Magnesium

Identification

Summary

Magnesium is a medication used for many purposes including constipation, indigestion, magnesium deficiency, and pre-eclampsia.

Brand Names
Pregvit, Vitafol-one
Generic Name
Magnesium
DrugBank Accession Number
DB14513
Background

Magnesium is classified as an alkaline earth metal and has 2 hydration shells.1 The element can be found in abundance in the hydrosphere and in mineral salts such as dolomite and magnesium carbonate.1

Common dietary sources of magnesium include nuts (cashews, peanuts, almonds), beans, bananas, apples, carrots, broccoli, and leafy greens.8,11 Magnesium is an important enzyme cofactor and is essential to several metabolic processes.3 Further, the mineral helps regulate blood pressure and is necessary for RNA, DNA and protein synthesis among several other functions.3

Despite the importance of magnesium and its availability via several food sources, an estimated 56 to 68% of adults who live in developed, western countries do not meet the recommended daily intake (RDI) of magnesium.5 Several factors and common behaviours reduce the availability of magnesium in the diet such as food processing and cooking vegetables (which are normally a rich source of magnesium).5

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 26.321
Monoisotopic: 26.00069176
Chemical Formula
H2Mg
Synonyms
  • Magnesio
  • Magnésium
  • Magnesium metallicum
  • Magnesium powder
  • Mg

Pharmacology

Indication

Healthy levels of magnesium can be achieved through a well balanced diet, but if food sources are insufficient, magnesium supplements can be used to prevent and treat magnesium deficiencies.11

In medicine, various magnesium salts may be used in laxative and antacid products.1 For example, magnesium citrate is available over-the-counter and may be used to manage occasional constipation.9 Magnesium sulfate may be used on its own or with total parenteral nutrition to treat hypomagnesemia.10 Magnesium sulfate is also indicated to prevent seizures in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, and to manage seizures associated with eclampsia.4,10

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Magnesium is important for many biochemical processes and is therefore quite common in humans.5 The majority of magnesium is stored in the bones (>50%), while the remainder is stored in muscle, soft tissue, red blood cells and serum.1 This is functionally important since the bones behave as a magnesium exchange reservoir and help maintain healthy levels of magnesium.1

Magnesium plays an important role in the regulation of several bodily processes including blood pressure, insulin metabolism, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, cardiac excitability, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction.3 Disruptions in homeostatic levels of magnesium (often times hypomagnesemia) can impact the nervous system, muscles, or can lead to cardiac abnormalities.3

Mechanism of action

Magnesium is a cofactor for at least 300 enzymes and is important for several functions in the body with some key processes identified below.3 Enzymes that rely on magnesium to operate help produce energy through oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and ATP metabolism.5 They are also involved in nerve function, muscle contraction, blood glucose control, hormone receptor binding, protein synthesis, cardiac excitability, blood pressure control, gating of calcium channels and transmembrane ion flux.5

The mitochondrial intracellular space is rich in magnesium, since it is required to produce the active form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate, and behaves as a counter ion for the energy rich molecule.1,5 Additionally, magnesium is essential for ATP metabolism.3

Absorption

Approximately 24-76% of ingested magnesium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily via passive paracellular absorption in the small intestine.3

Volume of distribution

According to a pharmacokinetic review, the volume of distribution of magnesium sulphate when used to manage patients with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia ranged from 13.65 to 49.00 L.4

Protein binding

20% of the magnesium found in human serum is protein bound.7 Approximately 60-70% of this fraction is bound to albumin while the remainder is bound to globulin proteins.7 Magnesium has the ability to bind to 3751 human proteins.6

Metabolism

Magnesium does not appear to be metabolized.7

Route of elimination

The majority of magnesium is excreted renally.3,10

Half-life

Magnesiums biologic half-life is reported to be approximately 1000 hours or 42 days.5

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

The recommended dietary allowance of magnesium ranges from 30 mg for infants to 420 mg for males between the age of 31 and 50.11 According to the institute of Medicine (IOM), the majority of adults can tolerate 350 mg of magnesium per day without experiencing adverse effects.5 Symptoms of magnesium toxicity include diarrhea and other gastrointestinal effects, thirst, muscle weakness, drowsiness, severe back and pelvic pain, hypotension, dizziness, confusion, difficulty breathing, lethargy, and deterioration of kidney function.3,5 Other more severe symptoms associated with magnesium overdose include loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.5

Regular use of laxatives containing magnesium may lead to severe and even fatal hypermagnesemia.2

Discontinuation of magnesium products including supplements, laxatives, and antacids is usually sufficient to manage mild cases of magnesium overdose; however, patients should also be screened for renal impairment.5

