Identification

Summary

Sulfasalazine is a salicylate used to treat Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Brand Names
Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Salazopyrin En-tabs
Generic Name
Sulfasalazine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00795
Background

Sulfasalazine is an anti-inflammatory drug structurally related to salicylates and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is indicated for managing inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).16,10 Metabolized by intestinal bacteria, sulfasalazine is broken down into mesalazine and sulfapyridine, 2 compounds that carry out the main pharmacological activity of sulfasalazine.10

Sulfasalazine was first used in 1940 for rheumatic polyarthritis, and has been firmly established itself as one fo the most useful disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD).10 Compared to the first line treatment of RA like methotrexate, sulfasalazine is almost as efficacious as methotrexate although with slightly less tolerability. However, sulfasalazine has less teratogenic side effects and faster onset of action compared to conventional DMARD.10 Sulfasalazine fell out of favor as the drug of choice for RA due to poorly designed clinical trials in 1950 but regained interest from the clinical community in the late 1970.10

Although sulfasalazine is only approved by the FDA for ulcerative colitis, research have shown that sulfasalazine is also beneficial for patients with Crohn's disease.11 Meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials indicated that sulfasalazine is superior to placebo in inducing remission; however, with no supported evidence of mucosal healing, sulfasalazine is not FDA-recommmended for treatment of Crohn's disease.12,13,14

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Weight
Average: 398.393
Monoisotopic: 398.068490268
Chemical Formula
C18H14N4O5S
Synonyms
  • 2-Hydroxy-5-((4-((2-pyridinylamino)sulfonyl)phenyl)azo)benzoic acid
  • 2-Hydroxy-5-[4-(pyridin-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenylazo]-benzoic acid
  • 4-(Pyridyl-2-amidosulfonyl)-3'-carboxy-4'-hydroxyazobenzene
  • 5-((p-(2-Pyridylsulfamoyl)phenyl)azo)salicylic acid
  • 5-(4-(2-Pyridylsulfamoyl)phenylazo)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid
  • 5-(p-(2-Pyridylsulfamyl)phenylazo)salicylic acid
  • Azopyrin
  • Salazosulfapiridina
  • Salazosulfapyridine
  • Salazosulfapyridinum
  • Salicylazosulfapyridine
  • Sulfasalazin
  • Sulfasalazina
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Sulfasalazinum
External IDs
  • NSC-203730
  • NSC-667219
  • SSZ

Pharmacology

Indication

In the US, sulfasalazine is indicated to treat mild to moderate ulcerative colitis and to prolong the remission period between acute attacks of ulcerative colitis.16 Sulfasalazine is also indicated as an adjunct therapy in severe ulcerative colitis.16For the delayed-release tablet formulation, sulfasalazine is also indicated to treat rheumatoid arthritis in pediatric patients who have responded inadequately to salicylates or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with the same patients' characteristics.16

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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

The mode of action of sulfasalazine or its metabolites, 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulfapyridine, is still under investigation but may be related to the anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory properties that have been observed in animal and in vitro models, to its affinity for connective tissue, and/or to the relatively high concentration it reaches in serous fluids, the liver, and intestinal walls, as demonstrated in autoradiographic studies in animals. In ulcerative colitis, clinical studies utilizing rectal administration of sulfasalazine, sulfapyridine, and 5-aminosalicylic acid have indicated that the major therapeutic action may reside in the 5-aminosalicylic acid moiety. The relative contribution of the parent drug and the major metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis is unknown.16

Mechanism of action

Although the exact mechanism of action of sulfasalazine is not fully understood, it is thought to be mediated through the inhibition of various inflammatory molecules.19 Research have found that sulfasalazine and its metabolites, mesalazine and sulfapyridine, can inhibit leukotrienes and prostaglandins by blocking the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathway.1 Specific enzymes that were investigated include phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.6,3,4,5 Inhibitory activities on other non-arachidonic acid derivatives have also been observed, including PPAR gamma, NF-Kb, and IkappaB kinases alpha and beta.2,7,8,9

TargetActionsOrganism
AArachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
inhibitor
Humans
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Humans
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inhibitor
Humans
AAcetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
APhospholipase A2
antagonist
Humans
UCystine/glutamate transporter
inhibitor
Humans
UNuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
inhibitor
Humans
UNuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit
inhibitor
Humans
AInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta
inhibitor
Humans
UInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Following oral administration of 1 g of sulfasalazine to 9 healthy males, less than 15% of a dose of sulfasalazine is absorbed as the parent drug. Detectable serum concentrations of sulfasalazine have been found in healthy subjects within 90 minutes after ingestion. Maximum concentrations of sulfasalazine occur between 3 and 12 hours post-ingestion, with the mean peak concentration (6 μg/mL) occurring at 6 hours.16

