Formaldehyde

Identification

Summary

Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring hazardous organic compound used as a preservative in animal feed, cosmetic products, laboratory procedures, disinfection, and home building products.

Brand Names
Forma-ray, Formadon
Generic Name
Formaldehyde
DrugBank Accession Number
DB03843
Background

A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 30.026
Monoisotopic: 30.010564686
Chemical Formula
CH2O
Synonyms
  • Formaldehído
  • Formaldehyd
  • Formaldehyde
  • Formaldehyde solution
  • Formalin
  • Formic aldehyde
  • Formol
  • Methanal
  • Methyl aldehyde
  • Methylene oxide
  • Oxomethane
  • Oxomethylene
  • Oxymethylene
  • Paraform
External IDs
  • NSC-298885

Pharmacology

Indication

Use for drying skin before or after surgical removal of warts or where dryness is required.

Pharmacology
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Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Not Available

Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UD-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidaseNot AvailableStreptomyces sp. (strain R61)
UHematopoietic stem cellsNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 42 mg/kg [Mouse].

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Methadone Action PathwayDrug action
Imipramine Action PathwayDrug action
Citalopram Action PathwayDrug action
Codeine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Venlafaxine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Fluoxetine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Non-Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDisease
SarcosinemiaDisease
Fluoxetine Action PathwayDrug action
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug action
Teniposide Action PathwayDrug action
Etoposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Teniposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Tamoxifen Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Nicotine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Tramadol Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Levomethadyl Acetate Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Artemether Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Caffeine MetabolismMetabolic
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)Disease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug action
Codeine Action PathwayDrug action
Etoposide Action PathwayDrug action
Tamoxifen Action PathwayDrug action
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Calcium carbimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium carbimide is combined with Formaldehyde.
DisulfiramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Disulfiram is combined with Formaldehyde.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Forma-RayLiquid.2 mL/59mLTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-07-15Not applicableUS flag
FormadonLiquid0.1 mL/59mLTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-06-21Not applicableUS flag
FormalazLiquid100 mg/1gTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-09-162012-10-31US flag
FormaldehydeSolution100 mg/1mLTopicalRochester Pharmaceuticals2011-04-272019-07-08US flag
FormaldehydeLiquid8.505 g/88.72059mLTopicalBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-01-012010-10-31US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
British Army Foot PwrFormaldehyde (.75 mg) + Boric acid (6 mg) + Salicylic acid (3 mg) + Zinc oxide (6 mg)PowderTopicalRegal Pharms, Division Of Bradcan Corporation1980-12-312001-07-11Canada flag
Root Canal TherapyFormaldehyde (19 %) + Cresol (35 %)LiquidDentalAmd Medicom Inc1999-11-262006-08-03Canada flag
T.R.U.E. Test Thin-Layer Rapid Use Patch TestFormaldehyde (146 ug/48h) + 2,2'-Dibenzothiazyl disulfide (20 ug/48h) + 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (61 ug/48h) + 4-(Isopropylamino)diphenylamine (10 ug/48h) + Bacitracin (486 ug/48h) + Balsam of Peru (648 ug/48h) + Benzocaine (378 ug/48h) + Benzylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (32 ug/48h) + Bromothalonil (4 ug/48h) + Bronopol (203 ug/48h) + Budesonide (0.8 ug/48h) + Butylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Chlorquinaldol (77 ug/48h) + Cinchocaine hydrochloride (66 ug/48h) + Cinnamaldehyde (41 ug/48h) + Cinnamyl alcohol (63 ug/48h) + Clioquinol (77 ug/48h) + Cobalt chloride hexahydrate (4 ug/48h) + Diazolidinylurea (446 ug/48h) + Potassium dichromate (15.7 ug/48h) + Dipentamethylenethiuram disulfide (5.5 ug/48h) + Diphenylguanidine (68 ug/48h) + Disperse Blue 106 (41 ug/48h) + Disulfiram (5.5 ug/48h) + Ditiocarb zinc (68 ug/48h) + Ethyl hydroxybenzoate (162 ug/48h) + Ethylenediamine (18 ug/48h) + Eugenol (41 ug/48h) + Evernia prunastri (81 ug/48h) + Geraniol (81 ug/48h) + Hydrocortisone butyrate (16 ug/48h) + Hydroxycitronellal (63 ug/48h) + Imidurea (486 ug/48h) + Isoeugenol (17 ug/48h) + Lanolin alcohols (810 ug/48h) + Methylchloroisothiazolinone (3 ug/48h) + Methylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Morpholinylmercaptobenzothiazole (20 ug/48h) + N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (25 ug/48h) + N-Cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (25 ug/48h) + Neomycin sulfate (486 ug/48h) + Nickel sulfate hexahydrate (36 ug/48h) + Parthenolide (2 ug/48h) + Propylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Quaternium-15 (81 ug/48h) + Rosin (972 ug/48h) + Sodium aurotiosulfate (23 ug/48h) + Tetracaine hydrochloride (66 ug/48h) + Tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (5.5 ug/48h) + Thimerosal (6 ug/48h) + Thiohexam (20 ug/48h) + Thiram (5.5 ug/48h) + Tixocortol pivalate (2 ug/48h) + Zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (68 ug/48h) + alpha-Amyl cinnamaldehyde (17 ug/48h) + p-Phenylenediamine (65 ug/48h) + p-tert-Butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (low molecular weight) (36 ug/48h)PatchCutaneousSmartPractice Denmark ApS2012-03-01Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Forma-RayFormaldehyde (.2 mL/59mL)LiquidTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-07-15Not applicableUS flag
FormadonFormaldehyde (0.1 mL/59mL)LiquidTopicalGordon Laboratories2010-06-21Not applicableUS flag
FormalazFormaldehyde (100 mg/1g)LiquidTopicalRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-09-162012-10-31US flag
FormaldehydeFormaldehyde (100 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalRochester Pharmaceuticals2011-04-272019-07-08US flag
FormaldehydeFormaldehyde (8.505 g/88.72059mL)LiquidTopicalBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-01-012010-10-31US flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carbonyl compounds. These are organic compounds containing a carbonyl group, with the general structure RC(=O)R', where R=organyl, R'=H, N, O, organyl group or halide group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbonyl compounds
Direct Parent
Carbonyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Carbonyl group / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
one-carbon compound, aldehyde (CHEBI:16842) / an <i>n</i>-alkanal (FORMALDEHYDE)
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
1HG84L3525
CAS number
50-00-0
InChI Key
WSFSSNUMVMOOMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/CH2O/c1-2/h1H2
IUPAC Name
formaldehyde
SMILES
[H]C([H])=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Walter Hasselman, Jr., "Process for the preparation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde condensation products." U.S. Patent US4345061, issued August, 1926.

