- Eucalyptus oil
- Accession Number
Eucalyptus oil is a distilled oil derived from the leaves of the tree Eucalyptus. It is shown to be effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation via its modulatory effect on the immune response. It is also shown to exhibit antibacterial activity against some bacterial species and cough suppressant actions. Eucalyptus oil can be applied directly to the skin for pain and swelling of respiratory tract mucous membranes, joint pain, genital herpes, and nasal stuffiness.
- Blue gum leaf oil
- Dinkum oil
- Eucalypti aetheroleum
- Eucalyptus essential oil
- Eucalyptus globulus leaf essential oil
- Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil
- Eucalyptus globulus leaf water
- Eucalyptus globulus leaf/twig oil
- Eucalyptus globulus oil
- Eucalyptus globulus oil burundia
- Eucalyptus globulus oil pakistan
- Eucalyptus globulus oil rwanda
- Eucalyptus globulus oil zambia
- Eucalyptus leaf oil
- Eucalyptus oil
- Eucalyptus terpene oil
- Eucalyptus volatile oil
- Eukalyptus oel
- Oil of eucalyptus
- Southern blue gum leaf oil
- Tasmanian blue gum leaf oil
- External IDs
- Caswell No. 618A
- Fema no. 2466
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As an active agent, eucalyptus oil has been indicated for relief of the symptoms of catarrhal colds, and/or the relief of the symptoms of minor muscular sprains and cramps 24.
- Associated Conditions
- Associated Therapies
- Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
- Contraindications & Blackbox WarningsWith our commercial data, access important information on dangerous risks, contraindications, and adverse effects.Our Blackbox Warnings cover Risks, Contraindications, and Adverse Effects
Lipophilic monoterpene formulations of eucalyptus oil appear to be readily absorbed orally, with a primarily oxidative metabolism that might necessitate induction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and subsequent urinary excretion 6. Gastrointestinal absorption of eucalyptus appears to be rapid and may be enhanced by the intake of lipids and milk. 1,8-cineole (which makes up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils) 4 has also been found in vitro and in animals to possess cytochrome P450 inducing activity 7,8,9.
- Mechanism of action
The general consensus is that the exact mechanism of action of eucalyptus oil is largely unknown at this time but comprises various hypotheses from various studies.
Cineol containing preparations of eucalyptus oil may contain up to 80% (or more) 1,8-cineole 13 and is one of the most common types of eucalyptus oil formulations used. As an active agent indicated for relieving certain cold symptoms and/or certain muscular sprains and cramps, it is believed that eucalyptus oil may possess some antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Some in vitro studies of human blood monocytes suggest a dose-dependent effect of eucalyptus oil to elicit significant inhibition of multiple cytokines, perhaps in the treatment of airway inflammation 14,15. Moreover, other studies in animal models discuss the possibility of eucalyptus oil demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects that potentially account for inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and cytokines by stimulated monocytes in vitro 16,17.
Furthermore, additional studies have observed eucalyptus oil anti-viral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1, HSV-2) in cell cultures as well as the demonstration of broad antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus medicinal plant extracts against Alicyclobacillus acidoterretris, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, MRSA, Propionibacterium acnes, S. aureus, fungus including C. albicans isolates, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and other Gram-positive bacteria. Specific activity against periodontopathic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus has also been observed 18,19,20,21,22.
Common monoterpenoid compound preparations of eucalyptus oil have been observed to be readily absorbed after dermal application, likely due to their lipophilic character 5. Although maximal plasma levels were demonstrated in as short a time period as 10 minutes even with thicker preparations like eucalyptus oil ointments, like many other topically applied agents, the extent of absorption is also likely largely dependent upon additional factors like the size of treated skin area, patient skin condition(s), concentrations of the applied substance, and time of exposure to the substance 5.
Currently, more data regarding the oral absorption of eucalyptus would be useful, given the relative lack of existing information 5. Lipophilic monoterpene compound formulations of eucalyptus oil seems to be readily absorbed orally 6. Regardless, there is some data that suggests that the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract has no particularly significant role in the absorption of cineole based eucalyptus oil 5.
