Identification

Name
Fluorouracil
Accession Number
DB00544
Description

A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the thymidylate synthetase conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 130.0772
Monoisotopic: 130.017855555
Chemical Formula
C4H3FN2O2
Synonyms
  • 5-Fluoracil
  • 5-Fluoropyrimidine-2,4-dione
  • 5-Fluorouracil
  • 5-Fluracil
  • 5-FU
  • Fluoro Uracil
  • Fluorouracil
  • Fluorouracilo
  • Fluorouracilum
  • Fluouracil
External IDs
  • NSC-19893
  • RO 2-9757

Pharmacology

Indication

For the topical treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses. In the 5% strength it is also useful in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas when conventional methods are impractical, such as with multiple lesions or difficult treatment sites. Fluorouracil injection is indicated in the palliative management of some types of cancer, including colon, esophageal, gastric, rectum, breast, biliary tract, stomach, head and neck, cervical, pancreas, renal cell, and carcinoid.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Fluorouracil is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances from becoming incorporated into DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Fluorouracil blocks an enzyme which converts the cytosine nucleotide into the deoxy derivative. In addition, DNA synthesis is further inhibited because Fluorouracil blocks the incorporation of the thymidine nucleotide into the DNA strand.

Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism of action has not been fully determined, but the main mechanism of fluorouracil is thought to be the binding of the deoxyribonucleotide of the drug (FdUMP) and the folate cofactor, N5–10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, to thymidylate synthase (TS) to form a covalently bound ternary complex. This results in the inhibition of the formation of thymidylate from uracil, which leads to the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and cell death. Fluorouracil can also be incorporated into RNA in place of uridine triphosphate (UTP), producing a fraudulent RNA and interfering with RNA processing and protein synthesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
AThymidylate synthase
other/unknown
Humans
ADNA
incorporation into and destabilization
Humans
ARNA
incorporation into and destabilization
Humans
Absorption

28-100%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

8-12%

Metabolism

Hepatic. The catabolic metabolism of fluorouracil results in degradation products ( e.g., CO2, urea and α-fluoro-ß-alanine) which are inactive.

Route of elimination

Seven percent to 20% of the parent drug is excreted unchanged in the urine in 6 hours; of this over 90% is excreted in the first hour. The remaining percentage of the administered dose is metabolized, primarily in the liver.

Half-life

10-20 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

LD50=230mg/kg (orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Capecitabine Action PathwayDrug action
Fluorouracil Action PathwayDrug action
Capecitabine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Fluorouracil Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Thymidylate synthaseTSER*2Not Available(CCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)2/3/4ADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have increased risk of severe neutropenia or severe diarrhea with [drug; fluorouracil].Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]---(G;G) / (A;G)C allele / G alleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of fluorouracil and increased risk of toxicity.Details
Glutathione S-transferase P---(A;A) / (A;G)A alleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have increased risk of toxicity with fluorouracilDetails
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]---(A;A) / (A;G)A alleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of fluorouracil and increased risk of toxicity.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]---(A;A) / (A;T)T > AADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of fluorouracil and increased risk of toxicity.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]DPYD*2A(A;A) / (A;G)G > AADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD is associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]DPYD*13(C;C) / (A;C)A > CADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD is associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]---(A;A) / (A;T)T > AADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD is associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]DPYD*4(G;G) / (A:G)G > AADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD may be associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]DPYD*5(G;G) / (A;G)A > GADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD may be associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]DPYD*6(A;A) / (A;G)G > AADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD may be associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]DPYD*9A(C;C) / (C;T)T > CADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in DPYD may be associated with an increased risk of drug-related toxicity from fluorouracil therapy.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Fluorouracil can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Fluorouracil can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Fluorouracil.
AbemaciclibAbemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Fluorouracil which could result in a higher serum level.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Fluorouracil can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Fluorouracil is combined with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Fluorouracil can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetohexamideThe metabolism of Acetohexamide can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Fluorouracil.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

