Bacitracin

Identification

Summary

Bacitracin is a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic used to prevent wound infections, treat pneumonia and empyema in infants, and to treat skin and eye infections.

Brand Names
Baciguent, Baciject, Cortisporin, Diosporin, Neo-polycin, Neo-polycin HC, Neosporin Ointment, Neosporin Plus Maximum Strength, Neosporin Solution, Polycin-B, Polysporin, Procomycin, Rash Relief Antibacterial, Triple Antibiotic
Generic Name
Bacitracin
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00626
Background

Bacitracin is a combination of at least 9 bacitracins.2,3 60-80% of commercially prepared bacitracin is bacitracin A.3 The bacillus that produces bacitracin was first isolated from a knee scrape in 1945 from the knee wound of a child named Margaret Tracy.3

Bacitracin was granted FDA approval on 29 July 1948.4,9

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 1422.693
Monoisotopic: 1421.748941023
Chemical Formula
C66H103N17O16S
Synonyms
  • Bacitracin
  • Bacitracin A
  • Bacitracina
External IDs
  • NSC-45737

Pharmacology

Indication

Bacitracin is indicated in topical formulations for acute and chronic localized skin infections.4 Occasionally, it is also used intramuscularly for infantile streptococcal pneumonia and empyema.4 Bacitracin is also formulated as an ointment with neomycin and polymyxin B for over the counter use.4,10 A bacitracin ointment formulated with neomycin and polymyxin B along with hydrocortisone is indicated for the treatment of corticosteroid responsive dermatoses with secondary infection.11

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Bacitracin is a mixture of polypeptides that prevent the formation of the bacterial cell wall and oxidatively cleave DNA.1 It has a short duration of action as it must be given every 3 to 4 hours topically.10,11 Bacitracin is nephrotoxic when given intramuscularly and may lead to renal failure.4

Mechanism of action

Bacitracin binds to a divalent metal ion such as Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), or Zn(II).1 These complexes bind C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, preventing the hydrolysis of a lipid dolichol pyrophosphate, which finally inhibits cell wall synthesis.1 Bacitracin metal complexes also bind and oxidatively cleave DNA.1

TargetActionsOrganism
AC55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate
antagonist
Gram positive and gram negative bacteria
AInsulin-degrading enzyme
inhibitor
Humans
UAlpha-2-macroglobulin
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Topical, ophthalmic, and oral formulations of bacitracin are poorly absorbed systemically.4,7 Intramuscular bacitracin is readily and completely absorbed.13

Volume of distribution

Data regarding the volume of distribution of bacitracin in humans is not readily available.4

Protein binding

Data regarding the protein binding of bacitracin in humans is not readily available.4

Metabolism

Data regarding the metabolism of bacitracin in humans is not readily available.4 Because bacitracin is a protein it is expected to be metabolized into smaller polypeptides and amino acids.5 However, the structure of bacitracin may afford it some protection from the action of proteases.1

Route of elimination

Bacitracin is mainly excreted renally with 87% of and intramuscular dose being recovered in the urine after 6 hours.6

Half-life

Data regarding the half life of bacitracin in humans is not readily available.4

Clearance

Data regarding the clearance of bacitracin in humans has not been well studied.4 A study of 9 subjects in 1947 shows a renal clearance of 105-283mL/min with an average renal clearance of 159mL/min.6

