Identification

Name
Zinc chloride
Accession Number
DB14533
Description

Zinc chloride is a solution of ions indicated for use in total parenteral nutrition to maintain zinc levels and prevent deficiency syndromes.11

Zinc chloride was granted FDA approval before 26 June 1986.11

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 136.315
Monoisotopic: 133.866851992
Chemical Formula
Cl2Zn
Synonyms
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Zinc chloride injections are indicated for use total parenteral nutrition to maintain zinc serum levels and prevent deficiency syndromes.11

Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Zinc is a cofactor in many enzymes and mediates a number of catalytic, structural, and regulatory roles in the body.6 It has a wide therapeutic index and long duration of action, as most zinc in the body is reabsorbed.2,10 Patients should be counselled regarding the risk of administration in patients with severe kidney dysfunction.11

Mechanism of action

Zinc performs catalytic, structural, and regulatory roles in the body. Zinc is a component of approximately 3000 human proteins.6

Zinc is cytoprotective against reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis through the action of metallothioneins.8

In a promyelocytic leukemia cell line, zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via the TRAF pathway, decreases NF-kappaB activation, leading to decreased gene expression and generation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 7.

In patients with diarrhea, zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity, restores enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, promotes the production of antibodies, and promotes the production of circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens.5 Zinc also directly affects ion channels as a potassium channel blocker of cAMP-mediated chlorine secretion.5

Zinc deficiency decreases thymulin, inhibiting T-helper cell maturation and decreased Th-1 cytokines like IL-2.1 Decreased IL-2 decreases the activity of NK cells and CD8+ T cells.1 Zinc deficiency also leads to the generation of CD4+ T cells, decreased NF-κB activation, decreased phosphorylation of IκB, and decreased binding of NF-κB to DNA.1

TargetActionsOrganism
UB1 bradykinin receptor
agonist
Humans
UMethylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferase
stabilization
Humans
UFructose-bisphosphate aldolase A
ligand
Humans
UElongation factor 1-alpha 1
binder
Humans
UAlpha-enolase
binder
Humans
UGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific
binder
Humans
UNucleoside diphosphate kinase A
inhibitor
Humans
UProtein disulfide-isomerase
binder
Humans
UProtein disulfide-isomerase A3
binder
Humans
UPeroxiredoxin-1
binder
Humans
UPhosphoserine phosphatase
binder
Humans
UTriosephosphate isomerase
binder
Humans
UElongation factor Tu, mitochondrial
cofactor
Humans
UEstrogen receptor alpha
binder
Humans
UInterleukin-3
binder
Humans
UMetallothionein-2
cofactor
Humans
UCopper chaperone for superoxide dismutase
cofactor
Humans
UHistone deacetylase 1
cofactor
Humans
UHistone deacetylase 4
cofactor
Humans
UDNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase
cofactor
Humans
USemenogelin-1
cofactor
Humans
USuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
cofactor
Humans
UHistone deacetylase 8
cofactor
Humans
UApoptosis regulatory protein Siva
binder
Humans
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
inhibitor
Humans
UE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
binder
Humans
UInsulin
stabilization
Humans
UUtrophin
cofactor
Humans
UAspartoacylase
cofactor
Humans
UProtein S100-A8
regulator
Humans
UProtein S100-A9
regulator
Humans
UMatrix metalloproteinase-9
binder
Humans
UTumor protein p73
chaperone
Humans
UProtein S100-A2
inactivator
regulator
Humans
UCellular tumor antigen p53
chaperone
Humans
UMetallothionein-3
cofactor
Humans
UMetallothionein-1A
binder
Humans
UAlpha-2-macroglobulin
ligand
Humans
UAlpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
chelator
Humans
UApolipoprotein A-I
inducer
ligand
Humans
UApolipoprotein B receptor
inducer
Humans
UApolipoprotein E
antagonist
Humans
UApolipoprotein L1
inhibitor
Humans
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit B
modulator
Humans
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit C
modulator
Humans
UComplement C1r subcomponent
modulator
Humans
UComplement C1s subcomponent
modulator
Humans
UComplement C3
inhibitor
ligand
Humans
UComplement C4-B
modulator
Humans
UC4b-binding protein alpha chain
modulator
Humans
UC4b-binding protein beta chain
modulator
Humans
UComplement C5
ligand
Humans
ULys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36
cofactor
Humans
UComplement factor H
ligand
Humans
UClusterin
inducer
Humans
UCeruloplasmin
ligand
Humans
UCarboxypeptidase N catalytic chain
cofactor
Humans
UCarboxypeptidase N subunit 2
cofactor
Humans
UDermcidin
stabilization
Humans
UFibrinogen alpha chain
binder
Humans
UFibronectin
modulator
ligand
Humans
UHemoglobin subunit alpha
inducer
Humans
UHemoglobin subunit beta
inducer
Humans
UHaptoglobin
binder
Humans
UInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit
inducer
Humans
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1
binder
Humans
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2
binder
Humans
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3
binder
Humans
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4
binder
Humans
UImmunoglobulin J chain
component of
Humans
UPlasma kallikrein
inhibitor
Humans
UKininogen-1
cofactor
Humans
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 9
ligand
Humans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
binder
Humans
UN-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase
binder
Humans
USerum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
inducer
Humans
UPregnancy zone protein
binder
Humans
UProtein S100-A7
binder
Humans
USelenoprotein P
binder
Humans
UAlpha-1-antitrypsin
ligand
Humans
UAlpha-1-antichymotrypsin
binder
Humans
UCorticosteroid-binding globulin
modulator
Humans
UHeparin cofactor 2
agonist
Humans
USex hormone-binding globulin
modulator
Humans
USerotransferrin
ligand
Humans
UTransthyretin
inducer
Humans
UVitronectin
inducer
Humans
UAmyloid-like protein 1
ligand
Humans
UAmyloid-like protein 2
ligand
Humans
UAmyloid beta A4 protein
ligand
Humans
UPoly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
component of
Humans
UApolipoprotein B-100
ligand
Humans
UHemopexin
ligand
Humans
UHistidine-rich glycoprotein
cofactor
Humans
UCoagulation factor XI
activator
Humans
UC->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1
cofactor
chelator
Humans
USemenogelin-2
cofactor
Humans
Absorption

Zinc is approximately 33% orally bioavailable in humans but bioavailability can vary between patients and depending on current zinc levels.2 Further data regarding the pharmacokinetics of zinc chloride are not readily available.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Zinc is 70% protein bound in plasma, partially to serum albumin.10

Metabolism

Zinc chloride dissociates into ions in vivo and does not undergo further metabolism.

Route of elimination

Zinc is predominantly eliminated in the feces.2,10 Gastrointestinal elimination of zinc is responsible for approximately half of all zinc elimination.2

Half-life

Using a two compartment model, zinc has once half life of 4.5-26 days and a second half life of 387-478 days.4

Clearance

In one study of healthy patients, the clearance of zinc was found to be 0.63 ± 0.39 μg/min.3

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Patients experiencing and overdose may present with hypotension, pulmonary edema, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, and oligouria.10 Overdose can be managed through symptomatic and supportive treatment which may include sodium calcium edetate and analgesics.10