International/Other Brands
Carzonal (Tobishi) / Efudix (Meda) / Efurix (Valeant) / Ftoruracil (Verofarm)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AdrucilSolution50 mgIntravenousPfizer Canada Ulc1995-12-312004-04-08Canada flag
Adrucil Inj 50mg/mlLiquidIntravenousAdria Laboratories Of Canada Ltd.1978-12-311996-09-10Canada flag
CaracCream5 mg/1gTopicalBausch Health US LLC2013-06-28Not applicableUS flag
CaracCream5 mg/1gTopicalDermik Laboratories2000-10-272015-11-30US flag
EfudexSolution0.5 g/10mLTopicalBausch Health US LLC1970-07-292008-02-28US flag
EfudexCream2 g/40gTopicalBausch Health US LLC1970-07-29Not applicableUS flag
EfudexCream2 g/40gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1970-07-292011-09-30US flag
EfudexSolution1.25 g/10mLTopicalBausch Health US LLC1970-07-292010-01-31US flag
EfudexCream5 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1975-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
FluoroplexCream10 mg/1gTopicalAllergan1993-12-032013-05-01US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AdrucilInjection, solution5 g/100mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2003-10-012020-10-31US flag
AdrucilInjection, solution2.5 g/50mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2003-10-012020-10-31US flag
AdrucilInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2003-10-012020-10-31US flag
FluorouracilCream50 mg/1gTopicalTaro Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.2010-03-05Not applicableUS flag
FluorouracilInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2012-07-182014-11-30US flag
FluorouracilInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2017-11-07Not applicableUS flag
FluorouracilInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2019-12-21Not applicableUS flag
FluorouracilInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntravenousBluePoint Laboratories2014-12-16Not applicableUS flag
FluorouracilCream50 mg/1gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-09-06Not applicableUS flag
FluorouracilSolution50 mg/1mLTopicalTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2003-11-05Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ActikerallFluorouracil (0.5 %) + Salicylic acid (10 %)SolutionTopicalCipher Pharmaceuticals Inc.2016-02-19Not applicableCanada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
FluoracFluorouracil (5 g/100g) + Diclofenac sodium (1 g/100g)CreamTopicalBurke Therapeutics, LLC2015-01-222015-09-14US flag
VerrunexFluorouracil (0.5 g/0.5g) + Salicylic acid (1.2 g/1.2g)KitTopicalAccumix Pharmaceuticals2014-12-152015-07-17US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
L01BC52 — Fluorouracil, combinationsL01BC02 — Fluorouracil
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as halopyrimidines. These are aromatic compounds containing a halogen atom linked to a pyrimidine ring. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Halopyrimidines
Alternative Parents
Hydroxypyrimidines / Aryl fluorides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organofluorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Azacycle / Halopyrimidine / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Hydroxypyrimidine / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, nucleobase analogue (CHEBI:46345) / a uracil analogue (CPD0-1327)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
U3P01618RT
CAS number
51-21-8
InChI Key
GHASVSINZRGABV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H3FN2O2/c5-2-1-6-4(9)7-3(2)8/h1H,(H2,6,7,8,9)
IUPAC Name
5-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
FC1=CNC(=O)NC1=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Leroy B. Townsend, Robert A. Earl, Steven J. Manning, "Method of synthesizing 1-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-5-fluorouracil." U.S. Patent US3960864, issued October, 1969.

