Barbital

Identification

Generic Name
Barbital
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01483
Background

A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression. Barbital is a schedule IV controlled drug.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Illicit
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 184.1925
Monoisotopic: 184.08479226
Chemical Formula
C8H12N2O3
Synonyms
  • Barbital

Pharmacology

Indication

Not Available

Pharmacology
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Humans
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Humans
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
antagonist
Humans
UGlutamate receptor 2
antagonist
Humans
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Barbital can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Abemaciclib can be increased when combined with Barbital.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Barbital can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Acalabrutinib can be increased when combined with Barbital.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Barbital.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Barbital.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with Barbital.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Barbital.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetophenazine is combined with Barbital.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
Not Available

Categories

ATC Codes
N05CA04 — Barbital
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Barbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
N-acyl ureas / Diazinanes / Dicarboximides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
1,3-diazinane / Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Barbiturate / Carbonic acid derivative / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid derivative / Dicarboximide / Hydrocarbon derivative / N-acyl urea
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
barbiturates (CHEBI:31252)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
5WZ53ENE2P
CAS number
57-44-3
InChI Key
FTOAOBMCPZCFFF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H12N2O3/c1-3-8(4-2)5(11)9-7(13)10-6(8)12/h3-4H2,1-2H3,(H2,9,10,11,12,13)
IUPAC Name
5,5-diethyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CCC1(CC)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O

References

General References
Not Available
KEGG Compound
C02517
PubChem Compound
2294
PubChem Substance
46508979
ChemSpider
2206
RxNav
1325
ChEBI
31252
ChEMBL
CHEMBL444
ZINC
ZINC000013545632
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001350
PharmGKB
PA448538
Wikipedia
Barbital

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)190 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)250 °C at 2.20E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility7460 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.65HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.39ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.14 (at 15 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.23 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.73ALOGPS
logP0.72ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity44.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.955
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9694
Caco-2 permeable-0.6146
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5238
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7826
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9964
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9395
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7915
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9074
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7823
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.896
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9436
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9586
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.918
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9723
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9847
Ames testAMES toxic0.5531
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8532
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9462
Rat acute toxicity3.5489 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9913
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.31 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-90fb45d882d2c3ed038f
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-052f-9400000000-fa1289872f9f35015abc
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-052f-9500000000-856a7fe5dbfd28d00c38
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4l-2900000000-42c0874d0bac13cc2d94
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4u-5900000000-497f9ee367181a6df30a
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [Article]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [Article]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [Article]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [Article]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [Article]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [Article]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Nallani SC, Glauser TA, Hariparsad N, Setchell K, Buckley DJ, Buckley AR, Desai PB: Dose-dependent induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and activation of pregnane X receptor by topiramate. Epilepsia. 2003 Dec;44(12):1521-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
Curator comments
Barbital is a member of the barbiturate drug class. The majority of drugs in this class induce CYP2C19.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Ramirez J, Innocenti F, Schuetz EG, Flockhart DA, Relling MV, Santucci R, Ratain MJ: CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 are responsible for the in vitro N-demethylation of meperidine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Sep;32(9):930-6. [Article]
  2. Yukawa E, Mamiya K: Effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on pharmacokinetics of phenytoin and phenobarbital in Japanese epileptic patients using Non-linear Mixed Effects Model approach. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006 Jun;31(3):275-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2006.00712.x. [Article]
  3. Lee SM, Chung JY, Lee YM, Park MS, Namgung R, Park KI, Lee C: Effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in neonates and infants with seizures. Arch Dis Child. 2012 Jun;97(6):569-72. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-300538. Epub 2012 Feb 13. [Article]
  4. Hukkanen J: Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes: a view on human in vivo findings. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Sep;5(5):569-85. doi: 10.1586/ecp.12.39. [Article]
  5. Ioannides C. (2008). Cytochromes P450. RSC Publishing.
  6. Phenobarbital Monograph [File]

Drug created on July 31, 2007 13:09 / Updated on February 21, 2021 18:51