Potassium bicarbonate

Identification

Summary

Potassium bicarbonate is an ingredient used as an antacid or to treat hypokalemia.

Brand Names
Effer-K
Generic Name
Potassium bicarbonate
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11098
Background

Potassium bicarbonate is a white, crystalline, slightly alkaline and salty substance. It is produced by the passage of carbon dioxide through an aqueous potassium carbonate solution. It is used in medicine as an antacid.3 It is registered in the FDA under the section of suitable, safe and effective ingredients for OTC antacids.7 This FDA denomination classifies potassium bicarbonate as a GRAS ingredient.8

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 100.1151
Monoisotopic: 99.956275759
Chemical Formula
CHKO3
Synonyms
  • Carbonic acid, monopotassium salt
  • Potassium bicarbonate
  • Potassium hydrogen carbonate
External IDs
  • E-501(II)
  • INS NO.501(II)
  • INS-501(II)

Pharmacology

Indication

Potassium bicarbonate is used as an antacid, electrolyte replenisher and potassium supplement. It can also be used as an excipient in drug formulations.8 An antacid is a medication used to neutralize gastric acid in a short timeframe after ingestion and the effect is soon overcome by meal-stimulated acid secretion.1

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Potassium is the principal intracellular cation in most body tissues. The concentration of potassium ions is essential to conduct nerve impulses in specialized tissues like brain, heart and skeletal muscle, as well as to maintain normal renal function, acid-base balance, and cellular metabolic functions.9 The use of compounds containing bicarbonate is showed to produce the release of CO2. This effect has been one of the problems of the use of potassium bicarbonate as it can cause eructation.5

Mechanism of action

The antacid potential of potassium bicarbonate is attained by increasing the gastrointestinal pH by neutralizing hydrochloric acid.6 The increase in pH results in suppression of the action of pepsin which is the enzyme that exacerbates ulceration due to the presence of acid.5

TargetActionsOrganism
AHydrogen ions
neutralizer
Absorption

Potassium bicarbonate intake is done mainly in the small intestine in which approximately 90% of the potassium will be absorbed by passive diffusion.2

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Approximately 90% of the exogenous potassium consumed is lost in the urine while the other 10% is excreted in feces and a very small amount can be found in the sweat. The excreted potassium is freely filtered by the glomerulus of the kidney.2

Half-life

Some reports have shown that after absorption, most body potassium exchanges rapidly with a half-life of less than 7 hours.2

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Potassium bicarbonate does not contain any toxic chemicals and it is not listed as a carcinogenic or a potential carcinogen.8 Potassium bicarbonate is also considered safe in pregnancy as the current data do not suggest a teratogenic potential or any developmental toxicity.4

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololPotassium bicarbonate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacPotassium bicarbonate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinPotassium bicarbonate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acemetacin.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidPotassium bicarbonate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineAcrivastine may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium bicarbonate which could result in a higher serum level.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid potassium-containing products. Excess potassium intake may cause hyperkalemia. Avoid salt substitutes like potassium chloride (KCl).
  • Take with a full glass of water. Dissolve the 10 mEq tablet in at least 2-3 oz of fluid, and the 20 mEq tablet in at least 3-4 oz of liquid (juice or water).
  • Take with food.

