Identification

Name
Iron
Accession Number
DB01592
Description

A metallic element found in certain minerals, in nearly all soils, and in mineral waters. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, cytochrome, and other components of respiratory enzyme systems. Its chief functions are in the transport of oxygen to tissue (hemoglobin) and in cellular oxidation mechanisms. Depletion of iron stores may result in iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is used to build up the blood in anemia.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 55.845
Monoisotopic: 55.934942133
Chemical Formula
Fe
Synonyms
  • Carbonyl iron
  • Eisen
  • Electrolytic iron
  • Fe
  • fer
  • Ferrum
  • Ferrum metallicum
  • Hierro
  • Iron powder
  • Iron, carbonyl
  • Iron, electrolytic
  • Iron, elemental
  • Iron, reduced
  • Reduced iron

Pharmacology

Indication

Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

The major activity of supplemental iron is in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Iron has putative immune-enhancing, anticarcinogenic and cognition-enhancing activities.

Mechanism of action

Iron is necessary for the production of hemoglobin. Iron-deficiency can lead to decreased production of hemoglobin and a microcytic, hypochromic anemia.

TargetActionsOrganism
UTransferrin receptor protein 1Not AvailableHumans
UEgl nine homolog 1Not AvailableHumans
UHistone deacetylase 8
cofactor
Humans
UAlpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing proteinNot AvailableHumans
UHemoglobin subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UFrataxin, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UFerritin heavy chainNot AvailableHumans
UFlap endonuclease 1Not AvailableHumans
UEndonuclease 8-like 1Not AvailableHumans
UEndonuclease 8-like 2Not AvailableHumans
UDNA polymerase betaNot AvailableHumans
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHumans
USerotransferrinNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

The efficiency of absorption depends on the salt form, the amount administered, the dosing regimen and the size of iron stores. Subjects with normal iron stores absorb 10% to 35% of an iron dose. Those who are iron deficient may absorb up to 95% of an iron dose.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Acute iron overdosage can be divided into four stages. In the first stage, which occurs up to six hours after ingestion, the principal symptoms are vomiting and diarrhea. Other symptoms include hypotension, tachycardia and CNS depression ranging from lethargy to coma. The second phase may occur at 6-24 hours after ingestion and is characterized by a temporary remission. In the third phase, gastrointestinal symptoms recur accompanied by shock, metabolic acidosis, coma, hepatic necrosis and jaundice, hypoglycemia, renal failure and pulmonary edema. The fourth phase may occur several weeks after ingestion and is characterized by gastrointestinal obstruction and liver damage. In a young child, 75 milligrams per kilogram is considered extremely dangerous. A dose of 30 milligrams per kilogram can lead to symptoms of toxicity. Estimates of a lethal dosage range from 180 milligrams per kilogram and upwards. A peak serum iron concentration of five micrograms or more per ml is associated with moderate to severe poisoning in many.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismMetabolic
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolic
Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolic
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolic
Lovastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Cerivastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
PhenylketonuriaDisease
HypercholesterolemiaDisease
Zellweger SyndromeDisease
Vitamin A DeficiencyDisease
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)Disease
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther DiseaseDisease
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X-Linked Dominant (CDPX2)Disease
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)Disease
Galactosemia IIIDisease
Mevalonic AciduriaDisease
Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation CDG-IIdDisease
Cystinosis, Ocular NonnephropathicDisease
The Oncogenic Action of FumarateDisease
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Inositol MetabolismMetabolic
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismMetabolic
Porphyrin MetabolismMetabolic
Pentose Phosphate PathwayMetabolic
Galactose MetabolismMetabolic
Pyrimidine MetabolismMetabolic
Simvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AlmasilateAlmasilate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Iron resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AluminiumAluminium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Iron resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminium phosphateAluminium phosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Iron resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Iron resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be decreased when Iron is combined with Benazepril.
Calcium PhosphateIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Calcium Phosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium phosphate dihydrateIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Calcium phosphate dihydrate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be decreased when Iron is combined with Captopril.
CarbidopaIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Carbidopa resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CefdinirIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cefdinir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. Many different products contain iron; refer to the product monograph for more specific instruction. Taking iron with food may reduce gastric irritation.