The oral LD50 in mice is 329 mg/kg and in rats is 350 mg/kg.9

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
CarbamazepineZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Carbamazepine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CeftibutenZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ceftibuten resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CephalexinZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cephalexin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CinoxacinZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cinoxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CiprofloxacinZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ciprofloxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DeferasiroxZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deferasirox resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DeferiproneZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deferiprone resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DelafloxacinZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Delafloxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DemeclocyclineZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Demeclocycline resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DolutegravirZinc chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Dolutegravir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Zinc cationionic13S1S8SF3723713-49-7PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Perioselect Zinc Chloride Solution 1%SolutionDentalSultan Healthcare1992-12-311996-09-06Canada flag
ZincInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-09-30Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dermagran II Moisturiz.spray-liq Top 1mg/mlLiquidTopicalCanderm G.P.1998-05-072008-08-06Canada flag
Dermagran II Moisturizing Spray 1mg/mlLiquidTopicalCanadian Medical Supply Inc.1993-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Dermagran II Moisturizing Spray-1mg/mlLiquidTopicalTrans Canaderm Inc.1996-01-011996-09-10Canada flag
Prosol Astringent Irrigating Medicament LiqLiquidDentalDentsply Caulk1994-12-311996-11-05Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
3x Medicated Mouth Sore GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.1 g/100g)GelOralHEB2020-06-02Not applicableUS flag
3X Medicated Mouth Sore GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.1 g/100g)GelOralRite Aid2020-06-05Not applicableUS flag
3x Medicated Mouth Sore GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.1 g/100g)GelOralCVS2020-06-05Not applicableUS flag
3x Medicated Mouth Sore GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.1 g/100g)GelOralLornamead2020-06-05Not applicableUS flag
3x Medicated Toothache and Gum GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.26 g/100g)GelOralCVS2020-06-05Not applicableUS flag
3x Medicated Toothache and Gum GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.26 g/100g)GelOralLornamead2020-06-05Not applicableUS flag
3X Medicated Toothache and Gum GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.26 g/100g)GelOralRite Aid2020-05-06Not applicableUS flag
4X Medicated Severe Toothache and Gum CreamZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.26 g/100g)CreamOralRite Aid2020-05-06Not applicableUS flag
4x Medicated Severe Toothache and Gum GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.5 g/100g)GelOralLornamead2020-06-05Not applicableUS flag
4X Medicated Severe Toothache and Gum GelZinc chloride (0.15 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzocaine (20 g/100g) + Levomenthol (0.5 g/100g)GelOralRite Aid2020-05-06Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Addamel NZinc chloride (0.65 mg/1mL) + Chromic chloride hexahydrate (1 ug/1mL) + Cuprous chloride (0.13 mg/1mL) + Ferric chloride (0.11 mg/1mL) + Manganese chloride tetrahydrate (0.027 mg/1mL) + Potassium Iodide (0.013 mg/1mL) + Sodium selenite (3.2 ug/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.095 mg/1mL) + Sodium molybdate dihydrate (1.9 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2013-05-072017-03-31US flag
PeditraceZinc chloride (250 ug/1mL) + Cupric chloride dihydrate (20 ug/1mL) + Manganese chloride tetrahydrate (1 ug/1mL) + Potassium Iodide (1 ug/1mL) + Sodium selenite (2 ug/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (57 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2013-05-092016-08-31US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C05AX04 — Zinc preparationsB05XA12 — Zinc chloride
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal chlorides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest halogen atom is Chlorine, and the heaviest metal atom is a transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Transition metal salts
Sub Class
Transition metal chlorides
Direct Parent
Transition metal chlorides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic chloride salts
Substituents
Inorganic chloride salt / Inorganic salt / Transition metal chloride
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
inorganic chloride, zinc molecular entity (CHEBI:49976)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
86Q357L16B
CAS number
7646-85-7
InChI Key
JIAARYAFYJHUJI-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2ClH.Zn/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2
IUPAC Name
zinc(2+) dichloride
SMILES
[Cl-].[Cl-].[Zn++]