Pulmonary absorption of eucalyptus oil is also possible although little information exists regarding this element at the moment. Nevertheless, 1,8-cineol (which makes up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils) 4 appears to be well absorbed via inhalation with peak plasma levels observed reportedly at 18 minutes 10.
Given the three main constituents from Eucalyptus globulus Labill fruits, the intestinal absorption of macrocarpal A (M-A), macrocarpal B (M-B), and cypellocarpa C (Cy-C) is predominantly via passive diffusion while Cy-C demonstrates some partly ATP-dependent absorption 12.
- Volume of distribution
Studies have determined a large terminal volume of distribution for cineole or eucalyptol (which makes up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils) of 27 l/kg in brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) 4.
- Protein binding
- Not Available
With in vivo models, eucalyptol or cineole (which make up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils), undergoes oxidation to form hydroxycineole which is excreted as glucuronide 23. In rats, 2-hydroxycineole, 3-hydroxycineole, and 1,8--dihydroxycineol-9-oic acid were identified as main urinary metabolites 23. After oral administration to brushtail possums, p-cresol, 9-hydroxycineole, and Cineole-9-oic acid were found in urine 23. Rabbits given eucalyptol by savage excreted 2-exo- and 2-endo-hydroxycineole in the urine 23.
The monterpene bicyclic ketone verbenone is a known component in eucalyptus globules 11. In one study, this component was observed to be converted to 10-hydroxyverbenone by rat and human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, and indicated that CYP2A6 is a principal enzyme in verbenone hydroxylation in humans 11.
- Route of elimination
Studies suggest the route of elimination for cineole or eucalyptol (which makes up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils) in brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), rats, and rabbit subjects as being in the urine 4.
Studies have determined a terminal half-life for cineole or eucalyptol (which makes up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils) of approximately 7h in brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) 4.
Studies have determined a high clearance rate for cineole or eucalyptol (which makes up to as much as 90% of most commonly used cineole-based eucalyptus oils) of 43 ml/min/kg in brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) 4.
- Adverse Effects
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Overdose with eucalyptus oil may result in epigastric burning, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, muscular weakness, mitosis, tachycardia, a sensation of suffocation, cyanosis, ataxia, pulmonary damage, delirium, convulsions, CNS depression, coma. Deaths have been recorded from doses as low as 3.5 ml.
The given oral LD50 for rats is 2480 mg/kg MSDS
- Affected organisms
- Humans and other mammals
- Not Available
- Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
- Not Available
- Drug Interactions
- This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Drug Interaction Abacavir Abacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Aceclofenac Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Acemetacin Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Acetaminophen Acetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Acetazolamide Acetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy. Acetylsalicylic acid Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Aclidinium Aclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Acrivastine Acrivastine may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Acyclovir Acyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level. Adefovir dipivoxil Adefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Eucalyptus oil which could result in a higher serum level.Improve patient outcomesBuild effective decision support tools with the industry’s most comprehensive drug-drug interaction checker.Learn more
