Identification

Name
Alprostadil
Accession Number
DB00770
Description

Alprostadil is produced endogenously and causes vasodilation by means of a direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus (DA) smooth muscle, preventing or reversing the functional closure of the DA that occurs shortly after birth. This results in increased pulmonary or systemic blood flow in infants. In infants, it is used for palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. In adults, it is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 354.487
Monoisotopic: 354.240624195
Chemical Formula
C20H34O5
Synonyms
  • (11α,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid
  • (13E)-(15S)-11alpha,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-enoate
  • 11α,15α-dihydroxy-9-oxo-13-trans-prostenoic acid
  • Alprostadil
  • Alprostadilum
  • PGE-1
  • PGE1
  • Prostaglandin E1
External IDs
  • ONO-1608
  • U 10136
  • U-10,136
  • U-10136

Pharmacology

Indication

For palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. Also for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) is produced endogenously to relax vascular smooth muscle and cause vasodilation. In adult males, the vasodilatory effects of alprostadil on the cavernosal arteries and the trabecular smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa result in rapid arteriolar inflow and expansion of the lacunar spaces within the corpora. As the expanded corporal sinusoids are compressed against the tunica albuginea, venous outflow through the subtunical vessels is impeded and penile rigidity develops. This is referred to as the corporal veno-occlusive mechanism. In infants, the vasodilatory effects of alprostadil increase pulmonary or systemic blood flow.

Mechanism of action

Alprostadil causes vasodilation by means of a direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus (DA) smooth muscle, preventing or reversing the functional closure of the DA that occurs shortly after birth. This is because, as a form of prostaglandinE1 (PGE1) it has multiple effects on blood flow. This results in increased pulmonary or systemic blood flow in infants. In cyanotic congenital heart disease, alprostadil's actions result in an increased oxygen supply to the tissues. In infants with interrupted aortic arch or very severe aortic coarctation, alprostadil maintains distal aortic perfusion by permitting blood flow through the DA from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. In infants with aortic coarctation, alprostadil reduces aortic obstruction either by relaxing ductus tissue in the aortic wall or by increasing effective aortic diameter by dilating the DA. In infants with these aortic arch anomalies, systemic blood flow to the lower body is increased, improving tissue oxygen supply and renal perfusion. When administered by intracavernosal injection or as an intraurethral suppository, alprostadil acts locally to relax the trabecular smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa and the cavernosal arteries. Swelling, elongation, and rigidity of the penis result when arterial blood rapidly flows into the corpus cavernosum to expand the lacunar spaces. The entrapped blood reduces the venous blood outflow as sinusoids compress against the tunica albuginea.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype
agonist
Humans
AProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
agonist
Humans
UProstaglandin D2 receptor 2
agonist
Humans
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of alprostadil has not been determined.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Bound in plasma primarily to albumin (81% bound) and to a lesser extent alpha-globulin IV-4 fraction (55% bound).

Metabolism

Alprostadil must be infused continuously because it is very rapidly metabolized. As much as 80% of the circulating alprostadil may be metabolized in one pass through the lungs, primarily by beta- and omega-oxidation.

Route of elimination

Alprostadil must be infused continuously because it is very rapidly metabolized. As much as 80% of the circulating alprostadil may be metabolized in one pass through the lungs, primarily by β- and ω-oxidation. The metabolites are excreted primarily by the kidney, and excretion is essentially complete within 24 hours after administration.

Half-life

5 to 10 minutes (after a single dose), in healthy adults and neonates.

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 186 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 228 mg/kg. Apnea, bradycardia, pyrexia, hypotension, and flushing may be signs of drug overdosage.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetazolamideThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AcyclovirThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
Adefovir dipivoxilThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Adefovir dipivoxil.
Aminohippuric acidThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Aminohippuric acid.
AminophenazoneThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Aminophenazone.
AmoxicillinThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Amoxicillin.
AntipyrineThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Antipyrine.
ApalutamideThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Apalutamide.
AtalurenThe excretion of Alprostadil can be decreased when combined with Ataluren.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