References

General References
  1. Prasad AS: Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol Med. 2008 May-Jun;14(5-6):353-7. doi: 10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad. [PubMed:18385818]
  2. Roohani N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R, Schulin R: Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review. J Res Med Sci. 2013 Feb;18(2):144-57. [PubMed:23914218]
  3. Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan VA, Brewer GJ, Vander AJ, Guenther MJ, Prasad AS: Net renal tubular reabsorption of zinc in healthy man and impaired handling in sickle cell anemia. Am J Hematol. 1989 Jun;31(2):87-90. doi: 10.1002/ajh.2830310203. [PubMed:2735321]
  4. Unknown Author: Metabolic data for zinc . 1980 Jul 1;4(3-4):21-23.
  5. Lazzerini M, Wanzira H: Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 20;12:CD005436. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005436.pub5. [PubMed:27996088]
  6. Myers SA, Nield A, Myers M: Zinc transporters, mechanisms of action and therapeutic utility: implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:173712. doi: 10.1155/2012/173712. Epub 2012 Dec 12. [PubMed:23304467]
  7. Dardenne M: Zinc and immune function. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S20-3. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601479. [PubMed:12142956]
  8. Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS: Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. 2007 Jan-Feb;15(1):2-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2006.00179.x. [PubMed:17244314]
  9. Fisher Scientific: Zinc Chloride MSDS [Link]
  10. Medsafe New Zealand Approved Drug Products: Zinc Chloride Solution for Injection [Link]
  11. Dailymed: Zinc Chloride Injection [Link]
ChemSpider
5525
ChEBI
49976
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200679
Wikipedia
Zinc_chloride
AHFS Codes
  • 84:24.12 — Basic Ointments and Protectants
  • 34:00.00 — Dental Agents
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamOral
SolutionIntravenous0.25 g/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2.5 g/500mL
SprayOral
CreamTopical
LiquidTopical
SprayTopical
SolutionIntravenous2 mg
SprayOropharyngeal
SprayOral; Topical
SolutionOral
GelOral
LiquidTopical
Solution, concentrateIntravenous53.3 mcg
GelTopical
GelDental; Topical
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral20 ug/1mL
SolutionDental
LiquidDental
Gel, dentifriceOral
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility46.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.91ALOGPS
logP0.61ChemAxon
logS-0.47ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Peptide binding
Specific Function
This is a receptor for bradykinin. Could be a factor in chronic pain and inflammation.
Gene Name
BDKRB1
Uniprot ID
P46663
Uniprot Name
B1 bradykinin receptor
Molecular Weight
40494.29 Da
References
  1. Ignjatovic T, Tan F, Brovkovych V, Skidgel RA, Erdos EG: Novel mode of action of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors: direct activation of bradykinin B1 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):16847-52. Epub 2002 Mar 5. [PubMed:11880373]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Stabilization
General Function
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the cellular defense against the biological effects of O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) in DNA. Repairs alkylated guanine in DNA by stoichiometrically transferring the alkyl group at the O-6 p...
Gene Name
MGMT
Uniprot ID
P16455
Uniprot Name
Methylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
21645.83 Da
References
  1. Rasimas JJ, Kanugula S, Dalessio PM, Ropson IJ, Fried MG, Pegg AE: Effects of zinc occupancy on human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 4;42(4):980-90. [PubMed:12549918]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Tubulin binding
Specific Function
Plays a key role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, may also function as scaffolding protein (By similarity).
Gene Name
ALDOA
Uniprot ID
P04075
Uniprot Name
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A
Molecular Weight
39419.675 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Berry A, Marshall KE: Identification of zinc-binding ligands in the class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1993 Feb 22;318(1):11-6. [PubMed:8436219]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
This protein promotes the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during protein biosynthesis. With PARP1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T helper 1 (Th1) cell-sp...
Gene Name
EEF1A1
Uniprot ID
P68104
Uniprot Name
Elongation factor 1-alpha 1
Molecular Weight
50140.565 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Multifunctional enzyme that, as well as its role in glycolysis, plays a part in various processes such as growth control, hypoxia tolerance and allergic responses. May also function in the intravas...
Gene Name
ENO1
Uniprot ID
P06733
Uniprot Name
Alpha-enolase
Molecular Weight
47168.555 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
May play an important role in regulating the switch between different pathways for energy production during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon. Required for sperm motility and male fertility (B...
Gene Name
GAPDHS
Uniprot ID
O14556
Uniprot Name
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific
Molecular Weight
44500.835 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ribosomal small subunit binding
Specific Function
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-sit...
Gene Name
NME1
Uniprot ID
P15531
Uniprot Name
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A
Molecular Weight
17148.635 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Buczynski G, Potter RL: Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Xenopus oocytes; partial purification and characterization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Dec 5;1041(3):296-304. doi: 10.1016/0167-4838(90)90288-q. [PubMed:2176546]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This multifunctional protein catalyzes the formation, breakage and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. At the cell surface, seems to act as a reductase that cleaves disulfide bonds of proteins attach...
Gene Name
P4HB
Uniprot ID
P07237
Uniprot Name
Protein disulfide-isomerase
Molecular Weight
57115.795 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase activity
Gene Name
PDIA3
Uniprot ID
P30101
Uniprot Name
Protein disulfide-isomerase A3
Molecular Weight
56781.84 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Thioredoxin peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Reduces peroxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin system but not from glutaredoxin. May play an important role in eliminating pe...
Gene Name
PRDX1
Uniprot ID
Q06830
Uniprot Name
Peroxiredoxin-1
Molecular Weight
22110.19 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of serine from carbohydrates. The reaction mechanism proceeds via the formation of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediates.
Gene Name
PSPH
Uniprot ID
P78330
Uniprot Name
Phosphoserine phosphatase
Molecular Weight
25007.49 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
TPI1
Uniprot ID
P60174
Uniprot Name
Triosephosphate isomerase
Molecular Weight
30790.785 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Translation elongation factor activity
Specific Function
This protein promotes the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during protein biosynthesis.
Gene Name
TUFM
Uniprot ID
P49411
Uniprot Name
Elongation factor Tu, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
49541.145 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Payne JC, Rous BW, Tenderholt AL, Godwin HA: Spectroscopic determination of the binding affinity of zinc to the DNA-binding domains of nuclear hormone receptors. Biochemistry. 2003 Dec 9;42(48):14214-24. [PubMed:14640689]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Interleukin-3 receptor binding
Specific Function
Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors are cytokines that act in hematopoiesis by controlling the production, differentiation, and function of 2 related white cell populations of the blo...
Gene Name
IL3
Uniprot ID
P08700
Uniprot Name
Interleukin-3
Molecular Weight
17232.905 Da
References
  1. Smit V, van Veelen PA, Tjaden UR, van der Greef J, Haaijman JJ: Human interleukin-3 contains a discontinuous zinc binding domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Sep 16;187(2):859-66. [PubMed:1530641]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Metallothioneins have a high content of cysteine residues that bind various heavy metals; these proteins are transcriptionally regulated by both heavy metals and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name
MT2A
Uniprot ID
P02795
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-2
Molecular Weight
6042.05 Da
References
  1. Palumaa P, Tammiste I, Kruusel K, Kangur L, Jornvall H, Sillard R: Metal binding of metallothionein-3 versus metallothionein-2: lower affinity and higher plasticity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Mar 14;1747(2):205-11. Epub 2004 Dec 19. [PubMed:15698955]
  2. Yang F, Zhou M, He Z, Liu X, Sun L, Sun Y, Chen Z: High-yield expression in Escherichia coli of soluble human MT2A with native functions. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 May;53(1):186-94. Epub 2006 Dec 15. [PubMed:17224279]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Delivers copper to copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1).
Gene Name
CCS
Uniprot ID
O14618
Uniprot Name
Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase
Molecular Weight
29040.445 Da
References
  1. Stasser JP, Eisses JF, Barry AN, Kaplan JH, Blackburn NJ: Cysteine-to-serine mutants of the human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase reveal a copper cluster at a domain III dimer interface. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 8;44(9):3143-52. [PubMed:15736924]
  2. Lamb AL, Wernimont AK, Pufahl RA, O'Halloran TV, Rosenzweig AC: Crystal structure of the second domain of the human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase. Biochemistry. 2000 Feb 22;39(7):1589-95. [PubMed:10677207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription regulatory region sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC1
Uniprot ID
Q13547
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 1
Molecular Weight
55102.615 Da
References
  1. Bhuiyan MP, Kato T, Okauchi T, Nishino N, Maeda S, Nishino TG, Yoshida M: Chlamydocin analogs bearing carbonyl group as possible ligand toward zinc atom in histone deacetylases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 May 15;14(10):3438-46. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16439135]
  2. Zhang L, Zhang J, Jiang Q, Zhang L, Song W: Zinc binding groups for histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2018 Dec;33(1):714-721. doi: 10.1080/14756366.2017.1417274. [PubMed:29616828]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC4
Uniprot ID
P56524
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 4
Molecular Weight
119038.875 Da
References
  1. Bhuiyan MP, Kato T, Okauchi T, Nishino N, Maeda S, Nishino TG, Yoshida M: Chlamydocin analogs bearing carbonyl group as possible ligand toward zinc atom in histone deacetylases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 May 15;14(10):3438-46. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16439135]
  2. Zhang L, Zhang J, Jiang Q, Zhang L, Song W: Zinc binding groups for histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2018 Dec;33(1):714-721. doi: 10.1080/14756366.2017.1417274. [PubMed:29616828]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Hydrolysis of the deoxyribose N-glycosidic bond to excise 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from the damaged DNA polymer formed by alkylation lesions.