Products

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Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Potassium cationionic295O53K15224203-36-9NPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Effer-K 10 mEq Cherry VanillaTablet, effervescent391 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K 10 mEq UnflavoredTablet, effervescent391 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K 20 mEq Orange CreamTablet, effervescent782 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K 20 mEq UnflavoredTablet, effervescent782 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K Cherry BerryTablet, effervescent977.5 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K Lemon CitrusTablet, effervescent977.5 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K OrangeTablet, effervescent977.5 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K UnflavoredTablet, effervescent977.5 mg/1OralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
K-effervescentTablet, effervescent25 meq/1OralQualitest2006-01-06Not applicableUS flag
K-Vescent EfffervescentTablet, effervescent25 meq/1OralCardinal Health2005-04-222018-04-30US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Alka-Seltzer GoldPotassium bicarbonate (344 mg/1) + Citric acid monohydrate (1000 mg/1) + Sodium bicarbonate (1050 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralBayer Healthcare Llc.2014-11-19Not applicableUS flag
BetacolPotassium bicarbonate (41 mg) + Betaine hydrochloride (61 mg) + Calcium glycerophosphate (50 mg) + Choline bitartrate (2.5 mg)CapsuleOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1989-12-151996-09-09Canada flag
CalcorPotassium bicarbonate (100 mg) + Calcium (500 mg) + Magnesium (140 mg) + Silicon (2 mg)TabletOralSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
GALVİKS ADVANCE 1000 MG+200 MG/10 ML ORAL SÜSPANSİYON, 200 MLPotassium bicarbonate (200 mg/10mL) + Sodium alginate (1000 mg/10mL)SuspensionOralABDİ İBRAHİM İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Gascovid Advance LiquidPotassium bicarbonate (200 mg) + Sodium alginate (1000 mg)LiquidOralHovid Berhad2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
GASVİN MAX 1000 MG/200 MG ORAL SÜSPANSİYON, 200 MLPotassium bicarbonate (200 mg) + Sodium alginate (1000 mg)SuspensionOralDeva Holding A.S.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Gaviscon Advance - Peppermint FlavourPotassium bicarbonate (200 mg) + Sodium alginate (1000 mg)SolutionOralRB (HEALTH) MALAYSIA SDN BHD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
GAVISCON ADVANCE ORAL SUSPANSIYON, 200 MLPotassium bicarbonate (20 mg/ml) + Sodium alginate (100 mg/ml)SuspensionOralRECKİTT BENCKİSER TEMİZLİK MALZEMELERİ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Neo KPotassium bicarbonate (185 mg / g) + Potassium chloride (234.68 mg / g)Granule, effervescentOralNeolab Inc1977-12-311997-08-12Canada flag
Pleo Alkala AntacidPotassium bicarbonate (117 g/150g) + Sodium bicarbonate (11.70 g/150g) + Sodium citrate (2.4 g/150g)PowderOralSanum Kehlbeck GmbH & Co. KG1996-12-19Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Effer-K 10 mEq Cherry VanillaPotassium bicarbonate (391 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K 10 mEq UnflavoredPotassium bicarbonate (391 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K 20 mEq Orange CreamPotassium bicarbonate (782 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K 20 mEq UnflavoredPotassium bicarbonate (782 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K Cherry BerryPotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K Lemon CitrusPotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K OrangePotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effer-K UnflavoredPotassium bicarbonate (977.5 mg/1)Tablet, effervescentOralNomax Inc.2013-01-30Not applicableUS flag
Effervescent Potassium ChloridePotassium bicarbonate (0.7 g/1) + Lysine hydrochloride (1.5 g/1) + Potassium chloride (1.25 g/1)Tablet, effervescentOralQualitest2006-01-062021-07-31US flag
K-effervescentPotassium bicarbonate (25 meq/1)Tablet, effervescentOralQualitest2006-01-06Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A12BA04 — Potassium hydrogencarbonate
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organic carbonic acids. These are compounds comprising the carbonic acid functional group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Organic carbonic acids
Direct Parent
Organic carbonic acids
Alternative Parents
Carbonate salts / Organic potassium salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Carbonate salt / Carbonic acid / Carbonyl group / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic alkali metal salt / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organic potassium salt / Organic salt
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
potassium salt, organic salt (CHEBI:81862)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
HM5Z15LEBN
CAS number
298-14-6
InChI Key
TYJJADVDDVDEDZ-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/CH2O3.K/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
IUPAC Name
potassium hydrogen carbonate
SMILES
[K+].OC([O-])=O

References

General References
  1. De Ruigh A, Roman S, Chen J, Pandolfino JE, Kahrilas PJ: Gaviscon Double Action Liquid (antacid & alginate) is more effective than antacid in controlling post-prandial oesophageal acid exposure in GERD patients: a double-blind crossover study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Sep;40(5):531-7. doi: 10.1111/apt.12857. Epub 2014 Jul 10. [Article]
  2. Stone MS, Martyn L, Weaver CM: Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). pii: nu8070444. doi: 10.3390/nu8070444. [Article]
  3. The American Heritage Science Dictionary (2018). Stedman's Medical Dictionary . Houghton Mifflin Company.
  4. Rost M. (2007). Drugs during prgnancy and lactation (2nd ed.). Academic press.
  5. Smith M. and Morton D. (2010). The digestive system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  6. German A., Maddison J. and Guilford G. (2008). Small animal clinical pharmacology (2nd ed.). Elsevier.
  7. FDA Code of Federal Regulations [Link]
  8. Potassium Bicarbonate Handbook [Link]
  9. Efferk monograph [Link]
  10. TITCK Product Information: Gaviscon Advance oral suspension [Link]
KEGG Compound
C18606
PubChem Compound
516893
PubChem Substance
347827895
ChemSpider
55053
RxNav
34296
ChEBI
81862
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2106975
Wikipedia
Potassium_bicarbonate
MSDS
Download (108 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDistal Renal Tubular Acidosis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBarretts Esophagus With Dysplasia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Obesity (Disorder) / Reflux Acid1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCystine renal calculi1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, effervescentOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Tablet, effervescentOral391 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentOral782 mg/1
Tablet, effervescentOral977.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionOral
SuspensionOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, effervescentOral978 mg/1
Granule, effervescentOral
PowderOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, effervescentOral25 meq/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)Decomposes before melting'MSDS'
water solubilitySolubleStedman's Medical Dictionary. (2002)
pKa6.37'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility681.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.08ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.83ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity20.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Neutralizer
References
  1. Mandel KG, Daggy BP, Brodie DA, Jacoby HI: Review article: alginate-raft formulations in the treatment of heartburn and acid reflux. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jun;14(6):669-90. [Article]
  2. German A., Maddison J. and Guilford G. (2008). Small animal clinical pharmacology (2nd ed.). Elsevier.

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A2
Uniprot ID
P55011
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 2
Molecular Weight
131445.825 Da
References
  1. Haas M: The Na-K-Cl cotransporters. Am J Physiol. 1994 Oct;267(4 Pt 1):C869-85. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.1994.267.4.C869. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID
Q13621
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Molecular Weight
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Haas M: The Na-K-Cl cotransporters. Am J Physiol. 1994 Oct;267(4 Pt 1):C869-85. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.1994.267.4.C869. [Article]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on February 21, 2021 18:52