Volume of distribution

Following intravenous injection, the calculated volume of distribution for sulfasalazine was 7.5 ± 1.6 L.16

Protein binding

Sulfasalazine is highly bound to albumin (>99.3%) while sulfapyridine is only about 70% bound to albumin. Acetylsulfapyridine, the principal metabolite of sulfapyridine, is approximately 90% bound to plasma proteins.16

Metabolism

In the intestine, sulfasalazine is metabolized by intestinal bacteria to sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Of the two species, sulfapyridine is relatively well absorbed from the intestine and highly metabolized, while 5-aminosalicylic acid is much less well absorbed.16Approximately 15% of a dose of sulfasalazine is absorbed as the parent drug and is metabolized to some extent in the liver to the same two species.16Sulfapyridine can also be metabolized to 5-hydroxysulfapyridine and N-acetyl-5-hydroxy sulfapyridine. 5-aminosalicylic acid is primarily metabolized in both the liver and intestine to N-acetyl-5 aminosalicylic acid via a non-acetylation phenotype-dependent route.16

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Route of elimination

Absorbed sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid and their metabolites are primarily eliminated in the urine either as free metabolites or as glucuronide conjugates. The majority of 5-ASA stays within the colonic lumen and is excreted as 5-aminosalicylic acid and acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in the feces.16

Half-life

The observed plasma half-life for intravenous sulfasalazine is 7.6 ± 3.4 hours.16In fast acetylators, the mean plasma half-life of sulfapyridine is 10.4 hours while in slow acetylators, it is 14.8 hours.16Due to low plasma levels produced by 5-aminosalicylic acid after oral administration, reliable estimates of plasma half-life are not possible.16

Clearance

The calculated clearance of sulfasalazine following intravenous administration was 1 L/hr. Renal clearance was estimated to account for 37% of total clearance.16

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Two-year oral carcinogenicity studies were conducted in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Sulfasalazine was tested at 84 (496 mg/m2), 168 (991 mg/m2), and 337.5 (1991 mg/m2) mg/kg/day doses in rats. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of urinary bladder transitional cell papillomas was observed in male rats. In female rats, two (4%) of the 337.5 mg/kg rats had transitional cell papilloma of the kidney. The increased incidence of neoplasms in the urinary bladder and kidney of rats was also associated with an increase in renal calculi formation and hyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium. For the mouse study, sulfasalazine was tested at 675 (2025 mg/m2), 1350 (4050 mg/m2), and 2700 (8100 mg/m2) mg/kg/day. The incidence of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma in male and female mice was significantly greater than the control at all doses tested.16

Sulfasalazine did not show mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and in L51784 mouse lymphoma cell assay at the HGPRT gene. However, sulfasalazine showed an equivocal mutagenic response in the micronucleus assay of mouse and rat bone marrow and mouse peripheral RBC and in the sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberration, and micronucleus assays in lymphocytes obtained from humans.16

Impairment of male fertility was observed in reproductive studies performed in rats at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day (4800 mg/m2). Oligospermia and infertility have been described in men treated with sulfasalazine. Withdrawal of the drug appears to reverse these effects.16

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of sulfasalazine in pregnant women. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 6 times the human maintenance dose of 2 g/day based on body surface area and have revealed no evidence of impaired female fertility or harm to the fetus due to sulfasalazine. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.16

There have been case reports of neural tube defects (NTDs) in infants born to mothers who were exposed to sulfasalazine during pregnancy, but the role of sulfasalazine in these defects has not been established. However, oral sulfasalazine inhibits the absorption and metabolism of folic acid which may interfere with folic acid supplementation (see Drug Interactions) and diminish the effect of periconceptional folic acid supplementation that has been shown to decrease the risk of NTDs.16

A national survey evaluated the outcome of pregnancies associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In a group of 186 women treated with sulfasalazine alone or sulfasalazine and concomitant steroid therapy, the incidence of fetal morbidity and mortality was comparable to that for 245 untreated IBD pregnancies as well as to pregnancies in the general population. A study of 1,455 pregnancies associated with exposure to sulfonamides indicated that this group of drugs, including sulfasalazine, did not appear to be associated with fetal malformation. A review of the medical literature covering 1,155 pregnancies in women with ulcerative colitis suggested that the outcome was similar to that expected in the general population.16