- Food Interactions
- Not Available
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- Over the Counter Products
Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Eucalyptus Oil Liquid Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical Stanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc. 1972-12-31 2000-07-27 Eucalyptus Oil Liquid Topical Dawson Traders Ltd. 1977-12-31 2006-03-22 Eucalyptus Oil Liquid Respiratory (inhalation) Regal Pharms, Division Of Bradcan Corporation 1983-12-31 1998-07-29 Eucalyptus Oil Liq 100% Liquid Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical Jedmon Products Ltd. 1990-12-31 2006-03-22 น้ำมันยูคาลิปตัส Oil 100 ml/100ml Nasal บริษัท วิทยาศรม จำกัด 1986-11-07 Not applicable น้ำมันยูคาลิปตัส Aerosol Respiratory (inhalation) บริษัท วี.เอส.ฟาร์ม่า (1971) จำกัด จำกัด 2005-08-06 2019-10-21 น้ำมันยูคาลิปตัส โบสิสโต ตรานกแก้ว Oil 100 ml/100ml Topical บริษัท ดี.เอช.เอ. (ลาบอราทอรี่) จำกัด จำกัด 2013-06-12 Not applicable ยูคาลิปตัส Oil 100 ml/100ml Nasal ห้างหุ้นส่วนจำกัด โรงงานผลิตยาอันอันโอสถ 1987-09-04 Not applicable
- Mixture Products
Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image 4Jointz Eucalyptus oil (4 g/100g) + Allantoin (0.025 g/100g) + Tannic acid (5 g/100g) Cream Topical Arp(usa) Pty Ltd 2017-01-31 2018-04-05 4oz Medicated Chest Rub Eucalyptus oil (1 g/100g) + Levomenthol (1 g/100g) + Synthetic camphor (4.7 g/100g) Ointment Topical Pride Products Corporation 2017-12-01 Not applicable Allure Vaporizing Chest Rub Eucalyptus oil (1.0 g/100g) + Levomenthol (1.0 g/100g) + Synthetic camphor (4.7 g/100g) Gel Topical Universal Distribution Center LLC 2012-06-30 Not applicable Amar Vaporizing Chest Rub Eucalyptus oil (1.6 g/100g) + Levomenthol (3.15 g/100g) + Synthetic camphor (5.25 g/100g) Ointment Topical Amar Remedies Limited - Mumbai 2010-05-01 Not applicable Amoray Care Chest Rub Eucalyptus oil (1 g/113g) + Camphor (4.7 g/113g) + Levomenthol (2 g/113g) Gel Topical My Import Inc 2010-03-10 2017-02-10 AMORAY Chest Rub Eucalyptus oil (2.6 g/100g) + Levomenthol (1.2 g/100g) + Synthetic camphor (4.8 g/100g) Ointment Topical My Imports USA LLC 2019-04-09 Not applicable Amrutanjan Relief Cold Rub Eucalyptus oil (0.012 g/1g) + Levomenthol (0.026 g/1g) + Synthetic camphor (0.048 g/1g) Ointment Topical Amrutanjan Health Care Limited 2020-12-22 Not applicable Analgesic Balm Eucalyptus oil (2.5 %) + Guaiacol (1.25 %) + Levomenthol (3.12 %) + Methyl salicylate (25 %) Ointment Topical Stanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc. 1965-12-31 2000-07-27 Antiphlogistine Rub A 535 Extra Strength Eucalyptus oil (.5 %) + Camphor (1 %) + Levomenthol (.75 %) + Methyl salicylate (18 %) Ointment Topical Carter Products, Division Of Carter Wallace Ns Inc. 1983-12-31 1997-08-14 Antiphlogistine Rub A535 Eucalyptus oil (.5 %) + Camphor (1 %) + Levomenthol (.75 %) + Methyl salicylate (12.5 %) Ointment Topical Carter Products, Division Of Carter Wallace Ns Inc. 1957-12-31 1997-08-14
- Unapproved/Other Products
Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Cellskin Clean Pine Mist Eucalyptus oil (0.01 g/100mL) + Grapefruit (0.05 g/100mL) + Tea tree oil (0.01 g/100mL) Spray Topical Gtg Wellness Co., Ltd. 2020-07-01 Not applicable Elmore Oil Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) Oil Topical Elmore Oil Company Pty Ltd 2013-07-01 Not applicable Elmore Oil Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) Oil Topical Ultra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd 2015-02-16 Not applicable Golf Pain Away GPA Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) Oil Topical Elmore Oil Company Pty Ltd 2012-06-01 Not applicable Jikimi Patch Eucalyptus oil (0.2 1/1) + Ethanol (0.07 1/1) + Levomenthol (0.03 1/1) Patch Topical BM Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. 