In severe cases of magnesium overdose, patients may require supportive care and interventions including intravenous fluids and furosemide, IV calcium chloride or calcium gluconate, renal dialysis and artificial respiratory support.5

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbataceptThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Abatacept.
AcetazolamideThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
AdalimumabThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Adalimumab.
AlclometasoneThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Alclometasone.
AldesleukinThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Aldesleukin.
AlefaceptThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Alefacept.
AlemtuzumabThe serum concentration of Magnesium can be decreased when it is combined with Alemtuzumab.
Alendronic acidMagnesium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alendronic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. Taking magnesium supplements with food may reduce the risk of diarrhea.

Products

Products2
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Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Magnesium oxideunknown3A3U0GI71G1309-48-4AXZKOIWUVFPNLO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Magnesium cationionicT6V3LHY83822537-22-0JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acti Mag 250 CapletTablet250 mgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Chelated Magnesium 150mg - TabTablet150 mg / tabOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1997-08-152000-07-29Canada flag
Chelated Magnesium Supplement - Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralAlbion1996-09-062007-10-19Canada flag
Chelated Magnesium Tab 125mgTablet125 mgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1985-12-312008-07-17Canada flag
Chelated Magnesium Tab 50mgTablet50 mg / tabOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1975-12-312001-09-14Canada flag
Chelazome Magnesium 100mgTablet100 mg / tabOralTrophic Canada Ltd.1987-12-312000-08-03Canada flag
F.M. FormulaCapsule80 mgOralNatures Sunshine Products, Inc.1999-05-252009-08-07Canada flag
MagnelisCapsule165 mg / capOralImport Export SantÉ Nature Inc.1999-02-202003-08-01Canada flag
MagnesiumCapsule100 mgOralSeroyal International Inc.1996-12-312008-10-09Canada flag
MagnesiumCapsule20 mg / capOralFrega Inc.1981-12-312008-02-13Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
24 Multivitamins + MineralsMagnesium (65 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada flag
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsMagnesium (100 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada flag
Acetabolan III Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMagnesium (112.5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (250.0 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.63 mg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2003-12-052007-07-18Canada flag
Acetabolan-II Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMagnesium (90 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.1 mg) + Zinc (6 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2000-11-202005-06-21Canada flag
Acti-cal/mag 2:1 + Zinc and D CapletMagnesium (175.0 mg) + Calcium (350.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Zinc (6.0 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Actical Plus Calcium-magnesium-vitamin D3-silicon ChewableMagnesium (100 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Silicon (2 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.1999-09-302004-07-27Canada flag
Active Calcium Plus Magnesium, Vitamin D and SiliconMagnesium (100 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Silicon (2.25 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2002-07-082007-07-18Canada flag
ActyformMagnesium (61.15 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + Iron (4.18 mg) + Zinc (9 mg)CapsuleOralTechnodiet S.E.N.C.1999-10-262008-08-13Canada flag
Adult Formula 50+Magnesium (100 mg) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Beta carotene (3000 unit) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (220 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Iodine (0.15 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Molybdenum (10 mcg) + Nicotinamide (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Potassium (37.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg) + Selenium (10 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (3000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (60 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-252009-09-28Canada flag
Advanced B & T FormulaMagnesium (83.3 mg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic acid (0.133 mg) + Iron (1.67 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
C-Nate DHAMagnesium (30 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (200 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralCenturion Labs, LLC2013-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Calcium Folic Acid Plus D ChewableMagnesium (50 mg/1) + Boron (250 ug/1) + Calcium carbonate (1342 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (300 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (125 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (10 mg/1)WaferOralAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-03-202022-08-02US flag
Cavan-EC SOD DHAMagnesium (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 mg/1) + Zinc (26 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15US flag
Duet DHA BalancedMagnesium (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2480 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (215 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (2 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (210 ug/1) + Iron (26 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (278 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralEckson Labs, LLC2012-10-302014-10-31US flag
Duet DHA BalancedMagnesium (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2800 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (215 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (640 [iU]/1) + Choline (55 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (1.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (15 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (210 ug/1) + Iron (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (267 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (2 mg/1) + Sodium selenate (65 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)OralEckson Labs, LLC2012-10-30Not applicableUS flag
EscaviteMagnesium (60 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (45 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (9 ug/1) + Folic acid (0.4 mg/1) + Iron (7.5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Zinc (7.4 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralGm Pharmaceuticals2012-02-01Not applicableUS flag
Folcaps Care OneMagnesium (50 mg/1) + Biotin (300 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (24 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (100 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (100 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc (5 mg/1) + alpha-Linolenic acid (50 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (15 [iU]/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMayne Pharma2009-05-012016-12-31US flag
Folet OneMagnesium (15 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (18 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (250 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Doconexent (225 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (25 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (38 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (30 mg/1) + Vitamin E (15 [iU]/1) + Zinc (20 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralPronova Corporation2014-06-012017-03-15US flag
MaxFeMagnesium (6.5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (150 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (60 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (160 mg/1) + Zinc (12 mg/1)TabletOralPronova Corporation2014-06-012020-01-01US flag
Moms Choice RxMagnesium (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2840 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (215 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric cation (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (2 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron (26 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (278 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2013-04-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
I38ZP9992A
CAS number
7439-95-4
InChI Key
RSHAOIXHUHAZPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Mg.2H
IUPAC Name
magnesium dihydride
SMILES
[MgH2]