Specific Function
Alkylbase dna n-glycosylase activity
Gene Name
MPG
Uniprot ID
P29372
Uniprot Name
DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase
Molecular Weight
32868.365 Da
References
  1. Massiah MA, Simmons BN, Short KM, Cox TC: Solution structure of the RBCC/TRIM B-box1 domain of human MID1: B-box with a RING. J Mol Biol. 2006 Apr 28;358(2):532-45. Epub 2006 Feb 20. [PubMed:16529770]
  2. Metz AH, Hollis T, Eichman BF: DNA damage recognition and repair by 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I (TAG). EMBO J. 2007 May 2;26(9):2411-20. doi: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601649. Epub 2007 Apr 5. [PubMed:17410210]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Predominant protein in semen. It participates in the formation of a gel matrix entrapping the accessory gland secretions and ejaculated spermatozoa. Fragments of semenogelin and/or fragments of the...
Gene Name
SEMG1
Uniprot ID
P04279
Uniprot Name
Semenogelin-1
Molecular Weight
52130.885 Da
References
  1. Jonsson M, Lundwall A, Linse S, Frohm B, Malm J: Truncated semenogelin I binds zinc and is cleaved by prostate-specific antigen. J Androl. 2006 Jul-Aug;27(4):542-7. Epub 2006 Apr 1. [PubMed:16582407]
  2. Jonsson M, Linse S, Frohm B, Lundwall A, Malm J: Semenogelins I and II bind zinc and regulate the activity of prostate-specific antigen. Biochem J. 2005 Apr 15;387(Pt 2):447-53. doi: 10.1042/BJ20041424. [PubMed:15563730]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Krishnan U, Son M, Rajendran B, Elliott JL: Novel mutations that enhance or repress the aggregation potential of SOD1. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jul;287(1-2):201-11. Epub 2006 Apr 1. [PubMed:16583143]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC8
Uniprot ID
Q9BY41
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 8
Molecular Weight
41757.29 Da
References
  1. Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA: Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6170-8. [PubMed:16681389]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Induces CD27-mediated apoptosis. Inhibits BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-x(L) anti-apoptotic activity. Inhibits activation of NF-kappa-B and promotes T-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis.
Gene Name
SIVA1
Uniprot ID
O15304
Uniprot Name
Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva
Molecular Weight
18694.45 Da
References
  1. Nestler M, Martin U, Hortschansky P, Saluz HP, Henke A, Munder T: The zinc containing pro-apoptotic protein siva interacts with the peroxisomal membrane protein pmp22. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jul;287(1-2):147-55. Epub 2006 May 9. [PubMed:16683188]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Chen Z, Dillon GH, Huang R: Identification of residues critical for Cu2+-mediated inhibition of glycine alpha1 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2006 Sep;51(4):701-8. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16842826]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates ubiquitination of p53/TP53, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. Inhibits p53/TP53- and p73/TP73-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by bindi...
Gene Name
MDM2
Uniprot ID
Q00987
Uniprot Name
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
Molecular Weight
55232.39 Da
References
  1. Kostic M, Matt T, Martinez-Yamout MA, Dyson HJ, Wright PE: Solution structure of the Hdm2 C2H2C4 RING, a domain critical for ubiquitination of p53. J Mol Biol. 2006 Oct 20;363(2):433-50. Epub 2006 Aug 14. [PubMed:16965791]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Stabilization
General Function
Protease binding
Specific Function
Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen s...
Gene Name
INS
Uniprot ID
P01308
Uniprot Name
Insulin
Molecular Weight
11980.795 Da
References
  1. Huus K, Havelund S, Olsen HB, van de Weert M, Frokjaer S: Chemical and thermal stability of insulin: effects of zinc and ligand binding to the insulin zinc-hexamer. Pharm Res. 2006 Nov;23(11):2611-20. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16969698]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play a role in anchoring the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
UTRN
Uniprot ID
P46939
Uniprot Name
Utrophin
Molecular Weight
394463.09 Da
References
  1. Hnia K, Zouiten D, Cantel S, Chazalette D, Hugon G, Fehrentz JA, Masmoudi A, Diment A, Bramham J, Mornet D, Winder SJ: ZZ domain of dystrophin and utrophin: topology and mapping of a beta-dystroglycan interaction site. Biochem J. 2007 Feb 1;401(3):667-77. [PubMed:17009962]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maint...
Gene Name
ASPA
Uniprot ID
P45381
Uniprot Name
Aspartoacylase
Molecular Weight
35734.79 Da
References
  1. Herga S, Berrin JG, Perrier J, Puigserver A, Giardina T: Identification of the zinc binding ligands and the catalytic residue in human aspartoacylase, an enzyme involved in Canavan disease. FEBS Lett. 2006 Oct 30;580(25):5899-904. Epub 2006 Oct 2. [PubMed:17027983]
  2. Bitto E, Bingman CA, Wesenberg GE, McCoy JG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure of aspartoacylase, the brain enzyme impaired in Canavan disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 9;104(2):456-61. Epub 2006 Dec 28. [PubMed:17194761]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
S100A8 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex directs selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of GAPDH and probably multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif; S100A8 seems to contribute to S-nitrosylation site selectivity.
Specific Function
Arachidonic acid binding
Gene Name
S100A8
Uniprot ID
P05109
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A8
Molecular Weight
10834.43 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on 'Cys-247' proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
S100A9
Uniprot ID
P06702
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A9
Molecular Weight
13241.955 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves...
Gene Name
MMP9
Uniprot ID
P14780
Uniprot Name
Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Molecular Weight
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Martens E, Leyssen A, Van Aelst I, Fiten P, Piccard H, Hu J, Descamps FJ, Van den Steen PE, Proost P, Van Damme J, Liuzzi GM, Riccio P, Polverini E, Opdenakker G: A monoclonal antibody inhibits gelatinase B/MMP-9 by selective binding to part of the catalytic domain and not to the fibronectin or zinc binding domains. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Feb;1770(2):178-86. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17137715]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chaperone
General Function
Participates in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Isoforms containing the transactivation domain are pro-apoptotic, isoforms lacking the domain are anti-apoptotic and block the function of p53 and transactivating p73 isoforms. May be a tumor suppressor protein.
Specific Function
Chromatin binding
Gene Name
TP73
Uniprot ID
O15350
Uniprot Name
Tumor protein p73
Molecular Weight
69622.865 Da
References
  1. Lokshin M, Li Y, Gaiddon C, Prives C: p53 and p73 display common and distinct requirements for sequence specific binding to DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(1):340-52. Epub 2006 Dec 14. [PubMed:17170001]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inactivator
Regulator
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
May function as calcium sensor and modulator, contributing to cellular calcium signaling. May function by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and indirectly play a rol...
Gene Name
S100A2
Uniprot ID
P29034
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A2
Molecular Weight
11116.695 Da
References
  1. Koch M, Bhattacharya S, Kehl T, Gimona M, Vasak M, Chazin W, Heizmann CW, Kroneck PM, Fritz G: Implications on zinc binding to S100A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Mar;1773(3):457-70. Epub 2006 Dec 19. [PubMed:17239974]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chaperone
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
TP53
Uniprot ID
P04637
Uniprot Name
Cellular tumor antigen p53
Molecular Weight
43652.79 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Rosengarth A, Luecke H: Structure of the human p53 core domain in the absence of DNA. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Mar;63(Pt 3):276-81. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17327663]
  2. Kogan S, Carpizo DR: Zinc Metallochaperones as Mutant p53 Reactivators: A New Paradigm in Cancer Therapeutics. Cancers (Basel). 2018 May 29;10(6). pii: cancers10060166. doi: 10.3390/cancers10060166. [PubMed:29843463]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Binds heavy metals. Contains three zinc and three copper atoms per polypeptide chain and only a negligible amount of cadmium. Inhibits survival and neurite formation of cortical neurons in vitro.
Gene Name
MT3
Uniprot ID
P25713
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-3
Molecular Weight
6926.855 Da
References
  1. Meloni G, Faller P, Vasak M: Redox silencing of copper in metal-linked neurodegenerative disorders: reaction of Zn7metallothionein-3 with Cu2+ ions. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 1;282(22):16068-78. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [PubMed:17389590]
  2. Vasak M, Meloni G: Mammalian Metallothionein-3: New Functional and Structural Insights. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 24;18(6). pii: ijms18061117. doi: 10.3390/ijms18061117. [PubMed:28538697]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Metallothioneins have a high content of cysteine residues that bind various heavy metals; these proteins are transcriptionally regulated by both heavy metals and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name
MT1A
Uniprot ID
P04731
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-1A
Molecular Weight
6120.19 Da
References
  1. Sutherland DE, Willans MJ, Stillman MJ: Single domain metallothioneins: supermetalation of human MT 1a. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Feb 15;134(6):3290-9. doi: 10.1021/ja211767m. Epub 2012 Feb 6. [PubMed:22242602]
  2. Irvine GW, Pinter TB, Stillman MJ: Defining the metal binding pathways of human metallothionein 1a: balancing zinc availability and cadmium seclusion. Metallomics. 2016 Jan;8(1):71-81. doi: 10.1039/c5mt00225g. [PubMed:26583802]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Tumor necrosis factor binding
Specific Function
Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for differen...
Gene Name
A2M
Uniprot ID
P01023
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-macroglobulin
Molecular Weight
163289.945 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Chelator
General Function
Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
AHSG
Uniprot ID
P02765
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
39324.35 Da
References
  1. Lebreton JP, Joisel F, Raoult JP, Lannuzel B, Rogez JP, Humbert G: Serum concentration of human alpha 2 HS glycoprotein during the inflammatory process: evidence that alpha 2 HS glycoprotein is a negative acute-phase reactant. J Clin Invest. 1979 Oct;64(4):1118-29. doi: 10.1172/JCI109551. [PubMed:90057]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
Ligand
General Function
Phospholipid transporter activity
Specific Function
Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol ac...
Gene Name