US3960864
General References
  1. Longley DB, Harkin DP, Johnston PG: 5-fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 May;3(5):330-8. [PubMed:12724731]
  2. Petty RD, Cassidy J: Novel fluoropyrimidines: improving the efficacy and tolerability of cytotoxic therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004 Mar;4(2):191-204. [PubMed:15032669]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014684
KEGG Drug
D00584
KEGG Compound
C07649
PubChem Compound
3385
PubChem Substance
46508557
ChemSpider
3268
BindingDB
50340677
RxNav
4492
ChEBI
46345
ChEMBL
CHEMBL185
ZINC
ZINC000038212689
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000829
PharmGKB
PA128406956
PDBe Ligand
URF
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Fluorouracil
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
PDB Entries
1h7x / 1rxc / 1upf / 3kvr / 3kvv / 3nai / 3nbq / 4e1v / 4o0o / 4txn
show 7 more
FDA label
Download (378 KB)
MSDS
Download (74 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMalignant Neoplasm of Colon / Unresectable Metastasis Originating in Colonic Cancer1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer1
4CompletedNot AvailableEsophageal Cancers1
4CompletedPreventionBasal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) / Carcinoma NOS / Neoplasms, Basal Cell / Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / Skin Diseases / Skin Neoplasms / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
4CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)2
4CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers2
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Trabeculectomy / Wound Healing1
4CompletedTreatmentKeloidscars1
4CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancer (MCRC)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Allergan herbert skin care div allergan inc
  • Spear pharmaceuticals inc
  • Taro pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Abic ltd
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
  • Ebewe pharma ges mbh nfg kg
  • Marchar laboratories inc ltd
  • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Elorac inc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Amcol Health and Beauty Solutions
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • APPD
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bigmar Bioren Pharmaceuticals Sa
  • Contract Pharm
  • Creative Cosmetics Inc.
  • Dermik Labs
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • Generamedix Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Legacy Pharmaceuticals Packaging LLC
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Oceanside Pharmaceuticals Incorporated
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
  • Sicor Pharmaceuticals
  • Solco Healthcare US LLC
  • Spear Dermatology Products Inc.
  • Synerx Pharma LLC
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Valeant Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionParenteral
InjectionParenteral10000 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral5000 mg
InjectionParenteral500 mg
OintmentTopical5 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous1000 mg/20ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/m10mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous250 mg/5mL
Injection, solution1 g/20mL
Injection, solution5 g/100mL
Injection, solution1000 mg/20ml
Injection, solution250 mg/5ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous50 mg/ml
Injection, solutionParenteral5000 mg/100ml
Injection500 mg/10ml
Injection, solution5000 mg/100ml
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Injection250 mg/5ml
SolutionTopical
SolutionTopical5 MG/G
CreamTopical5 mg/1g
InjectionIntravenous25 mg
Injection
CreamTopical2 g/40g
CreamTopical5 %
SolutionTopical0.5 g/10mL
SolutionTopical1.25 g/10mL
Cream5 %
SolutionIntravenous250 mg/5ml
SolutionIntravenous500 mg/10ml
CreamTopical
CreamTopical10 mg/1g
CreamTopical
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
InjectionIntravenous2.5 g/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2.5 g/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical50 mg/1mL
Injection, solution500 mg/10ml
InjectionParenteral5000 MG/100ML
InjectionParenteral1000 MG/20ML
InjectionParenteral500 MG/10ML
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionParenteral50 MG/ML
Injection, solutionParenteral1000 MG
SolutionIntravenous1000 mg/20ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/10ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral250 MG/ML
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral500 MG/10ML
Injection, solutionParenteral1 G/20ML
Injection, solutionParenteral250 MG/5ML
Injection, solutionParenteral5 G/100ML
Injection, solutionParenteral500 MG/10ML
SolutionIntravenous500 mg
InjectionIntravenous1000 mg/20mL
Injection5000 mg/100mL
Capsule200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg
SolutionIntravenous50 mg
CreamTopical0.04 g/1g
CreamTopical4 %
CreamTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical40 mg/g