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

The oral LD50 of bacitracin in rats is >2000mg/kg.12

Specific data regarding bacitracin overdoses is not readily available.8 An overdose of bacitracin may lead to nephrotoxicity4 and patients should be treated with supportive measures.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirBacitracin may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Bacitracin is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Bacitracin is combined with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Bacitracin is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenBacitracin may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Bacitracin is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AclidiniumBacitracin may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineBacitracin may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Bacitracin is combined with Acyclovir.
Adefovir dipivoxilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Bacitracin is combined with Adefovir dipivoxil.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Bacitracin methylene disalicylateJGV6OJ52FT55852-84-1Not applicable
Bacitracin zinc89Y4M234ES1405-89-6Not applicable
International/Other Brands
Baciguent (Upjohn)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Baciject 50,000 Units/vialPowder, for solution50000 unit / vialIntramuscular; TopicalSterimax Inc2003-08-28Not applicableCanada flag
Bacitracin for InjectionPowder, for solution50000 unit / vialIntramuscular; TopicalFresenius KabiNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Bacitracin for Injection, USPPowder, for solution50000 unit / vialIntramuscular; TopicalAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Bacitracin USPPowder, for solution50000 unit / vialIntramuscular; TopicalPfizer Canada Ulc1951-12-312021-03-31Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BaciguentOintment500 [USP'U]/1gOphthalmicWoodward Pharma Services Llc2020-04-15Not applicableUS flag
BACiiMInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50000 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularX-GEN Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1997-05-092020-02-07US flag
BacitracinOintment500 [USP'U]/1gOphthalmicPaddock Laboratories, LLC2014-03-10Not applicableUS flag
BacitracinInjection, powder, for solution50000 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularXellia Pharmaceuticals USA LLC2018-10-01Not applicableUS flag
BacitracinOintment500 [iU]/1gOphthalmicRemedy Repack2013-02-082014-02-08US flag
BacitracinOintment500 [iU]/1gOphthalmicRebel Distributors2010-01-11Not applicableUS flag
BacitracinInjection, powder, for solution50000 [iU]/1IntramuscularFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2003-01-28Not applicableUS flag
BacitracinInjection, powder, for solution5000 [USP'U]/1mLIntramuscularPharmacia & Upjohn Company LLC1948-07-292022-01-31US flag
BacitracinInjection, powder, for solution5000 [USP'U]/1mLIntramuscularPharmacia and Upjohn Company1948-07-29Not applicableUS flag
BacitracinOintment500 [USP'U]/1gOphthalmicAkorn2013-12-132014-02-25US flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Advanced First Aid BacitracinOintment500 1/1gTopicalAdvanced First Aid, Inc.2016-10-18Not applicableUS flag
Aftate Bacitracin ZincOintment500 [iU]/1gTopicalSabel Med Llc2016-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Ancalima Bacitracin Zinc First AidOintment500 [USP'U]/1gTopicalANCALIMA LIFESCIENCES LIMITED2019-04-08Not applicableUS flag
AntibioticOintment500 [USP'U]/1gTopicalMeijer Distribution Inc2015-04-15Not applicableUS flag
AntibioticOintment500 [USP'U]/1gTopicalTopco Associates LLC2020-04-03Not applicableUS flag
antibiotic Bacitracin ZincOintment500 [iU]/1gTopicalA-S Medication Solutions2006-05-112019-09-30US flag
antibiotic Bacitracin ZincOintment500 [iU]/1gTopicalStrategic Sourcing Services LLC2006-05-11Not applicableUS flag
Baciguent First Aid OintmentOintment500 unit / gTopicalJohnson & Johnson Merck Consumer Pharmaceuticals Of Canada1997-12-192008-08-07Canada flag
Baciguent First Aid Ointment 500units/gmOintment500 unit / gTopicalUpjohn1995-12-312001-07-26Canada flag
Baciguent Ointment 500 UnitsOintment500 unit / gTopicalUpjohn1951-12-311996-09-10Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