International/Other Brands
Alista / Alprostan (Zentiva) / Alprostapint (Closter) / Alprostar (Recordati) / Alprostin (Pfizer) / Alprox-TD / Altesil (Taiyo Pharmaceutical) / Alyprost (Fuji Yakuhin) / Apistandin (Fuji Yakuhin) / Aplicav (Libbs) / Befar (Nexmed) / Bolesi (Yaoyou Pharmaceutical) / Bondil (Meda) / Cardiobron (Fada) / Caverject DC (Pfizer) / Caverject Dual (Pfizer) / Eglandin (Welfide) / Femprox / Kai Tong (Jilin Yuhua Pharmaceutical Co.) / Kaishi (Tide Pharmaceutical) / Karon (Zentiva) / Liple (Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma) / Minprog (Pfizer) / Palux (Taisho Yakuhin) / Pridax (Gebro) / Prink (Taiyo Pharmaceutical) / Prolisina VR (Pfizer) / Prostandin (Ono Yakuhin) / Prostavasin (Schwarz) / Prostin VR (Pfizer) / Prostivas (Pfizer) / Sugiran (Esteve) / Tandetron (Takata Seiyaku) / Topiglan / Vasaprostan (Bayer) / Vasoprost (UCB) / Vasostenoon (Kevelt) / Viridal (UCB)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Alprostadil Injection USPSolutionIntravascularAdvanced Dosage Forms Inc.2009-01-06Not applicableCanada flag
Alprostadil Injection, USPLiquidIntra-arterial; IntravenousNovopharm Limited2000-10-262018-05-18Canada flag
CaverjectInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10.5 ug/1mLIntracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company1995-07-062009-08-25US flag
CaverjectInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution41.1 ug/1mLIntracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1995-07-06Not applicableUS flag
CaverjectInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution5.4 ug/1mLIntracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company1995-07-062009-08-25US flag
CaverjectInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20.5 ug/1mLIntracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1995-07-06Not applicableUS flag
Caverject ImpulseInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10 ug/0.5mLIntracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC2002-06-11Not applicableUS flag
Caverject ImpulseInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20 ug/0.5mLIntracavernousU.S. Pharmaceuticals2014-05-04Not applicableUS flag
Caverject ImpulseInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution10 ug/0.5mLIntracavernousU.S. Pharmaceuticals2014-05-04Not applicableUS flag
Caverject ImpulseInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution20 ug/0.5mLIntracavernousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC2002-06-11Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AlprostadilInjection500 ug/1mLIntravascular; IntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2005-03-042009-07-31US flag
AlprostadilInjection, solution, concentrate500 ug/1mLIntravascularTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1999-04-30Not applicableUS flag
AlprostadilInjection500 ug/1mLIntravascular; IntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2005-03-042009-05-31US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Caverject Sterile Powder - Kit 11.9mcg /vialAlprostadil (11.9 mcg) + Water (99.1 %)Kit; Liquid; Powder, for solutionIntracavernousPfizer Canada Ulc1996-07-302006-08-02Canada flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C01EA01 — AlprostadilG04BE01 — Alprostadil
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
F5TD010360
CAS number
745-65-3
InChI Key
GMVPRGQOIOIIMI-DWKJAMRDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H34O5/c1-2-3-6-9-15(21)12-13-17-16(18(22)14-19(17)23)10-7-4-5-8-11-20(24)25/h12-13,15-17,19,21,23H,2-11,14H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b13-12+/t15-,16+,17+,19+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
7-[(1R,2R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-5-oxocyclopentyl]heptanoic acid
SMILES