References

General References
  1. Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M: Magnesium basics. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Feb;5(Suppl 1):i3-i14. doi: 10.1093/ndtplus/sfr163. [Article]
  2. Bokhari SR, Siriki R, Teran FJ, Batuman V: Fatal Hypermagnesemia Due to Laxative Use. Am J Med Sci. 2018 Apr;355(4):390-395. doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2017.08.013. Epub 2017 Sep 12. [Article]
  3. Grober U, Schmidt J, Kisters K: Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients. 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226. doi: 10.3390/nu7095388. [Article]
  4. Okusanya BO, Oladapo OT, Long Q, Lumbiganon P, Carroli G, Qureshi Z, Duley L, Souza JP, Gulmezoglu AM: Clinical pharmacokinetic properties of magnesium sulphate in women with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. BJOG. 2016 Feb;123(3):356-66. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.13753. Epub 2015 Nov 24. [Article]
  5. Schwalfenberg GK, Genuis SJ: The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. Scientifica (Cairo). 2017;2017:4179326. doi: 10.1155/2017/4179326. Epub 2017 Sep 28. [Article]
  6. Piovesan D, Profiti G, Martelli PL, Casadio R: The human "magnesome": detecting magnesium binding sites on human proteins. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13 Suppl 14:S10. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-S14-S10. Epub 2012 Sep 7. [Article]
  7. Swaminathan R: Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. Clin Biochem Rev. 2003 May;24(2):47-66. [Article]
  8. Allen MJ, Sharma S: Magnesium . [Article]
  9. Citroma Magnesium Citrate DailyMed label [Link]
  10. Magnesium Sulfate Injection, USP 50% [Link]
  11. NIH document, Magnesium [Link]
ChemSpider
16787263
RxNav
6574
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2146125
Wikipedia
Magnesium

