations.
ButambenAnesthesia of mucus membranes other than the eyes.
ButacaineNot Annotated
QuinisocaineNot Annotated
CapsaicinA topical analgesic agent used for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia, as well as other muscle and joint pain.
OxetacaineAn antacid used to treat gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, heartburn, esophagitis, hiatus hernia, and anorexia.
ButanilicaineNot Annotated
MetabutethamineNot Annotated
Drugs & Drug Targets
DrugTargetType
LidocaineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
LidocaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
LidocaineEpidermal growth factor receptortarget
LidocaineSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
LidocaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
LidocaineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
LidocaineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
LidocaineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
LidocaineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
LidocaineSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
LidocaineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1target
LidocaineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2target
RopivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
RopivacaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
RopivacaineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
RopivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
BupivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
BupivacaineProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtypetarget
BupivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
BupivacaineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
BupivacaineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DyclonineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
ProcaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
ProcaineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
Procaine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
ProcaineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
ProcaineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2target
ProcaineCholinesteraseenzyme
ProcaineDNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1target
ProcaineCalcium-activated potassium channeltarget
ProcaineCytosolic phospholipase A2target
Procaine60 kDa lysophospholipasetarget
ProcaineMonoamine oxidasetarget
ProcaineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertransporter
ProcaineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertransporter
ProcaineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertransporter
ProcaineDNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3Atarget
PrilocaineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
ProparacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
MepivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
LevobupivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
LevobupivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LevobupivacaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
BenzocaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
BenzocaineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
BenzocaineLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
ChloroprocaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
ChloroprocaineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
ChloroprocaineCholinesteraseenzyme
TetracaineRyanodine receptor 1target
TetracaineRyanodine receptor 2target
TetracaineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
OxybuprocaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
OxybuprocaineCholinesteraseenzyme
PhenolThermolysintarget
PhenolSerum albumintarget
CinchocaineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
CinchocaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
CinchocaineCalmodulintarget
CinchocaineCholinesteraseenzyme
CocaineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
CocaineSodium channel proteintarget
CocaineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
CocaineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
CocaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CocaineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
CocaineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
CocaineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
CocaineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
CocaineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
CocaineSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
CocaineLiver carboxylesterase 1target
CocaineCholinesteraseenzyme
CocaineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertransporter
Cocainealpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
CocaineLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DiphenhydramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DiphenhydramineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DiphenhydramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
TetrodotoxinSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
TetrodotoxinSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
TetrodotoxinSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
TetrodotoxinSodium channel protein type 8 subunit alphatarget
Benzyl alcoholCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
Benzyl alcoholCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
Benzyl alcoholAldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
Benzyl alcoholCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Benzyl alcoholCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
Benzyl alcoholCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
PropoxycaineLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
PropoxycaineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
PramocaineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
ButambenVoltage-dependent calcium channeltarget
ButambenCholinesteraseenzyme
ButambenAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
ButambenSerum albumincarrier
ButambenATP-sensitive potassium channeltarget
ButambenTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1target
ButambenTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4target
CapsaicinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CapsaicinProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
CapsaicinMyeloperoxidaseenzyme
CapsaicinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
CapsaicinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
CapsaicinAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
CapsaicinDopamine beta-hydroxylaseenzyme
CapsaicinGlutamine synthetaseenzyme
CapsaicinCholinesteraseenzyme
CapsaicinTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
CapsaicinProhibitin-2target
OxetacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
OxetacaineGastrintarget