Gel8 g/100g
SolutionTopical8 g/100g
KitTopical
SolutionTopical0.5 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Efudex 5% Cream 40 gm Tube478.39USD tube
Fluoroplex 1% Cream 30 gm Tube268.61USD tube
Fluorouracil 5% Cream 40 gm Tube249.98USD tube
Carac 0.5% Cream 30 gm Tube209.77USD tube
Efudex 5% Solution 10ml Bottle136.51USD bottle
Fluorouracil 5% Solution 10ml Bottle115.78USD bottle
Fluorouracil 2% Solution 10ml Bottle78.63USD bottle
Efudex 5% cream10.28USD g
Fluorouracil 5% cream9.62USD g
Fluorouracil powder8.45USD g
Fluoroplex 1% cream7.85USD g
Carac cream6.43USD g
Efudex 50 mg/g Cream0.9USD g
Fluorouracil 50 mg/ml Solution0.52USD ml
Adrucil 50 mg/ml vial0.4USD ml
Fluorouracil 5000 mg/100 ml0.28USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6670335No2003-12-302021-06-02US flag
US7169401No2007-01-302023-07-18US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)282-283Heidelberger, C. and Duschinsky, R.; US. Patent 2,802,005; August 6, 1957. Heidelberger, C. and Duschinsky, R.; U.S.Patent 2,885,396; May 5, 1959.
water solubility1.11E+004 mg/L (at 22 °C)BURR,A & BUNDGAARD,H (1985)
logP-0.89HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.07ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.02SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.86 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.58ALOGPS
logP-0.66ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.76ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity26.17 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.46 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9605
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9791
Caco-2 permeable-0.7583
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7752
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8991
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor1.0
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9053
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9658
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9361
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9688
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9661
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9839
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8941
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9288
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.922
Rat acute toxicity2.2529 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9685
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9325
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.93 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-9800000000-a3301f9fea9145d07480
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-76691bd3cba2765d3687
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-d801d8209e9a5aa4830b
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-7521695ae4a96b4a5a98
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-001i-9400000000-b8247c8f5c45b12efaa6
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-3fa9b91447db7dc7ba77
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-9800000000-32bf878787078ce9d817
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-3ef559051a5b99c94b29
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-4900000000-82764fbca3290816328d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9100000000-2da5eb3c925c027b5022
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-1cf432837297c55833a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c639ed1b5365f368b59c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-1a7a70df49a360e1458c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-d89f2d944fe1cac39f55
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-50b33770c08680863cf6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-cd5bef421a05073cb1f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-3900000000-ec9c9e1dfc9a16f625a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-df98a4532ca49a0a0436
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-50b33770c08680863cf6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-50b33770c08680863cf6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-df98a4532ca49a0a0436
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-b117f5fa58c8f98b5c15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f3e71a41b6d4417d33fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9200000000-29362607b7c48b82973c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-693d492f316b0c7d5ed5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-0c0ee9469bf49688c5d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-0cecca0d265e958e19d7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-1900000000-46f20f71dbc96630cee7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-4330f38956afe6c47636
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-f935071622b89177697b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-0c8117152496e5ab5079