APOA1
Uniprot ID
P02647
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-I
Molecular Weight
30777.58 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Mooradian AD, Haas MJ, Wong NC: The effect of select nutrients on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels. Endocr Rev. 2006 Feb;27(1):2-16. doi: 10.1210/er.2005-0013. Epub 2005 Oct 21. [PubMed:16243964]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity
Specific Function
Macrophage receptor that binds to the apolipoprotein B48 (APOB) of dietary triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) or to a like domain of APOB in hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoprotein...
Gene Name
APOBR
Uniprot ID
Q0VD83
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein B receptor
Molecular Weight
114873.425 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding
Specific Function
Mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. It can serve as a ligand for the LDL (apo B/E) receptor and for the specific apo-E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of ...
Gene Name
APOE
Uniprot ID
P02649
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein E
Molecular Weight
36153.83 Da
References
  1. Xu H, Gupta VB, Martins IJ, Martins RN, Fowler CJ, Bush AI, Finkelstein DI, Adlard PA: Zinc affects the proteolytic stability of Apolipoprotein E in an isoform-dependent way. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Sep;81:38-48. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2015.06.016. Epub 2015 Jun 25. [PubMed:26117305]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
May play a role in lipid exchange and transport throughout the body. May participate in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to the liver.
Specific Function
Chloride channel activity
Gene Name
APOL1
Uniprot ID
O14791
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein L1
Molecular Weight
43973.805 Da
References
  1. Olabisi OA, Heneghan JF: APOL1 Nephrotoxicity: What Does Ion Transport Have to Do With It? Semin Nephrol. 2017 Nov;37(6):546-551. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2017.07.008. [PubMed:29110762]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QB
Uniprot ID
P02746
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit B
Molecular Weight
26721.62 Da
References
  1. Boyle MD: Inhibition by zinc of the binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Dec 15;103(3):856-62. doi: 10.1016/0006-291x(81)90889-5. [PubMed:7332580]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QC
Uniprot ID
P02747
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit C
Molecular Weight
25773.56 Da
References
  1. Boyle MD: Inhibition by zinc of the binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Dec 15;103(3):856-62. doi: 10.1016/0006-291x(81)90889-5. [PubMed:7332580]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
C1r B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1s to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system.
Gene Name
C1R
Uniprot ID
P00736
Uniprot Name
Complement C1r subcomponent
Molecular Weight
80118.04 Da
References
  1. Boyle MD: Inhibition by zinc of the binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Dec 15;103(3):856-62. doi: 10.1016/0006-291x(81)90889-5. [PubMed:7332580]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
C1s B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1r to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system. C1r activates C1s so that it can, in turn, activat...
Gene Name
C1S
Uniprot ID
P09871
Uniprot Name
Complement C1s subcomponent
Molecular Weight
76683.905 Da
References
  1. Boyle MD: Inhibition by zinc of the binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Dec 15;103(3):856-62. doi: 10.1016/0006-291x(81)90889-5. [PubMed:7332580]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Ligand
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C...
Gene Name
C3
Uniprot ID
P01024
Uniprot Name
Complement C3
Molecular Weight
187146.73 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Smailhodzic D, van Asten F, Blom AM, Mohlin FC, den Hollander AI, van de Ven JP, van Huet RA, Groenewoud JM, Tian Y, Berendschot TT, Lechanteur YT, Fauser S, de Bruijn C, Daha MR, van der Wilt GJ, Hoyng CB, Klevering BJ: Zinc supplementation inhibits complement activation in age-related macular degeneration. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 13;9(11):e112682. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112682. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25393287]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Non-enzymatic component of the C3 and C5 convertases and thus essential for the propagation of the classical complement pathway. Covalently binds to immunoglobulins and immune complexes and enhances the solubilization of immune aggregates and the clearance of IC through CR1 on erythrocytes. C4A isotype is responsible for effective binding to form amide bonds with immune aggregates or protein antigens, while C4B isotype catalyzes the transacylation of the thioester carbonyl group to form ester bonds with carbohydrate antigens.
Specific Function
Carbohydrate binding
Gene Name
C4B
Uniprot ID
P0C0L5
Uniprot Name
Complement C4-B
Molecular Weight
192749.785 Da
References
  1. Blom AM, Kask L, Ramesh B, Hillarp A: Effects of zinc on factor I cofactor activity of C4b-binding protein and factor H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):108-18. [PubMed:14522582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Controls the classical pathway of complement activation. It binds as a cofactor to C3b/C4b inactivator (C3bINA), which then hydrolyzes the complement fragment C4b. It also accelerates the degradation of the C4bC2a complex (C3 convertase) by dissociating the complement fragment C2a. Alpha chain binds C4b. It interacts also with anticoagulant protein S and with serum amyloid P component.
Specific Function
Rna binding
Gene Name
C4BPA
Uniprot ID
P04003
Uniprot Name
C4b-binding protein alpha chain
Molecular Weight
67032.63 Da
References
  1. Blom AM, Kask L, Ramesh B, Hillarp A: Effects of zinc on factor I cofactor activity of C4b-binding protein and factor H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):108-18. [PubMed:14522582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Controls the classical pathway of complement activation. It binds as a cofactor to C3b/C4b inactivator (C3bINA), which then hydrolyzes the complement fragment C4b. It also accelerates the degradation of the C4bC2a complex (C3 convertase) by dissociating the complement fragment C2a. It also interacts with anticoagulant protein S and with serum amyloid P component. The beta chain binds protein S.
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
C4BPB
Uniprot ID
P20851
Uniprot Name
C4b-binding protein beta chain
Molecular Weight
28357.215 Da
References
  1. Blom AM, Kask L, Ramesh B, Hillarp A: Effects of zinc on factor I cofactor activity of C4b-binding protein and factor H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):108-18. [PubMed:14522582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the membrane attack complex. C5b has a transient binding site for C6. The C5b-C...
Gene Name
C5
Uniprot ID
P01031
Uniprot Name
Complement C5
Molecular Weight
188303.705 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Metalloprotease that specifically cleaves 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains (PubMed:19214193, PubMed:20656690, PubMed:24075985, PubMed:26344097). Does not have activity toward 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitin chains. Component of the BRCA1-A complex, a complex that specifically recognizes 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitinated histones H2A and H2AX at DNA lesions sites, leading to target the BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer to sites of DNA damage at double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the BRCA1-A complex, it specifically removes 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin on histones H2A and H2AX, antagonizing the RNF8-dependent ubiquitination at double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:20656690). Catalytic subunit of the BRISC complex, a multiprotein complex that specifically cleaves 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin in various substrates (PubMed:20656690, PubMed:24075985, PubMed:26344097, PubMed:26195665). Mediates the specific 'Lys-63'-specific deubiquitination associated with the COP9 signalosome complex (CSN), via the interaction of the BRISC complex with the CSN complex (PubMed:19214193). The BRISC complex is required for normal mitotic spindle assembly and microtubule attachment to kinetochores via its role in deubiquitinating NUMA1 (PubMed:26195665). Plays a role in interferon signaling via its role in the deubiquitination of the interferon receptor IFNAR1; deubiquitination increases IFNAR1 activity by enhancing its stability and cell surface expression (PubMed:24075985, PubMed:26344097). Down-regulates the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via its role in IFNAR1 deubiquitination (PubMed:24075985).
Specific Function
Enzyme regulator activity
Gene Name
BRCC3
Uniprot ID
P46736
Uniprot Name
Lys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36
Molecular Weight
36071.695 Da
References
  1. Zeqiraj E, Tian L, Piggott CA, Pillon MC, Duffy NM, Ceccarelli DF, Keszei AF, Lorenzen K, Kurinov I, Orlicky S, Gish GD, Heck AJ, Guarne A, Greenberg RA, Sicheri F: Higher-Order Assembly of BRCC36-KIAA0157 Is Required for DUB Activity and Biological Function. Mol Cell. 2015 Sep 17;59(6):970-83. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.07.028. Epub 2015 Sep 3. [PubMed:26344097]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway.
Specific Function
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding
Gene Name
CFH
Uniprot ID
P08603
Uniprot Name
Complement factor H
Molecular Weight
139095.31 Da
References
  1. Nan R, Farabella I, Schumacher FF, Miller A, Gor J, Martin AC, Jones DT, Lengyel I, Perkins SJ: Zinc binding to the Tyr402 and His402 allotypes of complement factor H: possible implications for age-related macular degeneration. J Mol Biol. 2011 May 13;408(4):714-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.03.006. Epub 2011 Mar 17. [PubMed:21396937]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
Specific Function
Chaperone binding
Gene Name
CLU
Uniprot ID
P10909
Uniprot Name
Clusterin
Molecular Weight
52494.22 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Trougakos IP, Pawelec G, Tzavelas C, Ntouroupi T, Gonos ES: Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J up-regulation after zinc exposure, replicative senescence or differentiation of human haematopoietic cells. Biogerontology. 2006 Oct-Dec;7(5-6):375-82. doi: 10.1007/s10522-006-9052-8. [PubMed:16955214]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Protects the body from potent vasoactive and inflammatory peptides containing C-terminal Arg or Lys (such as kinins or anaphylatoxins) which are released into the circulation.
Gene Name
CPN1
Uniprot ID
P15169
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase N catalytic chain
Molecular Weight
52285.935 Da
References
  1. Skidgel RA, Erdos EG: Structure and function of human plasma carboxypeptidase N, the anaphylatoxin inactivator. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Dec 20;7(14):1888-99. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2007.07.014. Epub 2007 Aug 15. [PubMed:18039526]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Enzyme regulator activity
Specific Function
The 83 kDa subunit binds and stabilizes the catalytic subunit at 37 degrees Celsius and keeps it in circulation. Under some circumstances it may be an allosteric modifier of the catalytic subunit.
Gene Name
