Identification

Name
Pancuronium
Accession Number
DB01337
Description

A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than curare but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 572.8619
Monoisotopic: 572.455308418
Chemical Formula
C35H60N2O4
Synonyms
  • Pancuronium

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as a muscle relaxant during anesthesia and surgical procedures.

Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Pancuronium is a non-depolarising muscle relaxant similar to curare. It acts as a competitive acetylcholine antagonist on neuromuscular junctions, displacing acetylcholine (hence competitive) from its post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is, unlike suxamethonium, a non-depolarising agent, which means, that it causes no spontaneous depolarisations upon association with the nicotinic receptor in neuromuscular junction, thus producing no muscle fasciculations upon administration. Pancuronium has no hormonal activity. It exerts slight vagolytic activity (i.e. diminishing activity of the vagus nerve) and no ganglioplegic (i.e., blocking ganglions) activity.

Mechanism of action

Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents inhibit neuromuscular transmission by competing with acetylcholine for the cholinergic receptors of the motor end plate, thereby reducing the response of the end plate to acetylcholine. This type of neuromuscular block is usually antagonized by anticholinesterase agents.

TargetActionsOrganism
ANeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
  • 241 to 280 mL/kg
Protein binding

77 to 91%

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

1.5 to 2.7 hours.

Clearance
  • Plasma cl=1.1–1.9 mL/minute/kg
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcebutololPancuronium may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Pancuronium.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetophenazine is combined with Pancuronium.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pancuronium is combined with Acetylcholine.
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of Cardiac Arrhythmia can be increased when Pancuronium is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pancuronium is combined with Aclidinium.
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acyclovir is combined with Pancuronium.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Adenosine is combined with Pancuronium.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pancuronium is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Pancuronium.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Pancuronium bromideU9LY9Y75X215500-66-0NPIJXCQZLFKBMV-YTGGZNJNSA-L
International/Other Brands
Mioblock / Pavulon
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Pancuronium Bromide - Liq IV 1mg/mlSolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Pancuronium Bromide - Liq IV 2mg/mlSolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1996-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Pancuronium Bromide 1mg/mlSolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1996-10-242018-11-29Canada flag
Pancuronium Bromide 2mg/mlSolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1995-12-312018-11-29Canada flag
Pavulon Inj 1mg/mlLiquidIntravenousOrganon Canada Ltd Ltee1979-12-311997-08-18Canada flag
Pavulon Inj 2mg/mlLiquidIntravenousOrganon Canada Ltd Ltee1973-12-311997-08-18Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Pancuronium BromideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1990-08-012012-11-30US flag
Pancuronium BromideInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-10-11Not applicableUS flag
Pancuronium BromideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1990-08-012012-07-31US flag
Pancuronium BromideInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1990-08-012012-11-30US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more

Categories

ATC Codes
M03AC01 — Pancuronium
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as steroid esters. These are compounds containing a steroid moiety which bears a carboxylic acid ester group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Steroid esters
Direct Parent
Steroid esters
Alternative Parents
Androstane steroids / Piperidines / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Tetraalkylammonium salts / Carboxylic acid esters / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 3 more
Substituents
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound / Amine / Androstane-skeleton / Azacycle / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid ester / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic cation
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
acetate ester, steroid ester (CHEBI:7907)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
J76UF062FS
CAS number
16974-53-1
InChI Key
GVEAYVLWDAFXET-XGHATYIMSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C35H60N2O4/c1-24(38)40-32-21-26-13-14-27-28(35(26,4)23-31(32)37(6)19-11-8-12-20-37)15-16-34(3)29(27)22-30(33(34)41-25(2)39)36(5)17-9-7-10-18-36/h26-33H,7-23H2,1-6H3/q+2/t26-,27+,28-,29-,30-,31-,32-,33-,34-,35-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
1-[(1S,2S,4S,5S,7S,10R,11S,13S,14R,15S)-5,14-bis(acetyloxy)-2,15-dimethyl-13-(1-methylpiperidin-1-ium-1-yl)tetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-4-yl]-1-methylpiperidin-1-ium
SMILES