Products

Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Ferrous cationionicGW89581OWR15438-31-0CWYNVVGOOAEACU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Ed-In-Sol / Fe-40 / Feosol (GlaxoSmithkline) / Feostat / Fer-In-Sol / Feratab (Upsher-Smith) / Ferate / Fergon / Ferralet / Ferretts / Ferro sanol / Ferro-Caps / Ferro-Time / Ferrousal / Siderol / Simron / Slow Fe / Vitedyn-Slo / Yieronia
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
DexironSolutionIntramuscular; IntravenousAmerican Regent, Inc1996-09-06Not applicableCanada flag
InfuferLiquidIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-02-072016-12-01Canada flag
Iron ChewsTablet, chewable15 mg/1OralMayne Pharma2009-01-012016-12-31US flag
MonoferricSolution100 mgIntravenousPharmacosmos A/S2018-10-17Not applicableCanada flag
VenoferSolution20 mgIntravenousAmerican Regent, Inc2001-06-05Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
PMS-iron SucroseSolutionIntravenousPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Chelated Iron 25mg - CapletTabletOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1995-12-312002-07-18Canada flag
Chelated Iron Supplement - TabTabletOralAlbion1996-09-062002-09-30Canada flag
Chelated Iron Tab 25mgTabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1984-12-312008-07-17Canada flag
Fe-chelate TabTabletOralNutri West Products Ltd.1994-12-311997-08-05Canada flag
Fera Liq 16.7mg/15mlLiquidOralInno Vite Incorporated1987-12-312007-07-31Canada flag
IronCapsule40 mgOralSeroyal International Inc.1994-12-312008-10-09Canada flag
Iron Amino Chelate Tab 37mgTabletOralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312000-07-27Canada flag
Iron Chelate 25 mgTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-03-132006-08-08Canada flag
Iron Proteinate Chelate Tab 25mgTabletOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada flag
Iron Proteinate Tab 25mgTabletOralAlbi Naturals1979-12-312008-07-17Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ActyformIron (4.18 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + Magnesium (61.15 mg) + Zinc (9 mg)CapsuleOralTechnodiet S.E.N.C.1999-10-262008-08-13Canada flag
Advanced B & T FormulaIron (1.67 mg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic acid (0.133 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Calcium Et Magnesium Plus Vitamine D/fe/znIron (10 mg) + Calcium (400 mg) + Magnesium (167 mg) + Vitamin D (220 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1993-12-312008-07-29Canada flag
Chela Iron Plus C,b ComplexIron (50 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (100 mg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (30 mcg) + Folic acid (.4 mg) + Iodine (100 mcg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Nicotinamide (15 mg) + Pantothenic acid (15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Riboflavin (2 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (5 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1986-12-312000-03-03Canada flag
Chelamins Plus TabIron (15 mg) + Calcium (350 mg) + Chromium (50 mcg) + Copper (1.5 mg) + Iodine (.15 mg) + Magnesium (175 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Phosphorus (75 mg) + Potassium (47.5 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Vitamin D (200 unit) + Zinc (11.25 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1988-12-312000-03-03Canada flag
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsIron (4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (50 mg) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (160 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (3 mcg) + Folic acid (0.1 mg) + Nicotinamide (15 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (1.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-03-012001-07-18Canada flag
Children's Chewable Vit and Min TabIron (5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Beta carotene (5000 unit) + Biotin (10 mcg) + Calcium (65 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg) + Folic acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (5 mg) + Magnesium (25 mg) + Manganese (1 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Potassium (5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Riboflavin (5 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Vitamin E (25 unit) + Zinc (2 mg)TabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1990-12-312002-09-11Canada flag
Childrens Chewab Vitamin W Chel MineralsIron (5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg) + Biotin (50 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (25 unit) + Folic acid (10 mcg) + Iodine (1 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Pyridoxine (5 mg) + Riboflavin (5 mg) + Thiamine (5 mg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit)TabletOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada flag
CitraNatal 90 DHAIron (90 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (160 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium triiodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboprine (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2010-02-01Not applicableUS flag
CitraNatal DHAIron (27 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2007-11-20Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Active FEIron (75 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Folic acid (1250 ug/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUS flag
Active OBIron (20 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31US flag
BioFerr 90Iron (88.5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (138 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (16.8 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (55 mg/1) + Ferrous gluconate dihydrate (13.2 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.4 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralBiocomp Pharma, Inc.2014-07-01Not applicableUS flag
BumP DHAIron (15 mg/1) + Cobamamide (500 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (1 mg/1) + Flavin mononucleotide (2 mg/1) + Leucovorin (1 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (125 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (300 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (250 ug/1) + Pyridoxal phosphate (5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Zinc glycinate (15 1/1)CapsuleOralCenturion Labs2017-03-242017-04-17US flag
Cavan AlphaIron (27 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (220 ug/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (300 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-07-012013-09-30US flag
Cavan Heme OBIron (28 mg/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Niacin (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (175 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Sodium selenate (65 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1)TabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-08-032012-06-10US flag
Cavan OneIron (20 mg/1) + Calcium (150 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (25 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (170 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (40 mg/1) + Linoleic acid (30 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + alpha-Linolenic acid (30 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-10-302011-11-27US flag
CentratexIron (106 mg/1) + Cupric sulfate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium sulfate (6.9 mg/1) + Manganese sulfate (1.3 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (30 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (6 mg/1) + Sodium ascorbate (200 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (10 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (18.2 mg/1)CapsuleOralCenturion Labs, LLC2009-06-14Not applicableUS flag
CitraNatal 90 DHAIron (90 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (160 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium triiodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboprine (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2010-02-01Not applicableUS flag
CitraNatal 90 DHAIron (85 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (159 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Ferrous gluconate dihydrate (5 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (4.54 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-11Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
B03AE02 — Iron, multivitamins and folic acidA11AA01 — Multivitamins and ironB03AE01 — Iron, vitamin b12 and folic acidB03AE04 — Iron, multivitamins and mineralsB03AE03 — Iron and multivitamins
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
elemental iron (CHEBI:82664)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
E1UOL152H7
CAS number
7439-89-6
InChI Key
XEEYBQQBJWHFJM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Fe
IUPAC Name
iron
SMILES
[Fe]

