Identification

Name
Succinic acid
Accession Number
DB00139
Description

A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 118.088
Monoisotopic: 118.02660868
Chemical Formula
C4H6O4
Synonyms
  • 1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
  • Acide butanedioïque
  • Acide succinique
  • Acidum succinicum
  • Amber acid
  • Asuccin
  • Bernsteinsäure
  • Butandisäure
  • Butanedioic acid
  • Butanedionic acid
  • Dihydrofumaric acid
  • Ethylenesuccinic acid
  • Spirit of amber
  • Succinic acid
External IDs
  • E363

Pharmacology

Indication

For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance

Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Succinate is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle and serves an electron donor in the production of fumaric acid and FADH2. It also has been shown to be a good "natural" antibiotic because of its relative acidic or caustic nature (high concentrations can even cause burns). Succinate supplements have been shown to help reduce the effects of hangovers by activating the degradation of acetaldehyde - a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism - into CO2 and H2O through aerobic metabolism. Succinic acid has been shown to stimulate neural system recovery and bolster the immune system. Claims have also been made that it boosts awareness, concentration and reflexes.

TargetActionsOrganism
USuccinate receptor 1Not AvailableHumans
USuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Oral rat LD50: 2260 mg/kg

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Ketone Body MetabolismMetabolic
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D and L Form)Disease
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDisease
Methylmalonic AciduriaDisease
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)Disease
Prolinemia Type IIDisease
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)Disease
Refsum DiseaseDisease
Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]Disease
Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Congenital Lactic AcidosisDisease
Fumarase DeficiencyDisease
Mitochondrial Complex II DeficiencyDisease
2-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencyDisease
Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Warburg EffectMetabolic
The Oncogenic Action of 2-HydroxyglutarateDisease
Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolic
Valine, Leucine, and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolic
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIIDisease
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVDisease
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseDisease
Propionic AcidemiaDisease
3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDisease
Isovaleric AciduriaDisease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
HomocarnosinosisDisease
Creatine Deficiency, Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Acetylsalicylic acidThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AcyclovirThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
Aminohippuric acidThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Aminohippuric acid.
ApalutamideThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Apalutamide.
AtalurenThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Ataluren.
AvatrombopagThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Avatrombopag.
BaricitinibThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Baricitinib.
Benzoic acidThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Benzoic acid.
BenzylpenicillinThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Benzylpenicillin.
BumetanideThe excretion of Succinic acid can be decreased when combined with Bumetanide.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
    Available for Purchase

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
    Available for Purchase

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
    Available for Purchase

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action
    Available for Purchase

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Purchasing individual compounds or compound libraries for your research?
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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ferrex 150 PlusSuccinic acid (50 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (50 mg/1) + Iron (150 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-09-302012-12-31US flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ferrex 150 Forte PlusSuccinic acid (50 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (60 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (25 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (150 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2008-08-012012-09-30US flag
Ferrex 150 PlusSuccinic acid (50 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (50 mg/1) + Iron (150 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-09-302012-12-31US flag
Ferrex 28Succinic acid (150 mg/1) + Succinic acid (150 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (81 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (70 mg/1)KitOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-06-262011-07-31US flag
Ferrex 28Succinic acid (150 mg/1) + Succinic acid (150 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (81 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (70 mg/1)KitOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-06-262011-07-31US flag
Irospan 24/6Succinic acid (150 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Calcium carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous bisglycinate (65 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Calcium formate (155 mg/1) + Iron Dextran (65 mg/1) + Niacin (25 mg/1) + Niacin (25 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (300 ug/1) + Calcium pantothenate (7 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (30 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (30 mg/1) + Riboflavin sodium (5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (5 mg/1) + Sodium ascorbate (100 mg/1) + Sodium ascorbate (100 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (5 mg/1)OralWOMENS CHOICE PHARMACEUTICALS LLC2011-04-15Not applicableUS flag
NiferexSuccinic acid (50 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (25 ug/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (250 ug/1) + Gastric intrinsic factor (100 mg/1) + Iron Dextran (100 mg/1) + Levomefolic acid (750 ug/1) + Zinc (15 mg/1)TabletOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2017-01-10Not applicableUS flag
Se-Vate 21/7Succinic acid (150 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (140 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (60 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (70 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (81 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-05-122011-05-30US flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Fatty acids and conjugates / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Fatty acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
C4-dicarboxylic acid, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid (CHEBI:15741) / Dicarboxylic acids (LMFA01170043)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
AB6MNQ6J6L
CAS number
110-15-6
InChI Key
KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
IUPAC Name
butanedioic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CCC(O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Michael Diamantoglou, Gerhard Meyer, "Process for the production of water-insoluble fibers of cellulose monoesters of maleic acid, succinic acid and phthalic acid, having an extremely high absorbability for water and physiological liquids." U.S. Patent US4734239, issued April, 1941.