10 Person ANSIBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Lidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUS flag
25 Person ANSIBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUS flag
4032 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUS flag
4042 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18US flag
4050 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18US flag
4064 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18US flag
4065 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUS flag
4066 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUS flag
4067 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUS flag
4125 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
4032 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUS flag
4042 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18US flag
4050 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18US flag
4064 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18US flag
4065 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUS flag
4066 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUS flag
4067 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUS flag
4125 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUS flag
4135 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-13Not applicableUS flag
4138 First Aid KitBacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-13Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
J01XX10 — BacitracinD06AX05 — BacitracinR02AB04 — Bacitracin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as polypeptides. These are peptides containing ten or more amino acid residues.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic Polymers
Class
Polypeptides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Polypeptides
Alternative Parents
Cyclic peptides / Glutamic acid and derivatives / Leucine and derivatives / Isoleucine and derivatives / N-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives / Macrolactams / Alpha amino acid amides / Thiazolecarboxamides / Imidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives / Benzene and substituted derivatives
show 16 more
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid amide / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Amine / Amino acid / Amino acid or derivatives / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Benzenoid / Carbonyl group
show 37 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
homodetic cyclic peptide, polypeptide (CHEBI:35862) / Non-ribosomal peptides (C15482)
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
DDA3RRX0P7
CAS number
1405-87-4
InChI Key
CLKOFPXJLQSYAH-ABRJDSQDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C66H103N17O16S/c1-9-35(6)52(69)66-81-48(32-100-66)63(97)76-43(26-34(4)5)59(93)74-42(22-23-50(85)86)58(92)83-53(36(7)10-2)64(98)75-40-20-15-16-25-71-55(89)46(29-49(68)84)78-62(96)47(30-51(87)88)79-61(95)45(28-39-31-70-33-72-39)77-60(94)44(27-38-18-13-12-14-19-38)80-65(99)54(37(8)11-3)82-57(91)41(21-17-24-67)73-56(40)90/h12-14,18-19,31,33-37,40-48,52-54H,9-11,15-17,20-30,32,67,69H2,1-8H3,(H2,68,84)(H,70,72)(H,71,89)(H,73,90)(H,74,93)(H,75,98)(H,76,97)(H,77,94)(H,78,96)(H,79,95)(H,80,99)(H,82,91)(H,83,92)(H,85,86)(H,87,88)/t35-,36-,37-,40-,41+,42+,43-,44+,45-,46-,47+,48-,52-,53-,54-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(4R)-4-[(2S)-2-{[(4R)-2-[(1S,2S)-1-amino-2-methylbutyl]-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]formamido}-4-methylpentanamido]-4-{[(1S,2S)-1-{[(3S,6R,9S,12R,15S,18R,21S)-18-(3-aminopropyl)-12-benzyl-15-[(2S)-butan-2-yl]-3-(carbamoylmethyl)-6-(carboxymethyl)-9-[(1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]-2,5,8,11,14,17,20-heptaoxo-1,4,7,10,13,16,19-heptaazacyclopentacosan-21-yl]carbamoyl}-2-methylbutyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
SMILES
CC[C@H](C)[C@H](N)C1=N[C@@H](CS1)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@H](CCC(O)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)CC)C(=O)N[C@H]1CCCCNC(=O)[C@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)[C@@H](CC(O)=O)NC(=O)[C@H](CC2=CNC=N2)NC(=O)[C@@H](CC2=CC=CC=C2)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@@H](CCCN)NC1=O)[C@@H](C)CC