References

General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015430
KEGG Compound
C07551
PubChem Compound
441289
PubChem Substance
46506118
ChemSpider
390052
RxNav
7883
ChEBI
7907
ChEMBL
CHEMBL185073
ZINC
ZINC000004097383
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000123
PharmGKB
PA450771
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pancuronium
AHFS Codes
  • 12:20.20 — Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Elkins-Sinn Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous4 mg
Injection, solution4 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solution2 mg/1mL
LiquidIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Pancuronium 2 mg/ml vial2.59USD ml
Pancuronium 1 mg/ml vial0.13USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)215 °CPhysProp
water solubility5E+005 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.08e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.04ALOGPS
logP-3.3ChemAxon
logS-8.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity185.22 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability69.44 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8913
Blood Brain Barrier+0.878
Caco-2 permeable+0.5457
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.77
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6962
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6508
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6862
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8382
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7638
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.742
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9368
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7499
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9265
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8557
Rat acute toxicity2.6653 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9021
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7784
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID
Q15822
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  2. Dilger JP, Vidal AM, Liu M, Mettewie C, Suzuki T, Pham A, Demazumder D: Roles of amino acids and subunits in determining the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by competitive antagonists. Anesthesiology. 2007 Jun;106(6):1186-95. [PubMed:17525594]
  3. Jonsson Fagerlund M, Dabrowski M, Eriksson LI: Pharmacological characteristics of the inhibition of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents at human adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Anesthesiology. 2009 Jun;110(6):1244-52. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31819fade3. [PubMed:19417616]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Milchert M, Spassov A, Meissner K, Nedeljkov V, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Loster BW, Mazurkiewicz-Janik M, Gedrange T, Pavlovic D: Skeletal muscle relaxants inhibit rat tracheal smooth muscle tone in vitro. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;60 Suppl 8:5-11. [PubMed:20400785]
  2. Cembala TM, Forde SC, Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Allosteric interaction of the neuromuscular blockers vecuronium and pancuronium with recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 13;569(1-2):37-40. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17588565]
  3. Okanlami OA, Fryer AD, Hirshman C: Interaction of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants with M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig lung and heart. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jan;84(1):155-61. [PubMed:8572329]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Milchert M, Spassov A, Meissner K, Nedeljkov V, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Loster BW, Mazurkiewicz-Janik M, Gedrange T, Pavlovic D: Skeletal muscle relaxants inhibit rat tracheal smooth muscle tone in vitro. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;60 Suppl 8:5-11. [PubMed:20400785]
  2. Okanlami OA, Fryer AD, Hirshman C: Interaction of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants with M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig lung and heart. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jan;84(1):155-61. [PubMed:8572329]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Stovner J, Oftedal N, Holmboe J: The inhibition of cholinesterases by pancuronium. Br J Anaesth. 1975 Sep;47(9):949-54. [PubMed:1191483]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Lozano E, Herraez E, Briz O, Robledo VS, Hernandez-Iglesias J, Gonzalez-Hernandez A, Marin JJ: Role of the plasma membrane transporter of organic cations OCT1 and its genetic variants in modern liver pharmacology. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:692071. doi: 10.1155/2013/692071. Epub 2013 Jul 31. [PubMed:23984399]
  2. van Montfoort JE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Koepsell H, Meier PJ: Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):110-5. [PubMed:11408531]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Gorboulev V, Ulzheimer JC, Akhoundova A, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Karbach U, Quester S, Baumann C, Lang F, Busch AE, Koepsell H: Cloning and characterization of two human polyspecific organic cation transporters. DNA Cell Biol. 1997 Jul;16(7):871-81. [PubMed:9260930]

Drug created on June 30, 2007 12:07 / Updated on October 25, 2020 09:16

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