This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

Generic Name
Geraniol
DrugBank Accession Number
DB14183
Background

Geraniol is a monoterpene that is found within many essential oils of fruits, vegetables, and herbs including rose oil, citronella, lemongrass, lavender, and other aromatic plants. It is emitted from the flowers of many species of plant and is commonly used by the food, fragrance, and cosmetic industry5. Geraniol has demonstrated a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective to name a few 1,2,3. Interestingly, geraniol has also been shown to sensitize tumour cells to commonly used chemotherapies including Fluorouracil and Docetaxel and represents a promising cancer chemopreventive agent 4. Due to its anticancer effects, geraniol has been found to be effective against a broad range of cancers including breast, lung, colon, prostate, pancreatic, skin, liver, kidney and oral cancers 3.

These pharmacologic effects are clinically important as geraniol is classified as generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States. Sensitivity to geraniol may be identified with a clinical patch test.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 154.253
Monoisotopic: 154.1357652
Chemical Formula
C10H18O
Synonyms
  • (2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol
  • (E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol
  • (E)-Geraniol
  • (E)-Nerol
  • 2-trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol
  • 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (E)-
  • 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, trans-
  • 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, (E)-
  • 3,7-Dimethyl-trans-2,6-octadien-1-ol
  • geranyl alcohol
  • Lemonol
  • t-geraniol

Pharmacology

Indication

Geraniol is approved for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6 years of age and older.

Pharmacology
Reduce drug development failure rates
Build, train, & validate machine-learning models
with evidence-based and structured datasets.
See how
Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
See how
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events
Improve clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.
Learn more
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
Learn more
Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action
Not Available
Absorption

The profile of the geraniol concentrations in rat blood following oral administration of the emulsified formulation was characterized by a peak concentration at 30 min of about 270 μg/mL and an area under concentration (AUC) similar to that obtained by the intravenous administration of the same geraniol dose, indicating an absolute bioavailability of 92% 1. Geraniol appears able to permeate directly from the bloodstream to the central nervous system following its oral administration to rats, reaching detectable amounts in the CSF; peak concentration in the CSF was found to be about 2.5 μg/mL and was observed 30 min after oral administration 1.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

In vitro measurements indicated that geraniol is highly stable in human and rat whole blood, whereas following intravenous administration geraniol is eliminated from the bloodstream with a relatively short half-life (about 12 min), starting from a concentration of about 300 μg/mL 1.