References

Synthesis Reference

Walter Lugscheider, Paul Mullner, Wilhelm Schiffer, Alois Leutgob, "Arrangement for producing metals, such as molten pig iron, steel pre-material and ferroalloys." U.S. Patent US4617671, issued 0000.

US4617671
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015531
KEGG Compound
C00023
PubChem Compound
23925
PubChem Substance
46509190
ChemSpider
22368
RxNav
262150
ChEBI
18248
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001313
PharmGKB
PA450087
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Iron
AHFS Codes
  • 20:04.00 — Antianemia Drugs
  • 20:04.04 — Iron Preparations
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
FDA label
Download (100 KB)
MSDS
Download (75.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnemia1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnemia / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPregnancy1
4CompletedPreventionAnemia Ferropenic / Risk of Hemoconcentration (Iron Levels >130g/L)1
4CompletedPreventionAnemia / Child Behavior Disorders / Cognitive Manifestations / Iron Deficiency / Iron-Deficiency1
4CompletedPreventionIron Deficiency / Iron-Deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia2
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia / Complications, Pregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia / Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Centrix Pharmaceuticals
  • Contract Pharm
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Dayton Pharmaceuticals
  • Edwards Pharmaceuticals
  • Equipharm Inc.
  • Haupt Pharma
  • Lehigh Valley Technologies Inc.
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Midlothian Labs
  • Nature's Bounty
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Provident Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxmar Laboratories
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOral6.66 mg
SolutionOral600 mg
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
CapsuleOral
Tablet4000 IU
Capsule4000 IU
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
TabletOral4000 IU
SolutionIntravenous100 mg/5ml
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet350 mcg
SyrupOral1 g
SyrupOral40 mg/5mL
SolutionOral50 mg
LiquidOral
InjectionIntramuscular100 mg/2ml
Injection, solution500 mg/10mL
SyrupOral20 mg/5ml
CapsuleOral30 mg
TabletOral50 MG
SolutionIntramuscular400 mg
SuspensionOral30 mg
SuspensionOral5 mg
Syrup50 mg/5ml
Capsule60 mg
SyrupOral20 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral0.6 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg
SolutionIntravenous20 mg
ElixirOral195 mg
Tablet, coatedOral
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
CapsuleOral40 mg
TabletOral
Tablet, chewableOral15 mg/1
Syrup35.7 mg/1mL
Tablet, chewableOral350 mcg
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionOral
Powder, for solutionOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
LiquidOral15 mg/1mL
SyrupOral0.2 mg
SolutionOral40 mg/15ml
Capsule550 mcg
Tablet, coatedOral80 mg
Tablet, effervescent0.15 mg
SolutionIntravenous
CapsuleOral150 mg/1
TabletOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, film coatedOral80 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet50 mg
Tablet, chewableOral5000 IU
Tablet, film coatedOral
KitOral
SuspensionOral15 mg/1.25mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Iron chews 15 mg tablet chew0.29USD tablet
Ferrous sulfate 28 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6667050No2003-12-232019-04-06US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1538 °CNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9838
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9733
Caco-2 permeable+0.7354
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.885
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9787
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9858
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9108
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8466
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8259
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8158
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8807
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9373
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9708
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9553
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.988
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.882
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9633
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.664
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7326
Rat acute toxicity2.0135 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9547
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9746
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Cellular uptake of iron occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand-occupied transferrin receptor into specialized endosomes. Endosomal acidification leads to iron release. The apotransferri...