References

General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001442
KEGG Drug
D00180
KEGG Compound
C04741
PubChem Compound
149351
PubChem Substance
46508029
ChemSpider
4444306
BindingDB
50101853
RxNav
598
ChEBI
15544
ChEMBL
CHEMBL495
ZINC
ZINC000003813088
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001490
PharmGKB
PA448334
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
XPG
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Alprostadil
AHFS Codes
  • 24:12.92 — Miscellaneous Vasodilatating Agents
PDB Entries
3whx
FDA label
Download (283 KB)
MSDS
Download (74.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Slow Flow Phenomenon / ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4CompletedTreatmentNephropathy, Diabetic1
4CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Obliterative Arteriopathy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChildren AKI Patients1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCritical Limb Ischemia (CLI)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Diabetes Mellitus / Impaired kidney function / Kidney Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Renal Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentComplications / Head and Neck / Microsurgery / Prostaglandin E1 / Thrombotic events1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentStroke1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Pfizer inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Schwarz pharma ag
  • Vivus inc
Packagers
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Nutrimol De Mexico Sa De Cv
  • Paladin Laboratories Usa Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
  • Sicor Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Vetter Pharma Fertigung GmbH and Co. KG
  • Vivus
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous20 Mikrogramm/ml
SolutionIntravenous20 mcg/ml
SolutionIntravenous500 mcg/ml
InjectionIntravascular; Intravenous500 ug/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravascular500 ug/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateParenteral20 Mikrogramm
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous500 Mikrogramm
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral20 Mikrogramm
SolutionIntravascular
LiquidIntra-arterial; Intravenous
Solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mcg
SolutionIntravenous500 mcg
Powder, for solutionIntra-arterial; Parenteral60 MICROGRAMMI
Powder, for solutionIntravenous; Parenteral20 MICROGRAMMI
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mcg/ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous500 mcg/ml
Injection, powder, for solutionIntracavernous10 MCG/ML
Injection, powder, for solutionIntracavernous10 MCG
Injection, powder, for solutionIntracavernous20 MCG/ML
Injection, powder, for solutionIntracavernous20 MCG
Injection, powder, for solutionIntracavernous5 MCG/ML
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous10.5 ug/1mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous20.5 ug/1mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous41.1 ug/1mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous5.4 ug/1mL
Injection, solution10 MICROGRAMMI/ML
Injection, solution20 MICROGRAMMI/ML
Injection, solution5 MICROGRAMMI/ML
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous20 cg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous10 ug/0.5mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous20 ug/0.5mL
Kit; liquid; powder, for solutionIntracavernous
Kit; liquid; powder, for solutionIntracavernous
Powder, for solutionIntracavernous
InjectionIntravenous20 mcg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous10 ug/1mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous20 ug/1mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntracavernous40 ug/1mL
Injection10 mcg
Injection20 mcg
SuppositoryUrethral1000 ug/1
SuppositoryUrethral1000 mcg
SuppositoryUrethral125 ug/1
SuppositoryUrethral125 mcg
SuppositoryUrethral250 ug/1
SuppositoryUrethral250 mcg
SuppositoryUrethral500 ug/1
SuppositoryUrethral500 mcg
StickUrethral1000 Mikrogramm
StickUrethral125 Mikrogramm
StickUrethral250 Mikrogramm
StickUrethral500 Mikrogramm
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous20 mcg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous500 mcg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravascular; Intravenous500 ug/1mL
SolutionIntravenous0.5 mg
SolutionIntra-arterial; Intravenous
Cream3 mg/g
CreamTopical
CreamTopical2 mg/g
CreamTopical3 mg/g
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Alprostadil powder5049.0USD g
Edex Cartridge 6 Pack 40 mcg Kit Box412.4USD box
Caverject 6 40 mcg Solution Box341.78USD box
Edex 6 Pack 20 mcg Kit Box301.0USD box
Caverject 6 20 mcg Solution, 1 Box Contains 6 Vials Box272.05USD box
Prostin Vr 500 mcg/ml266.72USD ml
Edex Cartridge 6 Pack 10 mcg Kit Box233.65USD box
Edex Cartridge 2 Pack 40 mcg Kit Box135.23USD box
Edex 40 mcg cartridge kit132.18USD kit
Prostin vr 500 mcg/ml ampul108.0USD ml
Edex 2 Pack 20 mcg Kit Box97.47USD box
Edex 20 mcg cartridge kit96.47USD kit
Edex Cartridge 2 Pack 10 mcg Kit Box77.22USD box
Edex 10 mcg cartridge kit74.88USD kit
Alprostadil 500 mcg/ml vial66.0USD ml
Caverject Impulse 1 Box = 2 Blister Trays, 20 mcg47.77USD box
Caverject impulse 20 mcg kit46.66USD each
Caverject Impulse 1 Box = 2 Blister Trays, 10 mcg37.51USD box
Muse 1000 mcg Pellets36.97USD pellet
Caverject impulse 10 mcg kit36.23USD each
Muse 1000 mcg urethral suppository35.54USD suppository
Muse 500 mcg Pellets34.23USD pellet
Muse 500 mcg urethral suppository32.92USD suppository
Muse 250 mcg Pellets31.99USD pellet
Muse 250 mcg urethral suppository30.76USD suppository
Muse 125 mcg Pellets30.56USD pellet
Muse 125 mcg urethral suppository29.39USD suppository
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5773020No1998-06-302010-04-25US flag
CA1335346No1995-04-252012-04-25Canada flag
US5886039No1999-03-232016-03-23US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)115-116 °CNot Available
water solubility26.7 mg/LNot Available
logP3.20AVDEEF,A ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.85 (at 25 °C)AVDEEF,A ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0788 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.04ALOGPS
logP3.59ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity98.32 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.13 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9815
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8704
