Calcium threonate

Identification

Generic Name
Calcium threonate
DrugBank Accession Number
DB11168
Background

Calcium threonate is a calcium salt of threnoic acid and a novel drug developed for the treatment of osteoporosis and as a calcium supplement 1. It is found in dietary supplements as a source of L-threonate used in the treatment of calcium deficiency and prevention of osteoporosis. The most common form is calcium L-threonate, or (2R,3S)-2,3,4-trihydroxy butyric acid calcium 1. L-threonate is an active metabolite of vitamin C that mediates a stimulatory action on vitamin C uptake 1. Therapeutic efficacy of calcium threonate in reducing was studied and investigated due to the hypothesis that it may play a role in the mineralization process through its positive action on vitamin C.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 310.268
Monoisotopic: 310.0212876
Chemical Formula
C8H14CaO10
Synonyms
  • Calcium L-threonate
  • Threonine, calcium salt

Pharmacology

Indication

No approved therapeutic indications.

Pharmacology
Accelerate your drug discovery research with the industry’s only fully connected ADMET dataset, ideal for:
Machine Learning
Data Science
Drug Discovery
Accelerate your drug discovery research with our fully connected ADMET dataset
Learn more
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
With our commercial data, access important information on dangerous risks, contraindications, and adverse effects.
Learn more
Our Blackbox Warnings cover Risks, Contraindications, and Adverse Effects
Learn more
Pharmacodynamics

In a preclinical study, calcium L-theronate inhibited the bone resorption of osteoclasts in vitro 1.

Mechanism of action

Once dissociated to calcium and L-theronic acid, L-threonic acid exhibits significant stimulatory action on vitamin C uptake and prolongs the retention of vitamin C in human T-lymphoma cells 1. Vitamin C is a marker for osteoblast formation and has been shown to stimulate procollagen and enhance collagen synthesis 1. Via stimulation of vitamin C uptake, L-threonic acid acts as a metabolite that influences the mineralization process 1.

Absorption

Human studies demonstrate that calcium from calcium L-threonate is absorbed 2. In an open-label, single- and multiple-dose study of healthy adult Chinese subjects receiving a single oral dose of 2025 mg calcium theronate, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 32.3 mg/L 1. The time to reach peak plasma concentration (Tmax) was approximately 2 hours 1.

Volume of distribution

The apparent total volume of distribution following a single oral dose of 2025 mg calcium theronate in healthy adult Chinese subjects was approximately 53.6 L 1.

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

The presence of threonic acid in human urine has been identified 2. In a pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving 200 mg/kg bw of calcium threonate orally, approximately 30% of the calcium was excreted in the urine, around 40% was eliminated in the faeces, and about 10 -20% remained in the blood and bone, and about 10% was stored in organs after 24 hours of administration 2.

Half-life

The terminal-phase elimination half-life following a single oral dose of 2025 mg calcium theronate in healthy adult Chinese subjects was approximately 2.7 hours 1.

Clearance

Apparent total clearance following a single oral dose of 2025 mg calcium theronate in healthy adult Chinese subjects was approximately 14.5 L/h 1.

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
Reduce medical errors
and improve treatment outcomes with our comprehensive & structured data on drug adverse effects.
Learn more
Reduce medical errors & improve treatment outcomes with our adverse effects data
Learn more
Toxicity