US4345061
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001426
KEGG Drug
D00017
KEGG Compound
C00067
PubChem Compound
712
PubChem Substance
46505094
ChemSpider
692
RxNav
314636
ChEBI
16842
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1255
PharmGKB
PA449703
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
FOR
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Formaldehyde
PDB Entries
1jlx / 1jly / 1oao / 1pw1 / 1r1l / 1rdg / 1wyk / 2rus / 2wyl / 3etc
show 17 more
MSDS
Download (82.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionTick-borne Encephalitis (TBE)1
3CompletedPreventionTick-borne Encephalitis (TBE)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTick-borne Encephalitis (TBE)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • AIG Technologies Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • DSHealthcare Inc.
  • Epic Pharma LLC
  • Gordon Laboratories
  • Harmony Laboratories Inc.
  • Moyco Union Broach
  • PEDiNOL
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderTopical
LiquidTopical.2 mL/59mL
LiquidTopical0.1 mL/59mL
LiquidTopical100 mg/1g
LiquidTopical8.505 g/88.72059mL
SolutionTopical100 mg/1mL
LiquidDental
PatchCutaneous
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Gas
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-92 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)-19.1 °CPhysProp
water solubility4E+005 mg/L (at 20 °C)PICKRELL,JA ET AL. (1983)
logP0.35HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa13.3 (at 25 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility198.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.68ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.82ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-8.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity6.31 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.58 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9757
Blood Brain Barrier+0.982
Caco-2 permeable+0.7834
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8663
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9633
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9831
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9145
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8628
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9157
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8203
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8503
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9662
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9735
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9531
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.977
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9443
Ames testAMES toxic0.645
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6567
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7562
Rat acute toxicity2.5082 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9573
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9823
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-58b4df664ee160d1f943
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-793a330f9e6c7661e86d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-793a330f9e6c7661e86d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-793a330f9e6c7661e86d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-5ea4ad4bdb0565b737bb
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-5ea4ad4bdb0565b737bb
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-5ea4ad4bdb0565b737bb
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces sp. (strain R61)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes distinct carboxypeptidation and transpeptidation reactions during the last stages of wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Mistaking a beta-lactam antibiotic molecule for a normal substrate (i.e....
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P15555
Uniprot Name
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase
Molecular Weight
42916.725 Da
2. Hematopoietic stem cells
Kind
Group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
References
  1. Goldstein BD: Hematological and toxicological evaluation of formaldehyde as a potential cause of human leukemia. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011 Jul;30(7):725-35. doi: 10.1177/0960327110381682. Epub 2010 Aug 20. [PubMed:20729258]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on January 07, 2021 03:10