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-2900000000-266589a25e715aef690b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-2900000000-7e7fde9573014635482d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-3900000000-50eaff02ec3eceb8cb1c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-09de643cc91751ca7a60
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-4900000000-7904c5572d0bc60f8d35
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-a0c3963f64cbd8167800
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Thymidylate synthase activity
Specific Function
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.
Gene Name
TYMS
Uniprot ID
P04818
Uniprot Name
Thymidylate synthase
Molecular Weight
35715.65 Da
References
  1. Formentini A, Sander S, Denzer S, Straeter J, Henne-Bruns D, Kornmann M: Thymidylate synthase expression in resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer: role as predictive or prognostic marker? Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007 Jan;22(1):49-55. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16538493]
  2. Huang CL, Yokomise H, Fukushima M, Kinoshita M: Tailor-made chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer patients. Future Oncol. 2006 Apr;2(2):289-99. [PubMed:16563096]
  3. Fernandez-Contreras ME, Sanchez-Prudencio S, Sanchez-Hernandez JJ, Garcia de Paredes ML, Gisbert JP, Roda-Navarro P, Gamallo C: Thymidylate synthase expression pattern, expression level and single nucleotide polymorphism are predictors for disease-free survival in patients of colorectal cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil. Int J Oncol. 2006 May;28(5):1303-10. [PubMed:16596248]
  4. Garcia V, Garcia JM, Pena C, Silva J, Dominguez G, Hurtado A, Alonso I, Rodriguez R, Provencio M, Bonilla F: Thymidylate synthase messenger RNA expression in plasma from patients with colon cancer: prognostic potential. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2095-100. [PubMed:16609021]
  5. Ploylearmsaeng SA, Fuhr U, Jetter A: How may anticancer chemotherapy with fluorouracil be individualised? Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(6):567-92. [PubMed:16719540]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Rustum YM: Thymidylate synthase: a critical target in cancer therapy? Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2467-73. [PubMed:15353299]
  8. Singh V, Brecik M, Mukherjee R, Evans JC, Svetlikova Z, Blasko J, Surade S, Blackburn J, Warner DF, Mikusova K, Mizrahi V: The complex mechanism of antimycobacterial action of 5-fluorouracil. Chem Biol. 2015 Jan 22;22(1):63-75. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.11.006. Epub 2014 Dec 24. [PubMed:25544046]
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Incorporation into and destabilization
DNA is the molecule of heredity, as it is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits. It is a polynucleic acid that carries genetic information on cell growth, division, and function. DNA consists of two long strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and held together by hydrogen bonds. The sequence of nucleotides determines hereditary characteristics. Each strand serves as the template for subsequent DNA replication and as a template for mRNA production, leading to protein synthesis via ribosomes.
References
  1. Wyatt MD, Wilson DM 3rd: Participation of DNA repair in the response to 5-fluorouracil. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Mar;66(5):788-99. doi: 10.1007/s00018-008-8557-5. [PubMed:18979208]
  2. Ghoshal K, Jacob ST: An alternative molecular mechanism of action of 5-fluorouracil, a potent anticancer drug. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 1;53(11):1569-75. [PubMed:9264308]
  3. Longley DB, Harkin DP, Johnston PG: 5-fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 May;3(5):330-8. [PubMed:12724731]
  4. Petty RD, Cassidy J: Novel fluoropyrimidines: improving the efficacy and tolerability of cytotoxic therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004 Mar;4(2):191-204. [PubMed:15032669]
  5. Singh V, Brecik M, Mukherjee R, Evans JC, Svetlikova Z, Blasko J, Surade S, Blackburn J, Warner DF, Mikusova K, Mizrahi V: The complex mechanism of antimycobacterial action of 5-fluorouracil. Chem Biol. 2015 Jan 22;22(1):63-75. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.11.006. Epub 2014 Dec 24. [PubMed:25544046]
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Incorporation into and destabilization
References
  1. Wyatt MD, Wilson DM 3rd: Participation of DNA repair in the response to 5-fluorouracil. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Mar;66(5):788-99. doi: 10.1007/s00018-008-8557-5. [PubMed:18979208]
  2. Ghoshal K, Jacob ST: An alternative molecular mechanism of action of 5-fluorouracil, a potent anticancer drug. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 1;53(11):1569-75. [PubMed:9264308]
  3. Longley DB, Harkin DP, Johnston PG: 5-fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 May;3(5):330-8. [PubMed:12724731]