Calcium L-threonate has low oral acute toxicity, with no adverse effects observed at doses as high as 40 g/kg bw in mice or 32 g/kg bw in rats 2. In a subchronic study of rats, the NOAEL of 4 g/kg bw/day was reported with the occurrence of reversible effects on blood coagulation and accretion of the thyroid gland 2. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that calcium L-threonate is unlikely to have genotoxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic potential as L-threonate is an endogenous compound in the body 2. Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in mice indicated that calcium L-threonate in doses up to 6 g/kg bw/day has no adverse effect on the fertility and the developing fetus, and did not cause maternal toxicity 2.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbciximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Abciximab.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Acenocoumarol.
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorAlpha-1-proteinase inhibitor may increase the thrombogenic activities of Calcium threonate.
AlteplaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Alteplase.
Aminocaproic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aminocaproic acid is combined with Calcium threonate.
AncrodThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Ancrod.
AnistreplaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Anistreplase.
Antithrombin AlfaThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Antithrombin Alfa.
Antithrombin III humanThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Antithrombin III human.
ApixabanThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcium threonate can be decreased when used in combination with Apixaban.
Interactions
Improve patient outcomes
Build effective decision support tools with the industry’s most comprehensive drug-drug interaction checker.
Learn more
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
Comprehensive & structured drug product info
From application numbers to product codes, connect different identifiers through our commercial datasets.
Learn more
Easily connect various identifiers back to our datasets
Learn more
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Calcium cationionic2M83C4R6ZB14127-61-8BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Soin Solaire Complete SPF30Calcium threonate (.001 mg/1mL) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (.17 mg/1mL) + Panthenol (7.5 mg/1mL) + Titanium dioxide (70 mg/1mL) + Tocopherol (1 mg/1mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (5 mg/1mL)EmulsionTopicalElemis Limited2012-03-272012-12-31US flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ferrex 150 Forte PlusCalcium threonate (0.8 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (60 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (25 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (150 mg/1) + Succinic acid (50 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2008-08-012012-09-30US flag
Folcaps Care OneCalcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Biotin (300 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (24 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (100 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc (5 mg/1) + alpha-Linolenic acid (50 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (15 [iU]/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMayne Pharma2009-05-012016-12-31US flag
Folcaps Omega-3Calcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Calcium (150 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (24 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (170 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (40 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + alpha-Linolenic acid (30 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMayne Pharma2011-01-032016-12-31US flag
Se-Care ChewableCalcium threonate (50 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (50 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (250 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (6 ug/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3.5 [iU]/1) + Ferrous fumarate (40 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-05-012011-08-31US flag
Se-Care ConceiveCalcium threonate (30 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (30 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (200 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Ferrous fumarate (30 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (100 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-05-052011-04-15US flag
Se-Vate 21/7Calcium threonate (0.8 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (140 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (60 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (70 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (81 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Succinic acid (150 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-05-122011-05-30US flag
UltimateCare ONE NFCalcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Biotin (300 [iU]/1) + Calcium (100 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (24 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (15 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (100 mg/1) + Iodine (150 [iU]/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (5 mg/1) + alpha-Linolenic acid (50 mg/1)CapsuleOralTrigen Laboratories, Inc.2009-12-042014-02-11US flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
Sugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Short-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Monosaccharides / Fatty acids and conjugates / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid salts / Polyols / Organic calcium salts / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids
show 5 more
Substituents
Alcohol / Aliphatic acyclic compound / Beta-hydroxy acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid salt / Fatty acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / Hydroxy acid
show 11 more
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
HBB4YPO93U
CAS number
70753-61-6
InChI Key
ZJXGOFZGZFVRHK-BALCVSAKSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2C4H8O5.Ca/c2*5-1-2(6)3(7)4(8)9;/h2*2-3,5-7H,1H2,(H,8,9);/q;;+2/p-2/t2*2-,3+;/m00./s1
IUPAC Name
calcium bis((2R,3S)-2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoate)
SMILES
[Ca++].OC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C([O-])=O.OC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C([O-])=O

References

General References
  1. Wang HY, Hu P, Jiang J: Pharmacokinetics and safety of calcium L-threonate in healthy volunteers after single and multiple oral administrations. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011 Dec;32(12):1555-60. doi: 10.1038/aps.2011.138. Epub 2011 Oct 10. [Article]
  2. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA): Opinion on Calcium L-threonate for use as a source of calcium in food supplements [Link]
PubChem Compound
13388558
PubChem Substance
347827930
ChemSpider
9337769
RxNav
273888
MSDS
Download (196 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral
CapsuleOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
TabletOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
KitOral
EmulsionTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)>300MSDS
water solubilitySolubleAustralian Government Department of Health Therapeutic Goods Administration: Compositional guideline for Calcium L-threonate
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility86.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.7ALOGPS
logP-2.1ChemAxon
logS-0.56ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.82 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity37.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on June 12, 2020 16:53