No clinical studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of sulfasalazine on the growth development and functional maturation of children whose mothers received the drug during pregnancy.16

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*14ANot AvailableG > A | T > A | C > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*14BNot AvailableG > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*15Not AvailableC > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*17Not AvailableC > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*19ANot AvailableC > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*19BNot AvailableC > T | C > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1NAT1*22Not AvailableA > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5ANot AvailableT > C | C > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5BNot AvailableT > C | C > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5CNot AvailableT > C | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5DNot AvailableT > CADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5ENot AvailableT > C | G > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5FNot AvailableT > C | C > T | C > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5GNot AvailableT > C | C > T | C > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5HNot AvailableT > C | C > T | A > G | S287 FrameshiftADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5INot AvailableT > C | C > T | A > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*5JNot AvailableT > C | C > T | G > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*6ANot AvailableG > A | C > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*6BNot AvailableG > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*6CNot AvailableG > A | C > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*6DNot AvailableG > A | C > T | T > CADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*6ENot AvailableG > A | C > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*7ANot AvailableG > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*7BNot AvailableG > A | C > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*10Not AvailableG > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*12DNot AvailableG > A | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14ANot AvailableG > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14BNot AvailableG > A | C > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14CNot AvailableG > A | T > C | C > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14DNot AvailableG > A | C > T | G > AADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14ENot AvailableG > A | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14FNot AvailableG > A | T > C | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*14GNot AvailableG > A | C > T | A > GADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*17Not AvailableA > CADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2NAT2*19Not AvailableC > TADR InferredIncreased risk of Sulfapyridine dose related adverse effects, including skin rash.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseVilleurbanneNot Available1000_1002delACCADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTorunNot Available1006A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSunderlandNot Available105_107delCATADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseIwatsukiNot Available1081G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSerresNot Available1082C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTondelaNot Available1084_1101delCTGAACGAGCGCAAGGCCADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLoma LindaNot Available1089C->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAachenNot Available1089C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTenriNot Available1096A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMontpellierNot Available1132G>AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCalvo MackennaNot Available1138A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseRileyNot Available1139T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseOlomoucNot Available1141T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTomahNot Available1153T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLynwoodNot Available1154G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMadridNot Available1155C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseIowa, Walter Reed, SpringfieldNot Available1156A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBeverly Hills, Genova, Iwate, Niigata, YamaguchiNot Available1160G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHartfordNot Available1162A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePrahaNot Available1166A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKrakowNot Available1175T>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseWisconsinNot Available1177C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNashville, Anaheim, PorticiNot Available1178G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAlhambraNot Available1180G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBariNot Available1187C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePuerto LimonNot Available1192G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCovao do LoboNot Available1205C>AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseClinicNot Available1215G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseUtrechtNot Available1225C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSuwalkiNot Available1226C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseRiversideNot Available1228G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseJapan, ShinagawaNot Available1229G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKawasakiNot Available1229G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMunichNot Available1231A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseGeorgiaNot Available1284C->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSumareNot Available1292T->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTelti/KobeNot Available1318C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSantiago de Cuba, MoriokaNot Available1339G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHarimaNot Available1358T->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseFiguera da FozNot Available1366G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAmiensNot Available1367A>TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBangkok NoiNot Available1376G->T, 1502T->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseFukayaNot Available1462G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCampinasNot Available1463G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBuenos AiresNot Available1465C>TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseArakawaNot Available1466C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBrightonNot Available1488_1490delGAAADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKozukataNot Available159G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAmsterdamNot Available180_182delTCTADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNo nameNot Available202G->A, 376A->G, 1264C>GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSwanseaNot Available224T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseUrayasuNot Available281_283delAGAADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseVancouverNot Available317C->G544C->T592C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMt SinaiNot Available376A->G, 1159C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePlymouthNot Available488G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseVolendamNot Available514C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseShinshuNot Available527A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseChikugoNot Available535A->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTsukuiNot Available561_563delCTCADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePedoplis-CkaroNot Available573C>GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSantiagoNot Available593G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMinnesota, Marion, Gastonia, LeJeuneNot Available637G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCincinnatiNot Available637G->T, 1037A->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHarilaouNot Available648T->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNorth DallasNot Available683_685delACAADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAsahikawaNot Available695G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseDurhamNot Available713A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseStonybrookNot Available724_729delGGCACTADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseWayneNot Available769C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAveiroNot Available806G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCleveland CorumNot Available820G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLilleNot Available821A>TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBangkokNot Available825G>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSugaoNot Available826C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLa JollaNot Available832T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseWexhamNot Available833C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePiotrkowNot Available851T>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseWest VirginiaNot Available910G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseOmiyaNot Available921G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNaraNot Available953_976delCCACCAAAGGGTACCTGGAC GACCADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseManhattanNot Available962G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseRehevotNot Available964T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHoniaraNot Available99A->G / 1360C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTokyo, FukushimaNot Available1246G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseChathamNot Available1003G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseFushanNot Available1004C->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePartenopeNot Available1052G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseIerapetraNot Available1057C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAnadiaNot Available1193A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAbenoNot Available1220A->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSurabayaNot Available1291G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePawneeNot Available1316G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseS. AntiocoNot Available1342A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCassanoNot Available1347G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHermoupolisNot Available1347G->C / 1360C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseUnion,Maewo, Chinese-2, KaloNot Available1360C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAndalusNot Available1361G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCosenzaNot Available1376G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCanton, Taiwan- Hakka, Gifu-like, Agrigento-likeNot Available1376G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseFloresNot Available1387C->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKaiping, Anant, Dhon, Sapporo-like, WoseraNot Available1388G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKamogawaNot Available169C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCostanzoNot Available179T>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAmazoniaNot Available185C->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSongklanagarindNot Available196T->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHechiNot Available202G->A / 871G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNamouruNot Available208T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBao LocNot Available352T>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCrispimNot Available375G->T, 379G->T383T->C384C>TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAcrokorinthosNot Available376A->G / 463C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSanta MariaNot Available376A->G / 542A->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAnanindeuaNot Available376A->G / 871G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseVanua LavaNot Available383T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseValladolidNot Available406C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBelemNot Available409C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLiuzhouNot Available442G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseShenzenNot Available473G>AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseTaipei “Chinese- 3”Not Available493A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseToledoNot Available496C>TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNaoneNot Available497G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNankangNot Available517T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMiaoliNot Available519C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMediterranean, Dallas, Panama‚ Sassari, Cagliari, BirminghamNot Available563C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseCoimbra ShundeNot Available592C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNilgiriNot Available593G>AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseRadlowoNot Available679C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseRoubaixNot Available811G>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHaikouNot Available835A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseChinese-1Not Available835A->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMizushimaNot Available848A>GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseOsakaNot Available853C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseViangchan, JammuNot Available871G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSeoulNot Available916G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLudhianaNot Available929G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseFarroupilhaNot Available977C->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseChinese-5Not Available1024C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseRignanoNot Available130G>AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseOrissaNot Available131C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseG6PDNiceNot Available1380G>CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKamiube, KeelungNot Available1387C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNeapolisNot Available1400C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAuresNot Available143T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSplitNot Available1442C->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKambosNot Available148C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenasePalestrinaNot Available170G>AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMetapontoNot Available172G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMusashinoNot Available185C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseAsahiNot Available202G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseA- (202), Ferrara INot Available202G->A / 376A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMurcia OristanoNot Available209A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseUbe KonanNot Available241C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLagosantoNot Available242G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseGuangzhouNot Available274C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseHammersmithNot Available323T->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSinnaiNot Available34G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseA- (680)Not Available376A->G / 680G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseA- (968), Betica,Selma, GuantanamoNot Available376A->G / 968T->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSalerno PyrgosNot Available383T>GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseQuing YanNot Available392G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseLagesNot Available40G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseIleshaNot Available466G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMahidolNot Available487G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMalagaNot Available542A->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSibariNot Available634A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMexico CityNot Available680G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseNanningNot Available703C->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseSeattle, Lodi, Modena, Ferrara II, Athens-likeNot Available844G->CADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseBajo MaumereNot Available844G->TADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseMontalbanoNot Available854G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseKalyan-Kerala, Jamnaga, RohiniNot Available949G->AADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details
Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseGaoheNot Available95A->GADR InferredIncreased risk of dose-related hemolytic anemia.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirSulfasalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Abciximab.
AbemaciclibSulfasalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Abemaciclib which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseSulfasalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.
AcebutololSulfasalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulfasalazine can be decreased when used in combination with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetaminophen is combined with Sulfasalazine.
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Food Interactions
  • Drink plenty of fluids. Inadequate fluid intake is associated with crystalluria and stone formation.