  4. Petty RD, Cassidy J: Novel fluoropyrimidines: improving the efficacy and tolerability of cytotoxic therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004 Mar;4(2):191-204. [PubMed:15032669]
  5. Singh V, Brecik M, Mukherjee R, Evans JC, Svetlikova Z, Blasko J, Surade S, Blackburn J, Warner DF, Mikusova K, Mizrahi V: The complex mechanism of antimycobacterial action of 5-fluorouracil. Chem Biol. 2015 Jan 22;22(1):63-75. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.11.006. Epub 2014 Dec 24. [PubMed:25544046]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Gunes A, Coskun U, Boruban C, Gunel N, Babaoglu MO, Sencan O, Bozkurt A, Rane A, Hassan M, Zengil H, Yasar U: Inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil on cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in cancer patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Feb;98(2):197-200. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2006.pto_304.x. [PubMed:16445595]
  2. Brown MC: An adverse interaction between warfarin and 5-fluorouracil: A case report and review of the literature. Chemotherapy. 1999 Sep-Oct;45(5):392-5. doi: 10.1159/000007230. [PubMed:10473927]
  3. Gilbar PJ, Brodribb TR: Phenytoin and fluorouracil interaction. Ann Pharmacother. 2001 Nov;35(11):1367-70. doi: 10.1345/aph.1A051. [PubMed:11724084]
  4. Karadag O, Babaoglu MO, Altundag K, Elkiran T, Yasar U, Bozkurt A: 5-Fluorouracil-induced coronary spasm: may inhibition of hyperpolarization factors produced by CYP2C enzymes be the cause? Oncology. 2004;66(6):510-1. doi: 10.1159/000079506. [PubMed:15452381]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Data is limited to a in vitro study.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Komatsu T, Yamazaki H, Shimada N, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Roles of cytochromes P450 1A2, 2A6, and 2C8 in 5-fluorouracil formation from tegafur, an anticancer prodrug, in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Dec;28(12):1457-63. [PubMed:11095583]
  2. Yamazaki H, Komatsu T, Takemoto K, Shimada N, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Rat cytochrome p450 1A and 3A enzymes involved in bioactivation of tegafur to 5-fluorouracil and autoinduced by tegafur in liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jun;29(6):794-7. [PubMed:11353746]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific Function
May have a role in maintaining the integrity of the blood vessels. Has growth promoting activity on endothelial cells, angiogenic activity in vivo and chemotactic activity on endothelial cells in v...
Gene Name
TYMP
Uniprot ID
P19971
Uniprot Name
Thymidine phosphorylase
Molecular Weight
49954.965 Da
References
  1. Scartozzi M, Maccaroni E, Giampieri R, Pistelli M, Bittoni A, Del Prete M, Berardi R, Cascinu S: 5-Fluorouracil pharmacogenomics: still rocking after all these years? Pharmacogenomics. 2011 Feb;12(2):251-65. doi: 10.2217/pgs.10.167. [PubMed:21332317]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Involved in pyrimidine base degradation. Catalyzes the reduction of uracil and thymine. Also involved the degradation of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.
Gene Name
DPYD
Uniprot ID
Q12882
Uniprot Name
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]
Molecular Weight
111400.32 Da
References
  1. Ho DH, Townsend L, Luna MA, Bodey GP: Distribution and inhibition of dihydrouracil dehydrogenase activities in human tissues using 5-fluorouracil as a substrate. Anticancer Res. 1986 Jul-Aug;6(4):781-4. [PubMed:3752956]
  2. Keizer HJ, De Bruijn EA, Tjaden UR, De Clercq E: Inhibition of fluorouracil catabolism in cancer patients by the antiviral agent (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1994;120(9):545-9. [PubMed:8045919]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Uridine phosphorylase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate (PubMed:7488099). The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon an...
Gene Name
UPP1
Uniprot ID
Q16831
Uniprot Name
Uridine phosphorylase 1
Molecular Weight
33934.005 Da
References
  1. Yan R, Wan L, Pizzorno G, Cao D: Uridine phosphorylase in breast cancer: a new prognostic factor? Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:2759-66. [PubMed:16720348]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Uridine phosphorylase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources ...
Gene Name
UPP2
Uniprot ID
O95045
Uniprot Name
Uridine phosphorylase 2
Molecular Weight
35526.93 Da
References
  1. Yan R, Wan L, Pizzorno G, Cao D: Uridine phosphorylase in breast cancer: a new prognostic factor? Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:2759-66. [PubMed:16720348]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Yamamiya I, Yoshisue K, Ishii Y, Yamada H, Yoshida K: Enantioselectivity in the cytochrome P450-dependent conversion of tegafur to 5-fluorouracil in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2013 Oct;1(1):e00009. doi: 10.1002/prp2.9. Epub 2013 Oct 23. [PubMed:25505563]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Komatsu T, Yamazaki H, Shimada N, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Roles of cytochromes P450 1A2, 2A6, and 2C8 in 5-fluorouracil formation from tegafur, an anticancer prodrug, in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Dec;28(12):1457-63. [PubMed:11095583]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name