Gene Name
TFRC
Uniprot ID
P02786
Uniprot Name
Transferrin receptor protein 1
Molecular Weight
84870.665 Da
References
  1. Hemadi M, Ha-Duong NT, El Hage Chahine JM: The mechanism of iron release from the transferrin-receptor 1 adduct. J Mol Biol. 2006 May 12;358(4):1125-36. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16564538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN1
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 1
Molecular Weight
46020.585 Da
References
  1. Davidson TL, Chen H, Di Toro DM, D'Angelo G, Costa M: Soluble nickel inhibits HIF-prolyl-hydroxylases creating persistent hypoxic signaling in A549 cells. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jul;45(7):479-89. [PubMed:16649251]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC8
Uniprot ID
Q9BY41
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 8
Molecular Weight
41757.29 Da
References
  1. Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA: Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6170-8. [PubMed:16681389]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acts as a chaperone to prevent the harmful aggregation of alpha-hemoglobin during normal erythroid cell development. Specifically protects free alpha-hemoglobin from precipitation. It is predicted to modulate pathological states of alpha-hemoglobin excess such as beta-thalassemia.
Specific Function
Hemoglobin binding
Gene Name
AHSP
Uniprot ID
Q9NZD4
Uniprot Name
Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein
Molecular Weight
11840.325 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16901899]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16901899]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1.
Specific Function
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
Gene Name
FXN
Uniprot ID
Q16595
Uniprot Name
Frataxin, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23134.895 Da
References
  1. Bencze KZ, Kondapalli KC, Cook JD, McMahon S, Millan-Pacheco C, Pastor N, Stemmler TL: The structure and function of frataxin. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;41(5):269-91. [PubMed:16911956]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Has ferroxidase activity. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after ...
Gene Name
FTH1
Uniprot ID
P02794
Uniprot Name
Ferritin heavy chain
Molecular Weight
21225.47 Da
References
  1. Toussaint L, Bertrand L, Hue L, Crichton RR, Declercq JP: High-resolution X-ray structures of human apoferritin H-chain mutants correlated with their activity and metal-binding sites. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jan 12;365(2):440-52. Epub 2006 Oct 7. [PubMed:17070541]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structure-specific nuclease with 5'-flap endonuclease and 5'-3' exonuclease activities involved in DNA replication and repair. During DNA replication, cleaves the 5'-overhanging flap structure that is generated by displacement synthesis when DNA polymerase encounters the 5'-end of a downstream Okazaki fragment. It enters the flap from the 5'-end and then tracks to cleave the flap base, leaving a nick for ligation. Also involved in the long patch base excision repair (LP-BER) pathway, by cleaving within the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site-terminated flap. Acts as a genome stabilization factor that prevents flaps from equilibrating into structurs that lead to duplications and deletions. Also possesses 5'-3' exonuclease activity on nicked or gapped double-stranded DNA, and exhibits RNase H activity. Also involved in replication and repair of rDNA and in repairing mitochondrial DNA.
Specific Function
5'-3' exonuclease activity
Gene Name
FEN1
Uniprot ID
P39748
Uniprot Name
Flap endonuclease 1
Molecular Weight
42592.635 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NEIL1
Uniprot ID
Q96FI4
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 1
Molecular Weight
43683.625 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Has DNA glycosylase activity towards 5-hydroxyuracil and other oxidized derivatives of cytosine with a preferenc...
Gene Name
NEIL2
Uniprot ID
Q969S2
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 2
Molecular Weight
36826.285 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Microtubule binding
Specific Function
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5' sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that...
Gene Name
POLB
Uniprot ID
P06746
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase beta
Molecular Weight
38177.34 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [PubMed:21049900]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [PubMed:21049900]

Drug created on August 29, 2007 10:01 / Updated on October 27, 2020 11:13

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