CPN2
Uniprot ID
P22792
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase N subunit 2
Molecular Weight
60556.01 Da
References
  1. Skidgel RA, Erdos EG: Structure and function of human plasma carboxypeptidase N, the anaphylatoxin inactivator. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Dec 20;7(14):1888-99. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2007.07.014. Epub 2007 Aug 15. [PubMed:18039526]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Stabilization
General Function
DCD-1 displays antimicrobial activity thereby limiting skin infection by potential pathogens in the first few hours after bacterial colonization. Highly effective against E.coli, E.faecalis, S.aureus and C.albicans. Optimal pH and salt concentration resemble the conditions in sweat. Also exhibits proteolytic activity.
Specific Function
Peptidase activity
Gene Name
DCD
Uniprot ID
P81605
Uniprot Name
Dermcidin
Molecular Weight
11283.745 Da
References
  1. Song C, Weichbrodt C, Salnikov ES, Dynowski M, Forsberg BO, Bechinger B, Steinem C, de Groot BL, Zachariae U, Zeth K: Crystal structure and functional mechanism of a human antimicrobial membrane channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19;110(12):4586-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1214739110. Epub 2013 Feb 20. [PubMed:23426625]
  2. Becucci L, Valensin D, Innocenti M, Guidelli R: Dermcidin, an anionic antimicrobial peptide: influence of lipid charge, pH and Zn2+ on its interaction with a biomimetic membrane. Soft Matter. 2014 Jan 28;10(4):616-26. doi: 10.1039/c3sm52400k. [PubMed:24652391]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Cleaved by the protease thrombin to yield monomers which, together with fibrinogen beta (FGB) and fibrinogen gamma (FGG), polymerize to form an insoluble fibrin matrix. Fibrin has a major function ...
Gene Name
FGA
Uniprot ID
P02671
Uniprot Name
Fibrinogen alpha chain
Molecular Weight
94972.455 Da
References
  1. Marx G: Zinc binding to fibrinogen and fibrin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988 Oct;266(1):285-8. [PubMed:3178229]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
Ligand
General Function
Protease binding
Specific Function
Fibronectins bind cell surfaces and various compounds including collagen, fibrin, heparin, DNA, and actin. Fibronectins are involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, opsonization, wound healing, an...
Gene Name
FN1
Uniprot ID
P02751
Uniprot Name
Fibronectin
Molecular Weight
262623.095 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Graille M, Pagano M, Rose T, Ravaux MR, van Tilbeurgh H: Zinc induces structural reorganization of gelatin binding domain from human fibronectin and affects collagen binding. Structure. 2010 Jun 9;18(6):710-8. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2010.03.012. [PubMed:20541508]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Gilman JG, Brewer GJ: The oxygen-linked zinc-binding site of human haemoglobin. Biochem J. 1978 Mar 1;169(3):625-32. [PubMed:646791]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an...
Gene Name
HBB
Uniprot ID
P68871
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit beta
Molecular Weight
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Gilman JG, Brewer GJ: The oxygen-linked zinc-binding site of human haemoglobin. Biochem J. 1978 Mar 1;169(3):625-32. [PubMed:646791]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
As a result of hemolysis, hemoglobin is found to accumulate in the kidney and is secreted in the urine. Haptoglobin captures, and combines with free plasma hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron and to prevent kidney damage. Haptoglobin also acts as an antioxidant, has antibacterial activity, and plays a role in modulating many aspects of the acute phase response. Hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes are rapidly cleared by the macrophage CD163 scavenger receptor expressed on the surface of liver Kupfer cells through an endocytic lysosomal degradation pathway.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
HP
Uniprot ID
P00738
Uniprot Name
Haptoglobin
Molecular Weight
45205.065 Da
References
  1. KLUTHE R, ISLIKER H: [The isolation of serum haptoglobins as haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex by zinc precipitation and columnar chromatography]. Helv Physiol Pharmacol Acta. 1960;18:404-13. [PubMed:13757008]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Involved in protein-protein interactions that result in protein complexes, receptor-ligand binding or cell adhesion.
Specific Function
Insulin-like growth factor binding
Gene Name
IGFALS
Uniprot ID
P35858
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit
Molecular Weight
66034.13 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Rocha ED, de Brito NJ, Dantas MM, Silva Ade A, Almeida Md, Brandao-Neto J: Effect of Zinc Supplementation on GH, IGF1, IGFBP3, OCN, and ALP in Non-Zinc-Deficient Children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(4):290-9. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.929511. Epub 2015 Mar 11. [PubMed:25759961]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Calcium ion binding
Gene Name
ITIH1
Uniprot ID
P19827
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1
Molecular Weight
101388.49 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Salier JP, Martin JP, Lambin P, McPhee H, Hochstrasser K: Purification of the human serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor by zinc chelate and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Anal Biochem. 1980 Dec;109(2):273-83. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(80)90649-1. [PubMed:6164311]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH2
Uniprot ID
P19823
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2
Molecular Weight
106462.725 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Salier JP, Martin JP, Lambin P, McPhee H, Hochstrasser K: Purification of the human serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor by zinc chelate and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Anal Biochem. 1980 Dec;109(2):273-83. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(80)90649-1. [PubMed:6164311]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH3
Uniprot ID
Q06033
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3
Molecular Weight
99848.575 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Salier JP, Martin JP, Lambin P, McPhee H, Hochstrasser K: Purification of the human serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor by zinc chelate and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Anal Biochem. 1980 Dec;109(2):273-83. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(80)90649-1. [PubMed:6164311]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Type II acute-phase protein (APP) involved in inflammatory responses to trauma. May also play a role in liver development or regeneration.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH4
Uniprot ID
Q14624
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4
Molecular Weight
103356.645 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Salier JP, Martin JP, Lambin P, McPhee H, Hochstrasser K: Purification of the human serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor by zinc chelate and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Anal Biochem. 1980 Dec;109(2):273-83. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(80)90649-1. [PubMed:6164311]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Component of
General Function
Serves to link two monomer units of either IgM or IgA. In the case of IgM, the J chain-joined dimer is a nucleating unit for the IgM pentamer, and in the case of IgA it induces larger polymers. It also help to bind these immunoglobulins to secretory component.
Specific Function
Antigen binding
Gene Name
JCHAIN
Uniprot ID
P01591
Uniprot Name
Immunoglobulin J chain
Molecular Weight
18098.39 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Zikan J, Novotny J, Trapane TL, Koshland ME, Urry DW, Bennett JC, Mestecky J: Secondary structure of the immunoglobulin J chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Sep;82(17):5905-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.82.17.5905. [PubMed:3929246]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme cleaves Lys-Arg and Arg-Ser bonds. It activates, in a reciprocal reaction, factor XII after its binding to a negatively charged surface. It also releases bradykinin from HMW kininogen an...
Gene Name
KLKB1
Uniprot ID
P03952
Uniprot Name
Plasma kallikrein
Molecular Weight
71369.205 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Goettig P, Magdolen V, Brandstetter H: Natural and synthetic inhibitors of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs). Biochimie. 2010 Nov;92(11):1546-67. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 6. [PubMed:20615447]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3)...
Gene Name
KNG1
Uniprot ID
P01042
Uniprot Name
Kininogen-1
Molecular Weight
71956.965 Da
References
  1. Herwald H, Morgelin M, Svensson HG, Sjobring U: Zinc-dependent conformational changes in domain D5 of high molecular mass kininogen modulate contact activation. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Jan;268(2):396-404. [PubMed:11168375]
  2. Joseph K, Ghebrehiwet B, Peerschke EI, Reid KB, Kaplan AP: Identification of the zinc-dependent endothelial cell binding protein for high molecular weight kininogen and factor XII: identity with the receptor that binds to the globular "heads" of C1q (gC1q-R). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Aug 6;93(16):8552-7. [PubMed:8710908]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
May serve an important special function either in the mature palmar and plantar skin tissue or in the morphogenetic program of the formation of these tissues. Plays a role in keratin filament assembly.
Specific Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Gene Name
KRT9
Uniprot ID
P35527
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 9
Molecular Weight
62064.29 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and ava...
Gene Name
ORM2
Uniprot ID
P19652
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
Molecular Weight
23602.43 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play a scavenger role by digesting biologically active peptidoglycan (PGN) into biologically inactive fragments. Has no direct bacteriolytic activity.
Gene Name
PGLYRP2
Uniprot ID
Q96PD5
Uniprot Name
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase
Molecular Weight
62216.365 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxyl...
Gene Name
PON1
Uniprot ID
P27169
Uniprot Name
Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
Molecular Weight
39730.99 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for different proteinases. When a proteinase cleaves the bait region, a conformational change is induced in the protein which traps the proteinase. The entrapped enzyme remains active against low molecular weight substrates (activity against high molecular weight substrates is greatly reduced). Following cleavage in the bait region a thioester bond is hydrolyzed and mediates the covalent binding of the protein to the proteinase.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
PZP
Uniprot ID
P20742
Uniprot Name
Pregnancy zone protein
Molecular Weight
163861.765 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
S100A7
Uniprot ID
P31151
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A7
Molecular Weight
11470.87 Da
References
  1. Brodersen DE, Nyborg J, Kjeldgaard M: Zinc-binding site of an S100 protein revealed. Two crystal structures of Ca2+-bound human psoriasin (S100A7) in the Zn2+-loaded and Zn2+-free states. Biochemistry. 1999 Feb 9;38(6):1695-704. [PubMed:10026247]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Selenium binding