References

Synthesis Reference

Brigt Oystese, "Zinc bacitracin composition for use as a feed supplement and method for making the same." U.S. Patent US4096246, issued December, 1963.

US4096246
General References
  1. Tay WM, Epperson JD, da Silva GF, Ming LJ: 1H NMR, mechanism, and mononuclear oxidative activity of the antibiotic metallopeptide bacitracin: the role of D-Glu-4, interaction with pyrophosphate moiety, DNA binding and cleavage, and bioactivity. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Apr 28;132(16):5652-61. doi: 10.1021/ja910504t. [Article]
  2. Karala AR, Ruddock LW: Bacitracin is not a specific inhibitor of protein disulfide isomerase. FEBS J. 2010 Jun;277(11):2454-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07660.x. Epub 2010 Apr 30. [Article]
  3. Toscano WA Jr, Storm DR: Bacitracin. Pharmacol Ther. 1982;16(2):199-210. [Article]
  4. Nguyen R, Sun Y: Bacitracin Topical . [Article]
  5. Katsila T, Siskos AP, Tamvakopoulos C: Peptide and protein drugs: the study of their metabolism and catabolism by mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2012 Jan-Feb;31(1):110-33. doi: 10.1002/mas.20340. Epub 2011 Jun 22. [Article]
  6. Eagle H, Newman EV, Greif R, Burkholder TM, Goodman SC, Musselman AD: THE BLOOD LEVELS AND RENAL CLEARANCE IN RABBITS AND MAN OF AN ANTIBIOTIC DERIVED FROM B. SUBTILIS (BACITRACIN). J Clin Invest. 1947 Sep;26(5):919-28. doi: 10.1172/JCI101886. [Article]
  7. Authors unspecified: Bacitracin . [Article]
  8. 2. (2018). In Poisoning & Drug Overdose (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. [ISBN:978-0-07-183979-2]
  9. FDA Approved Drug Products: Bacitracin Injection [Link]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Polymyxin B Ophthalmic Ointment [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Bacitracin, Neomycin, Polymyxin B, and Hydrocortisone Topical Ointment [Link]
  12. Pfizer: Corticosporin Safety Data Sheet [Link]
  13. FDA Briefing Document: Bacitracin for Intramuscular Injection [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014764
KEGG Drug
D00128
KEGG Compound
C15482
PubChem Compound
10909430
PubChem Substance
46504727
ChemSpider
9084687
RxNav
1291
ChEBI
35862
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200558
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000710
PharmGKB
PA448531
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Bacitracin
AHFS Codes
  • 52:04.04 — Antibacterials
  • 84:04.04 — Antibiotics
  • 08:12.28.08 — Bacitracins
MSDS
Download (71.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionAntibiotic Allergy / Antibiotic Side Effect / Eyelid Diseases / Eyelid; Wound / Postoperative Wound Infection / Skin Cancer Face / Surgical Incision / Surgical Site Infections / Surgical Wound, Recent1
4CompletedPreventionArrhythmia2
4CompletedPreventionEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
4CompletedPreventionSkin Infections1
4CompletedPreventionUrinary Tract Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
4CompletedTreatmentArteriovenous Fistulas1
4CompletedTreatmentBurns1
4RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentPartial Thickness Burn1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • X gen pharmaceuticals inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Pfizer laboratories div pfizer inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Sagent pharmaceuticals inc
  • Altana inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Pharmaderm div altana inc
  • Pharmafair inc
  • Combe inc
  • Naska pharmacal co inc div rugby darby group cosmetics
  • Apothekernes laboratorium a/s
  • Paddock laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Amend
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • DSM Corp.
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Fera Pharmaceuticals
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Toku E Company
  • X-Gen Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitOphthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitOral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitRespiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitIrrigation; Ophthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitIrrigation; Ophthalmic; Topical
KitIrrigation; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitIrrigation; Ophthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
OintmentTopical500 1/1g
KitOral; Topical
KitTopical
OintmentOphthalmic500 unit / g
OintmentTopical500 unit / g
CreamTopical500 U/0.9g
CreamTopical500 [iU]/1g
InjectionIntramuscular50000 [iU]/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular5000 [USP'U]/1mL
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular50000 [iU]/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular50000 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular50000 [iU]/10mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular50000 [USP'U]/1
OintmentOphthalmic500 [iU]/1g
OintmentOphthalmic500 [USP'U]/1g
OintmentTopical500 [iU]/1g
OintmentTopical500 1/1000mg
OintmentTopical500 1/1
Ointment
GranuleOral
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Topical50000 unit / vial
OintmentTopical500 [USP'U]/1g
PowderNot applicable1 kg/1kg
OintmentCutaneous
Ointment; swabTopical
SyrupOral
TabletOral
KitElectro-osmosis
SolutionCutaneous
KitOral
OintmentTopical.51 g/100g
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Topical
KitOphthalmic
KitOphthalmic; Topical
StickTopical
PowderOral
OintmentOphthalmic
GelTopical
CreamTopical500 unit / g
PowderTopical
OintmentOphthalmic; Topical
CreamTopical
OintmentTopical500 U/1g
CreamTopical500 U/1g
LiquidTopical
Cream
OintmentTopical
OintmentTopical400 [USP'U]/1g
PatchCutaneous
Powder, for solutionOral
SprayTopical500 [USP'U]/1g
SwabTopical
OintmentTopical500 U/1mL
CreamTopical500 [USP'U]/1g
LozengeOral
Tablet
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Bacitracin 5mm unit powder126.0USD each
Baciim strl 50000 unit vial19.8USD vial
Bacitracin 50000 unit vial13.31USD vial
Bacitracin 500 unit/gm ointmnt9.69USD g
CVS Pharmacy bacitracin 500 unit/gm oin0.15USD g