Caco-2 permeable+0.5245
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5554
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9202
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8983
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9064
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8211
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8834
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5292
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9502
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9725
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9387
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9201
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6056
Rat acute toxicity2.9631 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9087
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9138
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. The subsequent raise in intracellular cAMP is responsible for the ...
Gene Name
PTGER2
Uniprot ID
P43116
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype
Molecular Weight
39759.945 Da
References
  1. Dijkstra BG, Schneemann A, Hoyng PF: Flow after prostaglandin E1 is mediated by receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase in human anterior segments. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Oct;40(11):2622-6. [PubMed:10509658]
  2. Takahashi HK, Iwagaki H, Tamura R, Katsuno G, Xue D, Sugita S, Mori S, Yoshino T, Tanaka N, Nishibori M: Differential effect of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 11;512(2-3):223-30. [PubMed:15840408]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May play a role as an importa...
Gene Name
PTGER1
Uniprot ID
P34995
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
Molecular Weight
41800.655 Da
References
  1. Norel X, de Montpreville V, Brink C: Vasoconstriction induced by activation of EP1 and EP3 receptors in human lung: effects of ONO-AE-248, ONO-DI-004, ONO-8711 or ONO-8713. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2004 Oct;74(1-4):101-12. [PubMed:15560119]
  2. Takahashi HK, Iwagaki H, Tamura R, Xue D, Sano M, Mori S, Yoshino T, Tanaka N, Nishibori M: Unique regulation profile of prostaglandin e1 on adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):1188-95. Epub 2003 Oct 15. [PubMed:14561849]
  3. Ito Y, Murai Y, Ishibashi H, Onoue H, Akaike N: The prostaglandin E series modulates high-voltage-activated calcium channels probably through the EP3 receptor in rat paratracheal ganglia. Neuropharmacology. 2000 Jan 4;39(2):181-90. [PubMed:10670413]
  4. Matlhagela K, Taub M: Involvement of EP1 and EP2 receptors in the regulation of the Na,K-ATPase by prostaglandins in MDCK cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2006 Mar;79(1-2):101-13. Epub 2006 Jan 27. [PubMed:16516814]
  5. Tokuda H, Kozawa O, Miwa M, Uematsu T: p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase but not p44/p42 MAP kinase is involved in prostaglandin E1-induced vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis in osteoblasts. J Endocrinol. 2001 Sep;170(3):629-38. [PubMed:11524243]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Prostaglandin j receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Coupled to the G(i)-protein. Receptor activation may result in pertussis toxin-sensitive decreases in cAMP levels and Ca(2+) mobilization. PI3K signaling is al...
Gene Name
PTGDR2
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y4
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin D2 receptor 2
Molecular Weight
43267.15 Da
References
  1. Wright DH, Metters KM, Abramovitz M, Ford-Hutchinson AW: Characterization of the recombinant human prostanoid DP receptor and identification of L-644,698, a novel selective DP agonist. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(7):1317-24. [PubMed:9579725]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name
ABCC5
Uniprot ID
O15440
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5
Molecular Weight
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Nishio T, Adachi H, Nakagomi R, Tokui T, Sato E, Tanemoto M, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Nakai D, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Kondo Y, Unno M, Ito S, Iinuma K, Nunoki K, Matsuno S, Abe T: Molecular identification of a rat novel organic anion transporter moat1, which transports prostaglandin D(2), leukotriene C(4), and taurocholate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Sep 7;275(3):831-8. [PubMed:10973807]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as estrone-3-sulfate (PubMed:10873595). Mediates transport of prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, thyroxine (T4), deltorphin II, BQ-123 an...
Gene Name
SLCO3A1
Uniprot ID
Q9UIG8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1
Molecular Weight
76552.135 Da
References
  1. Adachi H, Suzuki T, Abe M, Asano N, Mizutamari H, Tanemoto M, Nishio T, Onogawa T, Toyohara T, Kasai S, Satoh F, Suzuki M, Tokui T, Unno M, Shimosegawa T, Matsuno S, Ito S, Abe T: Molecular characterization of human and rat organic anion transporter OATP-D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):F1188-97. [PubMed:14631946]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, a...
Gene Name
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID
Q92959
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1
Molecular Weight
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Schuster VL: Cloning, in vitro expression, and tissue distribution of a human prostaglandin transporter cDNA(hPGT). J Clin Invest. 1996 Sep 1;98(5):1142-9. [PubMed:8787677]
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Satriano JA, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Identification and characterization of a prostaglandin transporter. Science. 1995 May 12;268(5212):866-9. [PubMed:7754369]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Curator comments
The inhibitor and substrate activity was demonstrated in vitro using human OAT expressed on s2 cells and rat OAT expressed on Xenopus Laevis.
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. VanWert AL, Gionfriddo MR, Sweet DH: Organic anion transporters: discovery, pharmacology, regulation and roles in pathophysiology. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2010 Jan;31(1):1-71. doi: 10.1002/bdd.693. [PubMed:19953504]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2020 01:55

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