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
4CompletedPreventionIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain / Periventricular Leukomalacia / Premature Births1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol-Induced Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnant State / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnant State1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHyperuricemia1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentPancreatitis1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral250 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral10 mmol/1
Tablet, effervescentOral15 mmol/1
LozengeOral
Powder, for suspensionOral
Granule, effervescentOral
WaferOral
TabletOral150 mg / tab
TabletOral125 mg
TabletOral50 mg / tab
Tablet
Capsule
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
PowderParenteral243 MG
Powder; powder, for solution; powder, for suspensionOral300 MG
PowderOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
GranuleOral
Tablet, chewableOral
CapsuleOral80 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
TabletOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral165 mg / cap
Injection, solutionParenteral58.62 mg/10mL
Injection, solutionParenteral29.31 mg/5mL
GranuleOral500 mg
TabletOral32.8 mg
TabletOral48.61 mg
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, film coatedOral60.76 mg
PowderParenteral121.525 mg/5g
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, effervescentOral182.29 mg
PowderParenteral243.05 mg/4g
Injection, solutionParenteral72.92 mg/10mL
Tablet, film coatedOral364.625 mg/5g
CapsuleOral100 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Granule, for solutionOral
TabletOral250 mg / tab
Tablet, effervescentOral243 MG
CapsuleOral72.5 mg / cap
CapsuleOral125 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
CapsuleOral90 mg / cap
CapsuleOral150 mg
TabletOral300 mg
LozengeOral
CapsuleOral70 mg / cap
LiquidOral114 mg / 15 mL
PowderOral240 mg / mL
TabletOral252 mg / tab
TabletOral70 mg / tab
SolutionOral118.6 mg / 5 mL
TabletOral200 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral121.525 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral76.78 mg/10mL
Tablet, delayed releaseOral40 mg
LiquidOral23.92 mg / mL
PowderOral119.6 mg / g
SuspensionOral243.04 mg/10g
CapsuleOral243 MG
LiquidOral1 g / 5 mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
TabletOral100 mg / tab
CapsuleOral245 MG
Tablet, solubleOral
CapsuleOral20 mg / cap
Tablet, chewableOral121.5 mg
KitOral
LiquidOral
TabletOral36 mg / tab
PlasterTopical3 g/100g
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntraperitoneal
LiquidOral10.24 mg / mL
TabletOral188 mg / tab
TabletOral375 mg / tab
Capsule, coatedOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral64 mg / ect
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Powder, for solutionOral
SolutionIntravenous
Capsule, liquid filledOral
PowderOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)651 °Chttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Magnesium#section=Melting-Point
boiling point (°C)1100 °Chttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Magnesium#section=Odor
water solubilityinsoluble in cold waterhttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Magnesium#section=Solubility
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity1.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Swaminathan R: Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. Clin Biochem Rev. 2003 May;24(2):47-66. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plays a major role in tight junction-specific obliteration of the intercellular space, through calcium-independent cell-adhesion activity. Involved in paracellular magnesium reabsorption. Required for a selective paracellular conductance. May form, alone or in partnership with other constituents, an intercellular pore permitting paracellular passage of magnesium and calcium ions down their electrochemical gradients. Alternatively, it could be a sensor of magnesium concentration that could alter paracellular permeability mediated by other factors.
Specific Function
Identical protein binding
Gene Name
CLDN16
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5I7
Uniprot Name
Claudin-16
Molecular Weight
33836.11 Da
References
  1. Seo JW, Park TJ: Magnesium metabolism. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2008 Dec;6(2):86-95. doi: 10.5049/EBP.2008.6.2.86. Epub 2008 Dec 31. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Essential ion channel and serine/threonine-protein kinase. Crucial for magnesium homeostasis. Has an important role in epithelial magnesium transport and in the active magnesium absorption in the g...
Gene Name
TRPM6
Uniprot ID
Q9BX84
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6
Molecular Weight
231705.935 Da
References
  1. Seo JW, Park TJ: Magnesium metabolism. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2008 Dec;6(2):86-95. doi: 10.5049/EBP.2008.6.2.86. Epub 2008 Dec 31. [Article]
  2. Touyz RM: Transient receptor potential melastatin 6 and 7 channels, magnesium transport, and vascular biology: implications in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Mar;294(3):H1103-18. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00903.2007. Epub 2008 Jan 11. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function
Essential ion channel and serine/threonine-protein kinase. Divalent cation channel permeable to calcium and magnesium. Has a central role in magnesium ion homeostasis and in the regulation of anoxi...
Gene Name
TRPM7
Uniprot ID
Q96QT4
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7
Molecular Weight
212695.37 Da
References
  1. Touyz RM: Transient receptor potential melastatin 6 and 7 channels, magnesium transport, and vascular biology: implications in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Mar;294(3):H1103-18. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00903.2007. Epub 2008 Jan 11. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acts as a magnesium transporter that is responsive to magnesium balance.
Specific Function
Divalent inorganic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC41A1
Uniprot ID
Q8IVJ1
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 41 member 1
Molecular Weight
54900.26 Da
References
  1. Schaffers OJM, Hoenderop JGJ, Bindels RJM, de Baaij JHF: The rise and fall of novel renal magnesium transporters. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;314(6):F1027-F1033. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00634.2017. Epub 2018 Feb 7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
SLC41A3
Uniprot ID
Q96GZ6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 41 member 3
Molecular Weight
54766.1 Da
References
  1. Schaffers OJM, Hoenderop JGJ, Bindels RJM, de Baaij JHF: The rise and fall of novel renal magnesium transporters. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;314(6):F1027-F1033. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00634.2017. Epub 2018 Feb 7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Magnesium transporter that mediates the influx of magnesium into the mitochondrial matrix (PubMed:11401429, PubMed:18384665). Required for normal expression of the mitochondrial respiratory complex I subunits (PubMed:18384665).
Specific Function
Magnesium ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
MRS2
Uniprot ID
Q9HD23
Uniprot Name
Magnesium transporter MRS2 homolog, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
50317.01 Da
References
  1. Schaffers OJM, Hoenderop JGJ, Bindels RJM, de Baaij JHF: The rise and fall of novel renal magnesium transporters. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;314(6):F1027-F1033. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00634.2017. Epub 2018 Feb 7. [Article]

Drug created on July 12, 2018 16:17 / Updated on October 16, 2021 12:31