US4734239
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000254
KEGG Compound
C00042
PubChem Compound
1110
PubChem Substance
46505859
ChemSpider
1078
BindingDB
26121
RxNav
37255
ChEBI
15741
ChEMBL
CHEMBL576
ZINC
ZINC000000895030
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000545
PharmGKB
PA164747739
PDBe Ligand
SIN
Wikipedia
Succinic_acid
PDB Entries
1abz / 1cze / 1d4d / 1e5h / 1f8i / 1gp6 / 1h2z / 1h6c / 1hg0 / 1hqj
show 240 more
MSDS
Download (71.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4TerminatedTreatmentAnemia1
3CompletedTreatmentCognitive Dysfunctions1
1CompletedTreatmentUnspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentSarcoma of the Extremity / Stage I Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Trunk and Extremities / Stage IA Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Trunk and Extremities / Stage IB Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Trunk and Extremities / Stage II Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Trunk and Extremities1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Contract Pharm
  • J T Baker
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • National Vitamin Company
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • PruGen Inc. Pharmaceuticals
  • Rasi Laboratories Inc.
  • Seton Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Ther-Rx Corp.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
KitOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Succinic acid cryst reagent0.15USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)188 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)235 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility8.32E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP-0.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-0.2ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.21 (at 25 °C)DEAN,JA (1987)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility211.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.4ChemAxon
logS0.25ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.14 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.668
Blood Brain Barrier+0.869
Caco-2 permeable-0.648
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7618
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9796
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9701
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9513
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8535
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9161
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7794
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8848
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9759
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9713
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9856
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9679
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9951
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9587
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7929
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9399
Rat acute toxicity1.6866 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9622
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9771
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.46 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823ba
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661a
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0kos-9100000000-f1df0903a24c305e68ec
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0002-0910000000-300c33b39fb991b5a73e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823ba
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661a
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-f838d863ee7c2b111f02
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-05di-9100000000-c629bea41d0d3d896425
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-f9dc864d93a09d3074f9
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-76c151de384928b2256f
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01b9-7900000000-51d2341c097f04827944
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dj-0971010000-37d214dc7a8fdc26116b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-249222ac742c1634cec9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-6897d49472dba6a34a27
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0490000000-d138f8023125921b4b82
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-c20baa818f5ff5f678c1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-7a49a18aa6fcb2540a12
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-7e1f195f111b4eafb4fa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00xr-9400000000-e50afc90e20cd420ba9b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00xr-9600000000-43167f2549cbb5d5f7e8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-7a8bfa543dc087bea06d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-fdec6c7458176f3cbeb8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-7e1f195f111b4eafb4fa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-249222ac742c1634cec9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-6897d49472dba6a34a27