Products

Drug product information from 10+ global regions
Our datasets provide approved product information including:
dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
Access now
Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
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Product Images
International/Other Brands
Asasurfan (Choseido Pharmaceutical) / Azulfdidina (Pfizer) / Azulfin (Apsen) / Bomecon (Fu Seng) / Colo-Pleon (Sanofi-Aventis) / Disalazin (AC Farma) / Eminapyrin (Taiyo Pharmaceutical) / Flogostop (Ivax) / Iwata (Cadila) / Lanofen (Taisho Yakuhin) / Lazafin (Novell) / Pleon (Sanofi-Aventis) / Pyralin EN (Pfizer) / Reumazin (Aristopharma) / Saaz (Ipca) / Saaz-DS (Ipca) / Salasopyrine (Upjohn) / Salazar (Cadila) / Salazidin (Helcor) / Salazine (Opsonin) / Salazopirina (Jaba Recordati) / Salazoprin (Cazi) / Salazopyrin (Pfizer) / Salazopyrin EN (Pfizer) / Salazopyrin EN-Tabs (Pharmacia) / Sulcolon (Bernofarm) / Sulfacol (Drug International) / Weiliufen (Sunve) / Zopyrin (Han Lim)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AzulfidineTablet500 mg/1OralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1950-06-20Not applicableUS flag
AzulfidineTablet500 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-11-062011-06-30US flag
Azulfidine EN-tabsTablet, delayed release500 mg/1OralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1950-06-20Not applicableUS flag
S.A.S. Enteric 500mgTablet, delayed release500 mgOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1979-12-312005-04-26Canada flag
Salazopyrin En-tabs 500 mgTablet, delayed release500 mgOralPfizer Canada Ulc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Salazopyrin Enema 3.0gm/100mlSuspension3 g / 100 mLRectalKabi Pharmacia Canada Inc.1994-12-311996-09-10Canada flag
Salazopyrin Enema 3gm/100mlEnema3 g / 100 mLRectalPfizer Canada Ulc1996-12-312006-08-02Canada flag
Salazopyrin Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralPfizer Canada Ulc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Sas Enema 3gm/100mlEnema3 g / 100 mLRectalIcn Pharmaceuticals1984-12-312005-04-26Canada flag
Sas Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1973-12-312005-04-26Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo Sulfasalazine Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralApotex Corporation1978-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Orb-sulfasalazine ECTablet, delayed release500 mgOralOrbus Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
PMS-sulfasalazine 500mg/tab USPTablet500 mgOralPharmascience Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
PMS-sulfasalazine-E.C. Tab 500mgTablet, delayed release500 mgOralPharmascience Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Ratio-sulfasalazine EnTablet, delayed release500 mgOralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1986-12-312008-08-01Canada flag
Ratio-sulfasalazine Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1986-12-312008-08-01Canada flag
SulfasalazineTablet500 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-01-11Not applicableUS flag
SulfasalazineTablet500 mg/1OralAvPAK2014-01-14Not applicableUS flag
SulfasalazineTablet500 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-11-152011-06-01US flag
SulfasalazineTablet500 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions1982-10-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
G01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamidesA07EC01 — Sulfasalazine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as azobenzenes. These are organonitrogen aromatic compounds that contain a central azo group, where each nitrogen atom is conjugated to a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Azobenzenes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Azobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Salicylic acids / Benzenesulfonamides / Benzenesulfonyl compounds / Benzoic acids / Benzoyl derivatives / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Pyridines and derivatives / Organosulfonamides / Imidolactams / Vinylogous acids
show 11 more
Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aminosulfonyl compound / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Azo compound / Azobenzene / Benzenesulfonamide / Benzenesulfonyl group / Benzenoid / Benzoic acid
show 28 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, azobenzenes, pyridines (CHEBI:9334)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
3XC8GUZ6CB
CAS number
599-79-1
InChI Key
NCEXYHBECQHGNR-QZQOTICOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H14N4O5S/c23-16-9-6-13(11-15(16)18(24)25)21-20-12-4-7-14(8-5-12)28(26,27)22-17-3-1-2-10-19-17/h1-11,23H,(H,19,22)(H,24,25)/b21-20+
IUPAC Name
2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-2-{4-[(pyridin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]phenyl}diazen-1-yl]benzoic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C1=CC(=CC=C1O)\N=N\C1=CC=C(C=C1)S(=O)(=O)NC1=NC=CC=C1