Specific Function
Might be responsible for some of the extracellular antioxidant defense properties of selenium or might be involved in the transport of selenium. May supply selenium to tissues such as brain and tes...
Gene Name
SEPP1
Uniprot ID
P49908
Uniprot Name
Selenoprotein P
Molecular Weight
43173.37 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Du X, Li H, Wang Z, Qiu S, Liu Q, Ni J: Selenoprotein P and selenoprotein M block Zn2+ -mediated Abeta42 aggregation and toxicity. Metallomics. 2013 Jun;5(7):861-70. doi: 10.1039/c3mt20282h. [PubMed:23652332]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Inhibitor of serine proteases. Its primary target is elastase, but it also has a moderate affinity for plasmin and thrombin. Irreversibly inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activator. T...
Gene Name
SERPINA1
Uniprot ID
P01009
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-antitrypsin
Molecular Weight
46736.195 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Although its physiological function is unclear, it can inhibit neutrophil cathepsin G and mast cell chymase, both of which can convert angiotensin-1 to the active angiotensin-2.
Specific Function
Dna binding
Gene Name
SERPINA3
Uniprot ID
P01011
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin
Molecular Weight
47650.36 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
Major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins in the blood of almost all vertebrate species.
Gene Name
SERPINA6
Uniprot ID
P08185
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
45140.49 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Hammond GL, Avvakumov GV, Muller YA: Structure/function analyses of human sex hormone-binding globulin: effects of zinc on steroid-binding specificity. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jun;85(2-5):195-200. doi: 10.1016/s0960-0760(03)00195-x. [PubMed:12943704]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Thrombin inhibitor activated by the glycosaminoglycans, heparin or dermatan sulfate. In the presence of the latter, HC-II becomes the predominant thrombin inhibitor in place of antithrombin III (AT...
Gene Name
SERPIND1
Uniprot ID
P05546
Uniprot Name
Heparin cofactor 2
Molecular Weight
57070.16 Da
References
  1. Eckert R, Ragg H: Zinc ions promote the interaction between heparin and heparin cofactor II. FEBS Lett. 2003 Apr 24;541(1-3):121-5. [PubMed:12706831]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Hammond GL, Avvakumov GV, Muller YA: Structure/function analyses of human sex hormone-binding globulin: effects of zinc on steroid-binding specificity. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jun;85(2-5):195-200. doi: 10.1016/s0960-0760(03)00195-x. [PubMed:12943704]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name
TTR
Uniprot ID
P02766
Uniprot Name
Transthyretin
Molecular Weight
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Castro-Rodrigues AF, Gales L, Saraiva MJ, Damas AM: Structural insights into a zinc-dependent pathway leading to Leu55Pro transthyretin amyloid fibrils. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011 Dec;67(Pt 12):1035-44. doi: 10.1107/S090744491104491X. Epub 2011 Nov 5. [PubMed:22120741]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Scavenger receptor activity
Specific Function
Vitronectin is a cell adhesion and spreading factor found in serum and tissues. Vitronectin interact with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Is recognized by certain members of the integrin fami...
Gene Name
VTN
Uniprot ID
P04004
Uniprot Name
Vitronectin
Molecular Weight
54305.135 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Sahin C, Dilsiz OY, Demiray SB, Yeniel O, Ergenoglu M, Sezer ED, Oktem G, Goker EN, Tavmergen E: Increased stem cell marker expressions during the peri-implantation period in the rat endometrium: constructive role of exogenous zinc and/or progesterone. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:867131. doi: 10.1155/2014/867131. Epub 2014 May 26. [PubMed:24971353]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
May play a role in postsynaptic function. The C-terminal gamma-secretase processed fragment, ALID1, activates transcription activation through APBB1 (Fe65) binding (By similarity). Couples to JIP signal transduction through C-terminal binding. May interact with cellular G-protein signaling pathways. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I.
Specific Function
Alpha-2a adrenergic receptor binding
Gene Name
APLP1
Uniprot ID
P51693
Uniprot Name
Amyloid-like protein 1
Molecular Weight
72175.825 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
May play a role in the regulation of hemostasis. The soluble form may have inhibitory properties towards coagulation factors. May interact with cellular G-protein signaling pathways. May bind to the DNA 5'-GTCACATG-3'(CDEI box). Inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin, factor XIA and plasma and glandular kallikrein. Modulates the Cu/Zn nitric oxide-catalyzed autodegradation of GPC1 heparan sulfate side chains in fibroblasts (By similarity).
Specific Function
Dna binding
Gene Name
APLP2
Uniprot ID
Q06481
Uniprot Name
Amyloid-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
86955.2 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Transition metal ion binding
Specific Function
Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and tra...
Gene Name
APP
Uniprot ID
P05067
Uniprot Name
Amyloid beta A4 protein
Molecular Weight
86942.715 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Component of
Curator comments
Activator/cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This ...
Gene Name
PARP1
Uniprot ID
P09874
Uniprot Name
Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
Molecular Weight
113082.945 Da
References
  1. Bossak K, Goch W, Piatek K, Fraczyk T, Poznanski J, Bonna A, Keil C, Hartwig A, Bal W: Unusual Zn(II) Affinities of Zinc Fingers of Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Nuclear Protein. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 Feb 16;28(2):191-201. [PubMed:25549802]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor.
Specific Function
Cholesterol transfer activity
Gene Name
APOB
Uniprot ID
P04114
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein B-100
Molecular Weight
515600.06 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Binds heme and transports it to the liver for breakdown and iron recovery, after which the free hemopexin returns to the circulation.
Specific Function
Heme transporter activity
Gene Name
HPX
Uniprot ID
P02790
Uniprot Name
Hemopexin
Molecular Weight
51676.015 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Plasma glycoprotein that binds a number of ligands such as heme, heparin, heparan sulfate, thrombospondin, plasminogen, and divalent metal ions. Binds heparin and heparin/glycosaminoglycans in a zinc-dependent manner. Binds heparan sulfate on the surface of liver, lung, kidney and heart endothelial cells. Binds to N-sulfated polysaccharide chains on the surface of liver endothelial cells. Inhibits rosette formation. Acts as an adapter protein and is implicated in regulating many processes such as immune complex and pathogen clearance, cell chemotaxis, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Mediates clearance of necrotic cells through enhancing the phagocytosis of necrotic cells in a heparan sulfate-dependent pathway. This process can be regulated by the presence of certain HRG ligands such as heparin and zinc ions. Binds to IgG subclasses of immunoglobins containing kappa and lambda light chains with different affinities regulating their clearance and inhibiting the formation of insoluble immune complexes. Tethers plasminogen to the cell surface. Binds T-cells and alters the cell morphology. Modulates angiogenesis by blocking the CD6-mediated antiangiongenic effect of thrombospondins, THBS1 and THBS2. Acts as a regulator of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway; inhibits endothelial cell motility by reducing VEGF-induced complex formation between PXN/paxillin and ILK/integrin-linked protein kinase and by promoting inhibition of VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinases and alpha-actinins in endothelial cells. Also plays a role in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and tumor immune surveillance. Normalizes tumor vessels and promotes antitumor immunity by polarizing tumor-associated macrophages, leading to decreased tumor growth and metastasis.
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
HRG
Uniprot ID
P04196
Uniprot Name
Histidine-rich glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
59578.04 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
  2. Tubek S, Grzanka P, Tubek I: Role of zinc in hemostasis: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008 Jan;121(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12011-007-8038-y. Epub 2007 Oct 30. [PubMed:17968515]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Factor XI triggers the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by activating factor IX.
Gene Name
F11
Uniprot ID
P03951
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor XI
Molecular Weight
70108.56 Da
References
  1. Tubek S, Grzanka P, Tubek I: Role of zinc in hemostasis: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008 Jan;121(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12011-007-8038-y. Epub 2007 Oct 30. [PubMed:17968515]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
Chelator
General Function
Catalytic component of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme complex which is responsible for the postranscriptional editing of a CAA codon for Gln to a UAA codon for stop in the APOB mRNA. Also involved in CGA (Arg) to UGA (Stop) editing in the NF1 mRNA. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation.
Specific Function
Cytidine deaminase activity
Gene Name
APOBEC1
Uniprot ID
P41238
Uniprot Name
C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1
Molecular Weight
28191.345 Da
References
  1. Smith HC: RNA binding to APOBEC deaminases; Not simply a substrate for C to U editing. RNA Biol. 2017 Sep 2;14(9):1153-1165. doi: 10.1080/15476286.2016.1259783. Epub 2016 Nov 21. [PubMed:27869537]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Participates in the formation of a gel matrix (sperm coagulum) entrapping the accessory gland secretions and ejaculated spermatozoa.
Specific Function
Protease binding
Gene Name
SEMG2
Uniprot ID
Q02383
Uniprot Name
Semenogelin-2
Molecular Weight
65444.485 Da
References
  1. Jonsson M, Linse S, Frohm B, Lundwall A, Malm J: Semenogelins I and II bind zinc and regulate the activity of prostate-specific antigen. Biochem J. 2005 Apr 15;387(Pt 2):447-53. doi: 10.1042/BJ20041424. [PubMed:15563730]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Ligand
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Removes residual C-terminal Arg or Lys remaining after initial endoprotease cleavage during prohormone processing. Processes proinsulin.
Gene Name
CPE
Uniprot ID
P16870
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase E
Molecular Weight
53150.185 Da
References
  1. Larsen KS, Auld DS: Carboxypeptidase A: mechanism of zinc inhibition. Biochemistry. 1989 Dec 12;28(25):9620-5. doi: 10.1021/bi00451a012. [PubMed:2611251]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1C
Uniprot ID
P00326
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
Molecular Weight
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Brandt EG, Hellgren M, Brinck T, Bergman T, Edholm O: Molecular dynamics study of zinc binding to cysteines in a peptide mimic of the alcohol dehydrogenase structural zinc site. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009 Feb 14;11(6):975-83. doi: 10.1039/b815482a. Epub 2008 Dec 12. [PubMed:19177216]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by A...