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0490000000-d138f8023125921b4b82
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00xr-9400000000-e50afc90e20cd420ba9b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00xr-9600000000-43167f2549cbb5d5f7e8
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-15a37af23c57a00c3143
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for succinate.
Gene Name
SUCNR1
Uniprot ID
Q9BXA5
Uniprot Name
Succinate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
38697.395 Da
References
  1. Macaulay IC, Tijssen MR, Thijssen-Timmer DC, Gusnanto A, Steward M, Burns P, Langford CF, Ellis PD, Dudbridge F, Zwaginga JJ, Watkins NA, van der Schoot CE, Ouwehand WH: Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3260-9. Epub 2006 Dec 27. [PubMed:17192395]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID
P51649
Uniprot Name
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Yogeeswari P, Sriram D, Vaigundaragavendran J: The GABA shunt: an attractive and potential therapeutic target in the treatment of epileptic disorders. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Apr;6(2):127-39. [PubMed:15853764]
  2. Popov VN, Eprintsev AT, Fedorin DN, Fomenko OIu, Igamberdiev AU: [Role of transamination in the mobilization of respiratory substrates in germinating seeds of castor oil plants]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2007 May-Jun;43(3):376-81. [PubMed:17619587]
  3. Wang C, Zhang HB, Wang LH, Zhang LH: Succinic semialdehyde couples stress response to quorum-sensing signal decay in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Oct;62(1):45-56. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:16942602]
  4. Ahn SJ, Yang CH, Cooksey DA: Pseudomonas putida 06909 genes expressed during colonization on mycelial surfaces and phenotypic characterization of mutants. J Appl Microbiol. 2007 Jul;103(1):120-32. [PubMed:17584458]
  5. Chiribau CB, Mihasan M, Ganas P, Igloi GL, Artenie V, Brandsch R: Final steps in the catabolism of nicotine. FEBS J. 2006 Apr;273(7):1528-36. [PubMed:16689938]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate...
Gene Name
SDHC
Uniprot ID
Q99643
Uniprot Name
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Rutter J, Winge DR, Schiffman JD: Succinate dehydrogenase - Assembly, regulation and role in human disease. Mitochondrion. 2010 Jun;10(4):393-401. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2010.03.001. Epub 2010 Mar 10. [PubMed:20226277]
  2. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [PubMed:16288654]
  3. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [PubMed:17636259]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate ...
Gene Name
SDHA
Uniprot ID
P31040
Uniprot Name
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Maklashina E, Iverson TM, Sher Y, Kotlyar V, Andrell J, Mirza O, Hudson JM, Armstrong FA, Rothery RA, Weiner JH, Cecchini G: Fumarate reductase and succinate oxidase activity of Escherichia coli complex II homologs are perturbed differently by mutation of the flavin binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 21;281(16):11357-65. Epub 2006 Feb 15. [PubMed:16484232]
  2. Takeo S, Kokaze A, Ng CS, Mizuchi D, Watanabe JI, Tanabe K, Kojima S, Kita K: Succinate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria: molecular characterization of the SDHA and SDHB genes for the catalytic subunits, the flavoprotein (Fp) and iron-sulfur (Ip) subunits. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000 Apr 15;107(2):191-205. [PubMed:10779596]
  3. Ackrell BA: Cytopathies involving mitochondrial complex II. Mol Aspects Med. 2002 Oct;23(5):369-84. [PubMed:12231007]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Succinate-coa ligase (gdp-forming) activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA.
Gene Name
SUCLG2
Uniprot ID
Q96I99
Uniprot Name
Succinyl-CoA ligase [GDP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
46510.215 Da
References
  1. Majumdar R, Guest JR, Bridger WA: Functional consequences of substitution of the active site (phospho)histidine residue of Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Jan 8;1076(1):86-90. doi: 10.1016/0167-4838(91)90223-m. [PubMed:1986797]
  2. Van Hove JL, Saenz MS, Thomas JA, Gallagher RC, Lovell MA, Fenton LZ, Shanske S, Myers SM, Wanders RJ, Ruiter J, Turkenburg M, Waterham HR: Succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency: a mitochondrial hepatoencephalomyopathy. Pediatr Res. 2010 Aug;68(2):159-64. doi: 10.1203/00006450-201011001-00310. [PubMed:20453710]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.