References

General References
  1. Hoult JR: Pharmacological and biochemical actions of sulphasalazine. Drugs. 1986;32 Suppl 1:18-26. doi: 10.2165/00003495-198600321-00005. [Article]
  2. Weber CK, Liptay S, Wirth T, Adler G, Schmid RM: Suppression of NF-kappaB activity by sulfasalazine is mediated by direct inhibition of IkappaB kinases alpha and beta. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1209-18. [Article]
  3. Generini S, Fiori G, Matucci Cerinic M: Therapy of spondylarthropathy in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002 Nov-Dec;20(6 Suppl 28):S88-94. [Article]
  4. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [Article]
  5. Pruzanski W, Stefanski E, Vadas P, Ramamurthy NS: Inhibition of extracellular release of proinflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) by sulfasalazine: a novel mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 15;53(12):1901-7. [Article]
  6. Nielsen OH, Bukhave K, Elmgreen J, Ahnfelt-Ronne I: Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils by sulfasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Dig Dis Sci. 1987 Jun;32(6):577-82. [Article]
  7. Rousseaux C, Lefebvre B, Dubuquoy L, Lefebvre P, Romano O, Auwerx J, Metzger D, Wahli W, Desvergne B, Naccari GC, Chavatte P, Farce A, Bulois P, Cortot A, Colombel JF, Desreumaux P: Intestinal antiinflammatory effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. J Exp Med. 2005 Apr 18;201(8):1205-15. Epub 2005 Apr 11. [Article]
  8. Cevallos SA, Lee JY, Velazquez EM, Foegeding NJ, Shelton CD, Tiffany CR, Parry BH, Stull-Lane AR, Olsan EE, Savage HP, Nguyen H, Ghanaat SS, Byndloss AJ, Agu IO, Tsolis RM, Byndloss MX, Baumler AJ: 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Ameliorates Colitis and Checks Dysbiotic Escherichia coli Expansion by Activating PPAR-gamma Signaling in the Intestinal Epithelium. mBio. 2021 Jan 19;12(1):e03227-20. doi: 10.1128/mBio.03227-20. [Article]
  9. Wahl C, Liptay S, Adler G, Schmid RM: Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B. J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar 1;101(5):1163-74. doi: 10.1172/JCI992. [Article]
  10. Rains CP, Noble S, Faulds D: Sulfasalazine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs. 1995 Jul;50(1):137-56. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199550010-00009. [Article]
  11. Peppercorn MA: Sulfasalazine. Pharmacology, clinical use, toxicity, and related new drug development. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Sep;101(3):377-86. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-101-3-377. [Article]
  12. Lim WC, Wang Y, MacDonald JK, Hanauer S: Aminosalicylates for induction of remission or response in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 3;7(7):CD008870. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008870.pub2. [Article]
  13. Croke L: Crohn's Disease: ACG Releases Updated Management Guidelines. Am Fam Physician. 2018 Dec 15;98(12):756-757. [Article]
  14. Lichtenstein GR: Highlights From the New ACG Guideline on Crohn's Disease Management. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2018 Aug;14(8):482-484. [Article]
  15. William M. Haynes (2014). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (95th ed., pp. 3-490). CRC Press. [ISBN:978-1482208672]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: Azulfidine (sulfasalazine) tablets for oral use [Link]
  17. Health Canada Approved Drug Proucts: SALAZOPYRIN (Sulfasalazine) and SALAZOPYRIN EN (Sulfasalazine) tablet for oral use [Link]
  18. Sulfasalazine MSDS [Link]
  19. Sulfasalazine [Link]
  20. Sulfasalazine [Link]
  21. FDA Approved Drug Products: Azulfidine (sulfasalazine) tablets for oral use 2022 [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014933
KEGG Drug
D00448
KEGG Compound
C07316
PubChem Compound
5359476
PubChem Substance
46505451
ChemSpider
10605946
BindingDB
50103596
RxNav
9524
ChEBI
9334
ChEMBL
CHEMBL421
ZINC
ZINC000003831490
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000153
PharmGKB
PA451547
PDBe Ligand
SAS
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Sulfasalazine
PDB Entries
13gs / 4j7x / 5acl / 6g0g / 6r7s / 7er8
MSDS
Download (72.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedBasic ScienceRheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS)1
4CompletedTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis7
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Risk / Endothelial Dysfunction / Rheumatoid Arthritis / Stiffness, Aortic1
4RecruitingTreatmentInsufficient Response to Methotrexate or Leflunomide / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4RecruitingTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis, Juvenile1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Kemwell AB
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Remedy Repack
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg
SuspensionRectal3 g / 100 mL
EnemaRectal3 g / 100 mL
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
TabletOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Sulfasalazine powder2.14USD g
Azulfidine EN-tabs 500 mg Enteric Coated Tabs0.73USD tab
Azulfidine entab 500 mg0.69USD tablet
Azulfidine 500 mg tablet0.59USD tablet
Salazopyrin En-Tabs 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.45USD tablet
Sulfasalazine 500 mg Enteric Coated Tabs0.4USD tab
Pms-Sulfasalazine 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.34USD tablet
Salazopyrin 500 mg Tablet0.28USD tablet
Sulfasalazine 500 mg tablet0.25USD tablet
Sulfazine 500 mg tablet0.25USD tablet
Pms-Sulfasalazine 500 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
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Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)220 dec °CT867
water solubilityPractically insoluble in waterL44567
Caco2 permeability-6.33ADME Research, USCD
pKa0.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0464 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.92ALOGPS
logP4.25Chemaxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.23Chemaxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.55Chemaxon
Physiological Charge-2Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area141.31 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count5Chemaxon
Refractivity104.6 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability39.69 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings3Chemaxon
Bioavailability1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveYesChemaxon
Ghose FilterYesChemaxon
Veber's RuleNoChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7294
Caco-2 permeable-0.6893
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8405
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9096
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.853
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8956
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6445
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7557
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8948
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8895
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6468
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9472
Rat acute toxicity1.4383 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.939
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.821
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0239100000-5bf223e6e250eb77105a