Sm first aid bacitracin ointmn0.1USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityFreely solubleO'Neil, M.J. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013., p. 166
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0245 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.9ALOGPS
logP-6.8ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.63ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count20ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count17ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area530.87 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count31ChemAxon
Refractivity363.14 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability149.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7857
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9943
Caco-2 permeable-0.7639
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7416
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.898
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9697
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9073
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7482
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7884
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5435
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9011
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9122
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7225
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9045
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9799
Rat acute toxicity2.8201 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9936
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6586
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Gram positive and gram negative bacteria
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
References
  1. Stone KJ, Strominger JL: Mechanism of action of bacitracin: complexation with metal ion and C 55 -isoprenyl pyrophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Dec;68(12):3223-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by A...
Gene Name
IDE
Uniprot ID
P14735
Uniprot Name
Insulin-degrading enzyme
Molecular Weight
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
  2. Medina V, Kesner L, Stracher A: Purification of nonantibiotic insulinase inhibitors from bacitracin. Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1993 Apr;49(2):255-64. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Tumor necrosis factor binding
Specific Function
Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for differen...
Gene Name
A2M
Uniprot ID
P01023
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-macroglobulin
Molecular Weight
163289.945 Da
References
  1. Maxfield FR, Davies PJ, Klempner L, Willingham MC, Pastan I: Epidermal growth factor stimulation of DNA synthesis is potentiated by compounds that inhibit its clustering in coated pits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Nov;76(11):5731-5. [Article]
  2. Dickson RB, Willingham MC, Pastan I: Binding and internalization of 125I-alpha 2-macroglobulin by cultured fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1981 Apr 10;256(7):3454-9. [Article]
  3. Dickson RB, Willingham MC, Gallo M, Pastan I: Inhibition by bacitracin of high affinity binding of 125I-alpha 2M to plasma membranes. FEBS Lett. 1981 Apr 20;126(2):265-8. [Article]
  4. Hanover JA, Cheng S, Willingham MC, Pastan IH: alpha 2-Macroglobulin binding to cultured fibroblasts. Solubilization and partial purification of binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jan 10;258(1):370-7. [Article]
  5. Gliemann J, Larsen TR, Sottrup-Jensen L: Cell association and degradation of alpha 2-macroglobulin-trypsin complexes in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983 Mar 31;756(2):230-7. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus licheniformis
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for bacitracin that confer resistance to this antibiotic. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system (By similarity).
Specific Function
Atp binding
Gene Name
bcrA
Uniprot ID
P42332
Uniprot Name
Bacitracin transport ATP-binding protein BcrA
Molecular Weight
34641.065 Da
References
  1. Podlesek Z, Comino A, Herzog-Velikonja B, Zgur-Bertok D, Komel R, Grabnar M: Bacillus licheniformis bacitracin-resistance ABC transporter: relationship to mammalian multidrug resistance. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Jun;16(5):969-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.tb02322.x. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus licheniformis
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for bacitracin that confer resistance to this antibiotic; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane.
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
bcrB
Uniprot ID
P42333
Uniprot Name
Bacitracin transport permease protein BCRB
Molecular Weight
23323.755 Da
References
  1. Podlesek Z, Comino A, Herzog-Velikonja B, Zgur-Bertok D, Komel R, Grabnar M: Bacillus licheniformis bacitracin-resistance ABC transporter: relationship to mammalian multidrug resistance. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Jun;16(5):969-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.tb02322.x. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus licheniformis
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for bacitracin that confer resistance to this antibiotic; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane.
Specific Function
Undecaprenyl-diphosphatase activity
Gene Name
bcrC
Uniprot ID
P42334
Uniprot Name
Bacitracin transport permease protein BcrC
Molecular Weight
23274.21 Da
References
  1. Podlesek Z, Comino A, Herzog-Velikonja B, Zgur-Bertok D, Komel R, Grabnar M: Bacillus licheniformis bacitracin-resistance ABC transporter: relationship to mammalian multidrug resistance. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Jun;16(5):969-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.tb02322.x. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on June 23, 2021 06:08