2020-05-01 Not applicable Muscle and Joint Heat Cream Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1g) + Methyl salicylate (50 mg/1g) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1g) Cream Topical Ultra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd 2015-02-16 Not applicable Original Pain Relief Cream Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1g) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1g) Cream Topical Ultra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd 2015-02-16 Not applicable Out Back Pain Relief Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) Oil Topical Ultra Mix (Aust) Pty Ltd 2015-02-16 Not applicable Out Back Pain Relief Eucalyptus oil (38.6 mg/1mL) + Tea tree oil (42.5 mg/1mL) Oil Topical Elmore Oil Company Pty Ltd 2012-10-01 Not applicable PHS Hair Science Adv Revitalizing Scalp Ampoule Eucalyptus oil (0.05 1/10mL) + Allantoin (0.1 1/10mL) Liquid Topical Revamp International Pte. Ltd. 2014-09-17 Not applicable
- Drug Categories
- Not classified
- CAS number
- General References
- Jun YS, Kang P, Min SS, Lee JM, Kim HK, Seol GH: Effect of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement: a randomized clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:502727. doi: 10.1155/2013/502727. Epub 2013 Jun 18. [PubMed:23853660]
- Serafino A, Sinibaldi Vallebona P, Andreola F, Zonfrillo M, Mercuri L, Federici M, Rasi G, Garaci E, Pierimarchi P: Stimulatory effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on innate cell-mediated immune response. BMC Immunol. 2008 Apr 18;9:17. doi: 10.1186/1471-2172-9-17. [PubMed:18423004]
- Bachir RG, Benali M: Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Sep;2(9):739-42. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60220-2. [PubMed:23570005]
- McLean S, Boyle RR, Brandon S, Davies NW, Sorensen JS: Pharmacokinetics of 1,8-cineole, a dietary toxin, in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula): significance for feeding. Xenobiotica. 2007 Sep;37(9):903-22. doi: 10.1080/00498250701570277. [PubMed:17896321]
- Kohlert C, van Rensen I, Marz R, Schindler G, Graefe EU, Veit M: Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of natural volatile terpenes in animals and humans. Planta Med. 2000 Aug;66(6):495-505. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-8616. [PubMed:10985073]
- McLean S, Foley WJ: Metabolism of Eucalyptus terpenes by herbivorous marsupials. Drug Metab Rev. 1997 Feb-May;29(1-2):213-8. [PubMed:9187519]
- Jori A, Bianchetti A, Prestini PE, Gerattini S: Effect of eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) on the metabolism of other drugs in rats and in man. Eur J Pharmacol. 1970 Mar;9(3):362-6. [PubMed:5440307]
- Pass GJ, McLean S, Stupans I, Davies N: Microsomal metabolism of the terpene 1,8-cineole in the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), rat and human. Xenobiotica. 2001 Apr;31(4):205-21. doi: 10.1080/00498250110043535 . [PubMed:11465406]
- Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T: Oxidation of 1,8-cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether originated from eucalyptus polybractea, by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Feb;29(2):200-5. [PubMed:11159812]
- Jager W, Nasel B, Nasel C, Binder R, Stimpfl T, Vycudilik W, Buchbauer G: Pharmacokinetic studies of the fragrance compound 1,8-cineol in humans during inhalation. Chem Senses. 1996 Aug;21(4):477-80. [PubMed:8866111]
- Miyazawa M, Sugie A, Shimada T: Roles of human CYP2A6 and 2B6 and rat CYP2C11 and 2B1 in the 10-hydroxylation of (-)-verbenone by liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1049-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.31.8.1049. [PubMed:12867494]
- Yang XW, Guo QM, Wang Y, Xu W, Tian L, Tian XJ: Intestinal permeability of antivirus constituents from the fruits of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in Caco-2 Cell Model. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Feb 15;17(4):1107-11. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.11.021. Epub 2006 Nov 10. [PubMed:17118653]