Targets

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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Nielsen OH, Bukhave K, Elmgreen J, Ahnfelt-Ronne I: Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils by sulfasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Dig Dis Sci. 1987 Jun;32(6):577-82. [Article]
  2. Allgayer H, Eisenburg J, Paumgartner G: Soybean lipoxygenase inhibition: studies with the sulphasalazine metabolites N-acetylaminosalicylic acid, 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulphapyridine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26(4):449-51. [Article]
  3. Sircar JC, Schwender CF, Carethers ME: Inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase by sulfasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid: a possible mode of action in ulcerative colitis. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983 Jan 1;32(1):170-2. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Mifflin RC, Saada JI, Di Mari JF, Valentich JD, Adegboyega PA, Powell DW: Aspirin-mediated COX-2 transcript stabilization via sustained p38 activation in human intestinal myofibroblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;65(2):470-8. [Article]
  2. Generini S, Fiori G, Matucci Cerinic M: Therapy of spondylarthropathy in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002 Nov-Dec;20(6 Suppl 28):S88-94. [Article]
  3. Distrutti E, Sediari L, Mencarelli A, Renga B, Orlandi S, Russo G, Caliendo G, Santagada V, Cirino G, Wallace JL, Fiorucci S: 5-Amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-(5-thioxo-5H-[1,2]dithiol-3yl)-phenyl ester (ATB-429), a hydrogen sulfide-releasing derivative of mesalamine, exerts antinociceptive effects in a model of postinflammatory hypersensitivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):447-58. Epub 2006 Jul 19. [Article]
  4. Cipolla G, Crema F, Sacco S, Moro E, de Ponti F, Frigo G: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inflammatory bowel disease: current perspectives. Pharmacol Res. 2002 Jul;46(1):1-6. [Article]
  5. Pruzanski W, Stefanski E, Vadas P, Ramamurthy NS: Inhibition of extracellular release of proinflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) by sulfasalazine: a novel mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 15;53(12):1901-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Gene Name
ACAT1
Uniprot ID
P24752
Uniprot Name
Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
45199.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Faison LD, White HL: Sulfasalazine inhibits lyso-PAF: acetyl-COA acetyltransferase. Prostaglandins. 1992 Sep;44(3):245-9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides, this releases glycerophospholipids and arachidonic acid that serve as the precursors of signal molecules.
Gene Name
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID
P04054
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2
Molecular Weight
16359.535 Da
References
  1. Pruzanski W, Stefanski E, Vadas P, Ramamurthy NS: Inhibition of extracellular release of proinflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) by sulfasalazine: a novel mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 15;53(12):1901-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID
Q9UPY5
Uniprot Name
Cystine/glutamate transporter
Molecular Weight
55422.44 Da
References
  1. Gout PW, Buckley AR, Simms CR, Bruchovsky N: Sulfasalazine, a potent suppressor of lymphoma growth by inhibition of the x(c)- cystine transporter: a new action for an old drug. Leukemia. 2001 Oct;15(10):1633-40. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transcriptional repressor activity, rna polymerase ii transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related...
Gene Name
NFKB1
Uniprot ID
P19838
Uniprot Name
Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
Molecular Weight
105355.175 Da
References
  1. Wahl C, Liptay S, Adler G, Schmid RM: Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B. J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar 1;101(5):1163-74. doi: 10.1172/JCI992. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related...
Gene Name
NFKB2
Uniprot ID
Q00653
Uniprot Name
Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit
Molecular Weight
96748.355 Da
References
  1. Wahl C, Liptay S, Adler G, Schmid RM: Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B. J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar 1;101(5):1163-74. doi: 10.1172/JCI992. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or oth...
Gene Name
IKBKB
Uniprot ID
O14920
Uniprot Name
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta
Molecular Weight
86563.245 Da
References