Components:
References
  1. Gorres KL, Raines RT: Prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Apr;45(2):106-24. doi: 10.3109/10409231003627991. [PubMed:20199358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecu...
Gene Name
PLOD3
Uniprot ID
O60568
Uniprot Name
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3
Molecular Weight
84784.505 Da
References
  1. Guo HF, Cho EJ, Devkota AK, Chen Y, Russell W, Phillips GN Jr, Yamauchi M, Dalby KN, Kurie JM: A scalable lysyl hydroxylase 2 expression system and luciferase-based enzymatic activity assay. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2017 Mar 15;618:45-51. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2017.02.003. Epub 2017 Feb 20. [PubMed:28216326]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in...
Gene Name
P3H1
Uniprot ID
Q32P28
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1
Molecular Weight
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Place TL, Domann FE: Prolyl-hydroxylase 3: Evolving Roles for an Ancient Signaling Protein. Hypoxia (Auckl). 2013 Oct 1;2013(1):13-17. doi: 10.2147/HP.S50091. [PubMed:24672806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H2
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL5
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2
Molecular Weight
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Place TL, Domann FE: Prolyl-hydroxylase 3: Evolving Roles for an Ancient Signaling Protein. Hypoxia (Auckl). 2013 Oct 1;2013(1):13-17. doi: 10.2147/HP.S50091. [PubMed:24672806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H3
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL6
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3
Molecular Weight
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Place TL, Domann FE: Prolyl-hydroxylase 3: Evolving Roles for an Ancient Signaling Protein. Hypoxia (Auckl). 2013 Oct 1;2013(1):13-17. doi: 10.2147/HP.S50091. [PubMed:24672806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between th...
Gene Name
OXCT1
Uniprot ID
P55809
Uniprot Name
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56157.175 Da
References
  1. Coros AM, Swenson L, Wolodko WT, Fraser ME: Structure of the CoA transferase from pig heart to 1.7 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Oct;60(Pt 10):1717-25. Epub 2004 Sep 23. [PubMed:15388917]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Product of
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Isoform 1: specifically hydroxylates an Asp or Asn residue in certain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains of a number of proteins.Isoform 8: membrane-bound Ca(2+)-sensing protein, which is a...
Gene Name
ASPH
Uniprot ID
Q12797
Uniprot Name
Aspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
85862.095 Da
References
  1. Lahousse SA, Carter JJ, Xu XJ, Wands JR, de la Monte SM: Differential growth factor regulation of aspartyl-(asparaginyl)-beta-hydroxylase family genes in SH-Sy5y human neuroblastoma cells. BMC Cell Biol. 2006 Dec 7;7:41. doi: 10.1186/1471-2121-7-41. [PubMed:17156427]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Dicarboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in translocation of malonate, malate and succinate in exchange for phosphate, sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate across mitochondrial inner membrane.
Gene Name
SLC25A10
Uniprot ID
Q9UBX3
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier
Molecular Weight
31282.21 Da
References
  1. Ventura FV, Ruiter J, Ijlst L, de Almeida IT, Wanders RJ: Differential inhibitory effect of long-chain acyl-CoA esters on succinate and glutamate transport into rat liver mitochondria and its possible implications for long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Nov;86(3):344-52. Epub 2005 Sep 19. [PubMed:16176879]
  2. Mizuarai S, Miki S, Araki H, Takahashi K, Kotani H: Identification of dicarboxylate carrier Slc25a10 as malate transporter in de novo fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 16;280(37):32434-41. Epub 2005 Jul 15. [PubMed:16027120]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium:sulfate symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium/sulfate cotransporter that mediates sulfate reabsorption in the kidney.
Gene Name
SLC13A1
Uniprot ID
Q9BZW2
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 13 member 1
Molecular Weight
66133.62 Da
References
  1. Lee A, Beck L, Markovich D: The human renal sodium sulfate cotransporter (SLC13A1; hNaSi-1) cDNA and gene: organization, chromosomal localization, and functional characterization. Genomics. 2000 Dec 15;70(3):354-63. [PubMed:11161786]
  2. Markovich D: Na+-sulfate cotransporter SLC13A1. Pflugers Arch. 2014 Jan;466(1):131-7. doi: 10.1007/s00424-013-1388-8. Epub 2013 Nov 6. [PubMed:24193406]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Low-affinity sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Cotransport of sodium ions and dicarboxylates such as succinate and citrate.
Gene Name
SLC13A2
Uniprot ID
Q13183
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 13 member 2
Molecular Weight
64409.495 Da
References
  1. Pajor AM: Molecular properties of the SLC13 family of dicarboxylate and sulfate transporters. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Feb;451(5):597-605. doi: 10.1007/s00424-005-1487-2. Epub 2005 Oct 7. [PubMed:16211368]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Succinate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter that accepts a range of substrates with 4-5 carbon atoms. The stoichiometry is probably 3 Na(+) for 1 divalent succinate.
Gene Name
SLC13A3
Uniprot ID
Q8WWT9
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 13 member 3
Molecular Weight
66840.355 Da
References
  1. Pajor AM: Molecular properties of the SLC13 family of dicarboxylate and sulfate transporters. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Feb;451(5):597-605. doi: 10.1007/s00424-005-1487-2. Epub 2005 Oct 7. [PubMed:16211368]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 03, 2020 19:00

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