Gene Name
IDE
Uniprot ID
P14735
Uniprot Name
Insulin-degrading enzyme
Molecular Weight
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Tundo GR, Sbardella D, Ciaccio C, Grasso G, Gioia M, Coletta A, Polticelli F, Di Pierro D, Milardi D, Van Endert P, Marini S, Coletta M: Multiple functions of insulin-degrading enzyme: a metabolic crosslight? Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Oct;52(5):554-582. doi: 10.1080/10409238.2017.1337707. Epub 2017 Jun 21. [PubMed:28635330]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Nedd S, Redler RL, Proctor EA, Dokholyan NV, Alexandrova AN: Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase without Zn is folded but catalytically inactive. J Mol Biol. 2014 Dec 12;426(24):4112-4124. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2014.07.016. Epub 2014 Jul 30. [PubMed:25083917]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. McCall KA, Huang C, Fierke CA: Function and mechanism of zinc metalloenzymes. J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5S Suppl):1437S-46S. [PubMed:10801957]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Scott BJ, Bradwell AR: Identification of the serum binding proteins for iron, zinc, cadmium, nickel, and calcium. Clin Chem. 1983 Apr;29(4):629-33. [PubMed:6831689]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
May be involved in zinc transport out of the cell.
Specific Function
Calcium channel inhibitor activity
Gene Name
SLC30A1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6M5
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 1
Molecular Weight
55299.41 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Identical protein binding
Gene Name
SLC30A2
Uniprot ID
Q9BRI3
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 2
Molecular Weight
35177.37 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Involved in accumulation of zinc in synaptic vesicles.
Specific Function
Atpase-coupled zinc transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A3
Uniprot ID
Q99726
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 3
Molecular Weight
41944.895 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Probably involved in zinc transport out of the cytoplasm, maybe by sequestration into an intracellular compartment.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A4
Uniprot ID
O14863
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 4
Molecular Weight
47482.24 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc-efflux transporter which allocates the cytoplasmic zinc to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) as well as the vesicular compartment.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A6
Uniprot ID
Q6NXT4
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 6
Molecular Weight
51115.08 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Functions as a zinc transporter. May be a transporter of zinc into beta cells in order to form insulin crystals. Partly regulates cellular zinc homeostasis. Required with ZNT7 for the activation of zinc-requiring enzymes, alkaline phosphatases (ALPs). Transports zinc into the lumens of the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments where ALPs locate, thus, converting apoALPs to holoALPs. Required with ZNT6 and ZNT7 for the activation of TNAP.
Specific Function
Zinc ion binding
Gene Name
SLC30A5
Uniprot ID
Q8TAD4
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 5
Molecular Weight
84045.73 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Seems to facilitate zinc transport from the cytoplasm into the Golgi apparatus. Partly regulates cellular zinc homeostasis. Required with ZNT5 for the activation of zinc-requiring enzymes, alkaline phosphatases (ALPs). Transports zinc into the lumens of the Golgi apparatus and the vesicular compartments where ALPs locate, thus, converting apoALPs to holoALPs. Required with ZNT5 and ZNT6 for the activation of TNAP (By similarity).
Specific Function
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A7
Uniprot ID
Q8NEW0
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 7
Molecular Weight
41625.605 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Facilitates the accumulation of zinc from the cytoplasm into intracellular vesicles, being a zinc-efflux transporter. May be a major component for providing zinc to insulin maturation and/or storage processes in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells.
Specific Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Gene Name
SLC30A8
Uniprot ID
Q8IWU4
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 8
Molecular Weight
40754.16 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Acts as a zinc transporter involved in intracellular zinc homeostasis (PubMed:28334855). Functions as a secondary coactivator for nuclear receptors by cooperating with p160 coactivators subtypes. Plays a role in transcriptional activation of Wnt-responsive genes (By similarity).
Specific Function
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A9
Uniprot ID
Q6PML9
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 9
Molecular Weight
63514.525 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Plays a pivotal role in manganese transport. Manganese is an essential cation for the function of several enzymes, including some crucially important for the metabolism of neurotransmitters and other neuronal metabolic pathways. However, elevated levels of manganese are cytotoxic and induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Acts as manganese efflux transporter and confers protection against manganese-induced cell death (PubMed:22341972, PubMed:22341971, PubMed:25319704, PubMed:27226609, PubMed:27307044). Also acts as zinc transporter involved in zinc homeostasis. Seems to mediate zinc transport into early endosomes and recycling endosomes to prevent zinc toxicity; the function may be regulated by heterodimerization with other zinc transporters of the SLC30A subfamily. The SLC30A3:SLC30A10 heterodimer is involved in zinc transport-dependent regulation of the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway in endosomes. May be involved in regulation of zinc-dependent senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (PubMed:22706290, PubMed:22427991, PubMed:26728129).
Specific Function
Manganese ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC30A10
Uniprot ID
Q6XR72
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter 10
Molecular Weight
52683.46 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Mediates zinc uptake. May function as a major endogenous zinc uptake transporter in many cells of the body. Responsible for the rapid uptake and accumulation of physiologically effective zinc in prostate cells.
Specific Function
Inorganic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A1
Uniprot ID
Q9NY26
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP1
Molecular Weight
34249.215 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Mediates zinc uptake. Zinc uptake may be mediated by a Zn(2+)-HCO(3)(-) symport mechanism and can function in the presence of albumin. May also transport other divalent cations. May be important in contact inhibition of normal epithelial cells and loss of its expression may play a role in tumorigenesis.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A2
Uniprot ID
Q9NP94
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP2
Molecular Weight
32742.03 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Acts as a zinc-influx transporter.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A3
Uniprot ID
Q9BRY0
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP3
Molecular Weight
33600.495 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Plays an important role in cellular zinc homeostasis as a zinc transporter. Regulated in response to zinc availability (By similarity).
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A4
Uniprot ID
Q6P5W5
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP4
Molecular Weight
68406.75 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
May play a role in polarized cells by carrying out serosal-to-mucosal zinc transport. Plays a role in eye development. Could regulate the BMP/TGF-beta (bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta) signaling pathway and modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the sclera (PubMed:24891338). Seems to play a central role in controlling organismal zinc status (By similarity).
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A5
Uniprot ID
Q6ZMH5
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP5
Molecular Weight
56460.165 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
May act as a zinc-influx transporter.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A6
Uniprot ID
Q13433
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP6
Molecular Weight
85046.22 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc transporter, that transports Zn(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to the cytosol. Transport is stimulated by growth factors, such as EGF, and Ca(2+), as well as by exogenous Zn(2+).
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A7
Uniprot ID
Q92504
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter SLC39A7
Molecular Weight
50117.95 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Acts as a manganese and zinc influx transporter (PubMed:12504855, PubMed:26637978). Plays a role in manganese reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney and in manganese uptake into the brain (PubMed:26637978).
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A8
Uniprot ID
Q9C0K1
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP8
Molecular Weight
49630.175 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
May act as a zinc-influx transporter.
Specific Function
Metal ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A9
Uniprot ID
Q9NUM3
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP9
Molecular Weight
32251.15 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
May act as a zinc-influx transporter.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A10
Uniprot ID
Q9ULF5
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP10
Molecular Weight
94131.47 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Functions as a cellular zinc transporter.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A11
Uniprot ID
Q8N1S5
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP11
Molecular Weight
35395.665 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Acts as a zinc-influx transporter (Potential). May be partly involved in the outbreak of schizophrenia.
Specific Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A12
Uniprot ID
Q504Y0
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP12
Molecular Weight
76665.43 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Acts as a zinc-influx transporter.
Specific Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Gene Name
SLC39A13
Uniprot ID
Q96H72
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP13
Molecular Weight
39010.1 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Broad-scope metal ion transporter with a preference for zinc uptake (PubMed:29621230). Also mediates cellular uptake of nontransferrin-bound iron.
Specific Function
Ferrous iron transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
SLC39A14
Uniprot ID
Q15043
Uniprot Name
Zinc transporter ZIP14
Molecular Weight
54211.785 Da
References
  1. Jeong J, Eide DJ: The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011. [PubMed:23506894]

Drug created on July 12, 2018 13:50 / Updated on October 27, 2020 11:13

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