  1. Weber CK, Liptay S, Wirth T, Adler G, Schmid RM: Suppression of NF-kappaB activity by sulfasalazine is mediated by direct inhibition of IkappaB kinases alpha and beta. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1209-18. [Article]
  2. Wahl C, Liptay S, Adler G, Schmid RM: Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B. J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar 1;101(5):1163-74. doi: 10.1172/JCI992. [Article]
  3. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [Article]
  4. Bantel H, Berg C, Vieth M, Stolte M, Kruis W, Schulze-Osthoff K: Mesalazine inhibits activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB in inflamed mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Dec;95(12):3452-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or oth...
Gene Name
CHUK
Uniprot ID
O15111
Uniprot Name
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
84638.88 Da
References
  1. Wahl C, Liptay S, Adler G, Schmid RM: Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B. J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar 1;101(5):1163-74. doi: 10.1172/JCI992. [Article]
  2. Weber CK, Liptay S, Wirth T, Adler G, Schmid RM: Suppression of NF-kappaB activity by sulfasalazine is mediated by direct inhibition of IkappaB kinases alpha and beta. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1209-18. [Article]
  3. Bantel H, Berg C, Vieth M, Stolte M, Kruis W, Schulze-Osthoff K: Mesalazine inhibits activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB in inflamed mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Dec;95(12):3452-7. [Article]
  4. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Rousseaux C, Lefebvre B, Dubuquoy L, Lefebvre P, Romano O, Auwerx J, Metzger D, Wahli W, Desvergne B, Naccari GC, Chavatte P, Farce A, Bulois P, Cortot A, Colombel JF, Desreumaux P: Intestinal antiinflammatory effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. J Exp Med. 2005 Apr 18;201(8):1205-15. Epub 2005 Apr 11. [Article]
  2. Cevallos SA, Lee JY, Velazquez EM, Foegeding NJ, Shelton CD, Tiffany CR, Parry BH, Stull-Lane AR, Olsan EE, Savage HP, Nguyen H, Ghanaat SS, Byndloss AJ, Agu IO, Tsolis RM, Byndloss MX, Baumler AJ: 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Ameliorates Colitis and Checks Dysbiotic Escherichia coli Expansion by Activating PPAR-gamma Signaling in the Intestinal Epithelium. mBio. 2021 Jan 19;12(1):e03227-20. doi: 10.1128/mBio.03227-20. [Article]
  3. Schwab M, Reynders V, Loitsch S, Shastri YM, Steinhilber D, Schroder O, Stein J: PPARgamma is involved in mesalazine-mediated induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell growth in colon cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Jul;29(7):1407-14. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgn118. Epub 2008 Jun 9. [Article]
  4. Linard C, Gremy O, Benderitter M: Reduction of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma expression by gamma-irradiation as a mechanism contributing to inflammatory response in rat colon: modulation by the 5-aminosalicylic acid agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):911-20. Epub 2007 Dec 12. [Article]
  5. Desreumaux P, Ghosh S: Review article: mode of action and delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid - new evidence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;24 Suppl 1:2-9. [Article]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. FDA Approved Drug Products: Azulfidine (sulfasalazine) tablets for oral use [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Karlsson JE, Heddle C, Rozkov A, Rotticci-Mulder J, Tuvesson O, Hilgendorf C, Andersson TB: High-activity p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 2, and breast cancer resistance protein membrane vesicles prepared from transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293-epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):705-14. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.028886. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [Article]
  2. Shukla S, Zaher H, Hartz A, Bauer B, Ware JA, Ambudkar SV: Curcumin inhibits the activity of ABCG2/BCRP1, a multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter in mice. Pharm Res. 2009 Feb;26(2):480-7. doi: 10.1007/s11095-008-9735-8. Epub 2008 Oct 9. [Article]
  3. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Methotrexate transporter activity
Specific Function
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton-coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithel...
Gene Name
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID
Q96NT5
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled folate transporter
Molecular Weight
49770.04 Da
References
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at February 02, 2023 04:04