- Schnitzler P, Schon K, Reichling J: Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie. 2001 Apr;56(4):343-7. [PubMed:11338678]
- Juergens UR, Stober M, Vetter H: Inhibition of cytokine production and arachidonic acid metabolism by eucalyptol (1.8-cineole) in human blood monocytes in vitro. Eur J Med Res. 1998 Nov 17;3(11):508-10. [PubMed:9810029]
- Juergens UR, Stober M, Schmidt-Schilling L, Kleuver T, Vetter H: Antiinflammatory effects of euclyptol (1.8-cineole) in bronchial asthma: inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood monocytes ex vivo. Eur J Med Res. 1998 Sep 17;3(9):407-12. [PubMed:9737886]
- Santos FA, Rao VS: Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytother Res. 2000 Jun;14(4):240-4. [PubMed:10861965]
- Atta AH, Alkofahi A: Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Mar;60(2):117-24. [PubMed:9582001]
- Sartorelli P, Marquioreto AD, Amaral-Baroli A, Lima ME, Moreno PR: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from two species of Eucalyptus. Phytother Res. 2007 Mar;21(3):231-3. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2051. [PubMed:17154233]
- Ahmad I, Beg AZ: Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Feb;74(2):113-23. [PubMed:11167029]
- Takahashi T, Kokubo R, Sakaino M: Antimicrobial activities of eucalyptus leaf extracts and flavonoids from Eucalyptus maculata. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39(1):60-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01538.x. [PubMed:15189289]
- Osawa K, Yasuda H, Morita H, Takeya K, Itokawa H: Macrocarpals H, I, and J from the Leaves of Eucalyptus globulus. J Nat Prod. 1996 Sep;59(9):823-7. doi: 10.1021/np9604994. [PubMed:8864235]
- Takarada K, Kimizuka R, Takahashi N, Honma K, Okuda K, Kato T: A comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of essential oils against oral pathogens. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004 Feb;19(1):61-4. [PubMed:14678476]
- Safety Assessment of Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) - Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics [Link]
- Electronic Medicines Compendium: Eucalyptus Oil BP Monograph [Link]
- Sigma-Aldrich: Eucalyptus oil Profile [Link]
- AHFS Codes
- 48:01.00* — Other Cold and Cough Preparations
- Download (47.5 KB)
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- Dosage Forms
Form Route Strength Spray Topical Liquid Respiratory (inhalation) 6 % Oil Topical 16 % Ointment Topical 0.7 g/17.5g Oil Percutaneous; Topical; Transdermal Ointment Topical 1.5 g Ointment Respiratory (inhalation); Topical Ointment Topical 5.26 g Ointment Respiratory (inhalation) Lotion Topical Oil 4.84 % Gel Topical Mouthwash Dental Ointment Topical 0.5 g Ointment Topical 6 g Oil Topical 5 %w/w Liquid Respiratory (inhalation) 1 %w/v Liquid Respiratory (inhalation) Liquid Topical Liquid Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical Spray Topical 18 mg/ml Oil Cutaneous; Respiratory (inhalation) 100 % Liquid Respiratory (inhalation) 225 mg/ml Ointment Topical 6 % w/w Lozenge Oral 0.9 %w/w Tablet Liniment Topical 35 % Oil Topical; Transdermal Tablet Oral Lozenge Oral Oil Topical 9.4 % w/w Ointment Topical 5 %w/w Ointment Topical 5 % Oil Topical 100 % Liquid Respiratory (inhalation) Liquid Topical 10 %w/w Jelly Topical Cream Topical Patch Topical 0.5 % Cream Topical 8.8 % Liquid Topical 10 % Oil Topical 40 %v/v Oil Topical 1.25 %w/v Stick Topical Ointment Topical 1.33 g Oil Topical Lotion Topical 6 g Ointment Topical 25 %w/w Liquid Topical Spray Topical 20 % w/w Liniment Topical 25 % w/w Patch Cutaneous; Topical; Transdermal Oil Topical 1 % Patch Topical Oil Topical 5 % Plaster Cutaneous 0.5 g Plaster Cream Cutaneous 10 % Salve Topical Ointment Topical Ointment Topical 2.6 %w/w Ointment Topical 2.75 % Gum, chewing Oral Ointment Topical 1.76 %w/w Aerosol Respiratory (inhalation) Oil Nasal 100 ml/100ml Oil Topical 100 ml/100ml
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- Experimental Properties
- Not Available
Drug created on December 03, 2015 16:51 / Updated on March 04, 2021 11:01