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
Improve decision support & research outcomes
With structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.
Learn more
Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Learn more
Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Products2
Drug product information from 10+ global regions
Our datasets provide approved product information including:
dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
Access now
Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
Access now
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
T.R.U.E. Test Thin-Layer Rapid Use Patch TestGeraniol (81 ug/48h) + 2,2'-Dibenzothiazyl disulfide (20 ug/48h) + 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (61 ug/48h) + 4-(Isopropylamino)diphenylamine (10 ug/48h) + Bacitracin (486 ug/48h) + Balsam of Peru (648 ug/48h) + Benzocaine (378 ug/48h) + Benzylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (32 ug/48h) + Bromothalonil (4 ug/48h) + Bronopol (203 ug/48h) + Budesonide (0.8 ug/48h) + Butylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Chlorquinaldol (77 ug/48h) + Cinchocaine hydrochloride (66 ug/48h) + Cinnamaldehyde (41 ug/48h) + Cinnamyl alcohol (63 ug/48h) + Clioquinol (77 ug/48h) + Cobalt chloride hexahydrate (4 ug/48h) + Diazolidinylurea (446 ug/48h) + Potassium dichromate (15.7 ug/48h) + Dipentamethylenethiuram disulfide (5.5 ug/48h) + Diphenylguanidine (68 ug/48h) + Disperse Blue 106 (41 ug/48h) + Disulfiram (5.5 ug/48h) + Ditiocarb zinc (68 ug/48h) + Ethyl hydroxybenzoate (162 ug/48h) + Ethylenediamine (18 ug/48h) + Eugenol (41 ug/48h) + Evernia prunastri (81 ug/48h) + Formaldehyde (146 ug/48h) + Hydrocortisone butyrate (16 ug/48h) + Hydroxycitronellal (63 ug/48h) + Imidurea (486 ug/48h) + Isoeugenol (17 ug/48h) + Lanolin alcohols (810 ug/48h) + Methylchloroisothiazolinone (3 ug/48h) + Methylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Morpholinylmercaptobenzothiazole (20 ug/48h) + N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (25 ug/48h) + N-Cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (25 ug/48h) + Neomycin sulfate (486 ug/48h) + Nickel sulfate hexahydrate (36 ug/48h) + Parthenolide (2 ug/48h) + Propylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Quaternium-15 (81 ug/48h) + Rosin (972 ug/48h) + Sodium aurotiosulfate (23 ug/48h) + Tetracaine hydrochloride (66 ug/48h) + Tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (5.5 ug/48h) + Thimerosal (6 ug/48h) + Thiohexam (20 ug/48h) + Thiram (5.5 ug/48h) + Tixocortol pivalate (2 ug/48h) + Zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (68 ug/48h) + alpha-Amyl cinnamaldehyde (17 ug/48h) + p-Phenylenediamine (65 ug/48h) + p-tert-Butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (low molecular weight) (36 ug/48h)PatchCutaneousSmartPractice Denmark ApS2012-03-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
L837108USY
CAS number
106-24-1
InChI Key
GLZPCOQZEFWAFX-JXMROGBWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H18O/c1-9(2)5-4-6-10(3)7-8-11/h5,7,11H,4,6,8H2,1-3H3/b10-7+
IUPAC Name
(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol
SMILES
CC(C)=CCC\C(C)=C\CO

References

General References
  1. Pavan B, Dalpiaz A, Marani L, Beggiato S, Ferraro L, Canistro D, Paolini M, Vivarelli F, Valerii MC, Comparone A, De Fazio L, Spisni E: Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Jan 25;9:18. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00018. eCollection 2018. [Article]
  2. Rekha KR, Selvakumar GP, Sethupathy S, Santha K, Sivakamasundari RI: Geraniol ameliorates the motor behavior and neurotrophic factors inadequacy in MPTP-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease. J Mol Neurosci. 2013 Nov;51(3):851-62. doi: 10.1007/s12031-013-0074-9. Epub 2013 Aug 13. [Article]
  3. Cho M, So I, Chun JN, Jeon JH: The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review). Int J Oncol. 2016 May;48(5):1772-82. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3427. Epub 2016 Mar 9. [Article]
  4. Carnesecchi S, Langley K, Exinger F, Gosse F, Raul F: Geraniol, a component of plant essential oils, sensitizes human colonic cancer cells to 5-Fluorouracil treatment. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 May;301(2):625-30. [Article]
  5. Geraniol — A review of a commercially important fragrance material; Chen and Viljoen, 2010. [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0035155
KEGG Compound
C01500
ChemSpider
13849989
BindingDB
50037023
RxNav
1368875
ChEBI
17447
ChEMBL
CHEMBL25719
ZINC
ZINC000001529210
PDBe Ligand
64Z
Wikipedia
Geraniol
PDB Entries
5g1u / 5hss / 6dew / 6pgs

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchCutaneous
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.37 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.89ALOGPS
logP2.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity51.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-002f-9800000000-16b748da465c428492a4
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-25934c23f4bc9ba87142
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-a4d79e7813b94cf0d54b
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-9100000000-3a5359aae818f9966cbd
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00kf-9200000000-4a8a23071f388f446451
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-9100000000-f24e92e3c3efdc35a606
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-9100000000-d8e4f64753ef594f6d40
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-2bce8c0905dd12aa5dac
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-002f-9800000000-16b748da465c428492a4
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-4900000000-7e43c8601ed65028cae5
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-014l-9100000000-f59382e51acd0b540204
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Drug created at July 03, 2018 16:20 / Updated at June 12, 2020 16:53