MTHFR
Uniprot ID
P42898
Uniprot Name
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Molecular Weight
74595.895 Da
References
  1. Scartozzi M, Maccaroni E, Giampieri R, Pistelli M, Bittoni A, Del Prete M, Berardi R, Cascinu S: 5-Fluorouracil pharmacogenomics: still rocking after all these years? Pharmacogenomics. 2011 Feb;12(2):251-65. doi: 10.2217/pgs.10.167. [PubMed:21332317]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thymidylate synthase activity
Specific Function
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.
Gene Name
TYMS
Uniprot ID
P04818
Uniprot Name
Thymidylate synthase
Molecular Weight
35715.65 Da
References
  1. Scartozzi M, Maccaroni E, Giampieri R, Pistelli M, Bittoni A, Del Prete M, Berardi R, Cascinu S: 5-Fluorouracil pharmacogenomics: still rocking after all these years? Pharmacogenomics. 2011 Feb;12(2):251-65. doi: 10.2217/pgs.10.167. [PubMed:21332317]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
UMPS
Uniprot ID
P11172
Uniprot Name
Uridine 5'-monophosphate synthase
Molecular Weight
52221.075 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PPAT
Uniprot ID
Q06203
Uniprot Name
Amidophosphoribosyltransferase
Molecular Weight
57398.52 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sulkowska A, Bojko B, Rownicka J, Sulkowski W: Competition of drugs to serum albumin in combination therapy. Biopolymers. 2004 Jun 15;74(3):256-62. [PubMed:15150801]
  2. Bertucci C, Ascoli G, Uccello-Barretta G, Di Bari L, Salvadori P: The binding of 5-fluorouracil to native and modified human serum albumin: UV, CD, and 1H and 19F NMR investigation. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1995 Aug;13(9):1087-93. [PubMed:8573632]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Major thyroid hormone transport protein in serum.
Gene Name
SERPINA7
Uniprot ID
P05543
Uniprot Name
Thyroxine-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
46324.12 Da
References
  1. CYTOMEL (liothyronine) FDA label [File]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID
Q9Y694
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Sakai R, Ohbayashi M, Kohyama N, Yamamoto T: Transport mechanism and substrate specificity of human organic anion transporter 2 (hOat2 [SLC22A7]). J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 May;57(5):573-8. [PubMed:15901346]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR...
Gene Name
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID
Q99808
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Molecular Weight
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Tsujie M, Nakamori S, Nakahira S, Takahashi Y, Hayashi N, Okami J, Nagano H, Dono K, Umeshita K, Sakon M, Monden M: Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1, as a predictor of 5-fluorouracil resistance in human pancreatic cancer. Anticancer Res. 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4B):2241-9. [PubMed:17695509]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Yuan J, Lv H, Peng B, Wang C, Yu Y, He Z: Role of BCRP as a biomarker for predicting resistance to 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 May;63(6):1103-10. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0838-z. Epub 2008 Sep 27. [PubMed:18820913]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Hagmann W, Jesnowski R, Faissner R, Guo C, Lohr JM: ATP-binding cassette C transporters in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Upregulation in 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells. Pancreatology. 2009;9(1-2):136-44. doi: 10.1159/000178884. Epub 2008 Dec 13. [PubMed:19077464]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Hagmann W, Jesnowski R, Faissner R, Guo C, Lohr JM: ATP-binding cassette C transporters in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Upregulation in 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells. Pancreatology. 2009;9(1-2):136-44. doi: 10.1159/000178884. Epub 2008 Dec 13. [PubMed:19077464]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name
ABCC5
Uniprot ID
O15440
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5
Molecular Weight
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Hagmann W, Jesnowski R, Faissner R, Guo C, Lohr JM: ATP-binding cassette C transporters in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Upregulation in 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells. Pancreatology. 2009;9(1-2):136-44. doi: 10.1159/000178884. Epub 2008 Dec 13. [PubMed:19077464]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 27, 2020 11:12

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