Identification

Name
Alanine
Accession Number
DB00160
Description

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 89.0932
Monoisotopic: 89.047678473
Chemical Formula
C3H7NO2
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
  • (S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
  • (S)-alanine
  • Alanina
  • Alanine
  • Alaninum
  • L-2-Aminopropionic acid
  • L-Alanin
  • L-alanine
  • L-alpha-Alanine
  • L-α-alanine
External IDs
  • NSC-206315

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for protein synthesis.

Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Is an important source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system; strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies; helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids.

Mechanism of action

L-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

TargetActionsOrganism
USerine--pyruvate aminotransferaseNot AvailableHumans
U4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
UKynureninaseNot AvailableHumans
UAlanine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
U5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyaseNot AvailableHumans
UAlanine aminotransferase 2Not AvailableHumans
UAlanine aminotransferase 1Not AvailableHumans
UCysteine desulfurase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1Not AvailableHumans
ULarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2Not AvailableHumans
UAlanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UAlanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHumans
UNeutral amino acid transporter ANot AvailableHumans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDisease
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolic
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug action
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDisease
gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase DeficiencyDisease
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug action
Troleandomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Josamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Glutaminolysis and CancerDisease
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolic
Alanine MetabolismMetabolic
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolic
5-OxoprolinuriaDisease
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)Disease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug action
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseAlanine (520 mg) + Arginine (290 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (260 mg) + Histidine (120 mg) + Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + Leucine (182.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (100 mg) + Phenylalanine (140 mg) + Proline (170 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Threonine (105 mg) + Tryptophan (45 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg) + Valine (145 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixAlanine (520 mg) + Arginine (260 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (520 mg) + Histidine (110 mg) + Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (145 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + Proline (105 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Threonine (105 mg) + Tryptophan (45 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg) + Valine (115 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixAlanine (520 mg) + Arginine (260 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g) + Glycine (520 mg) + Histidine (110 mg) + Isoleucine (120 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (195 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg) + Methionine (195 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg) + Proline (105 mg) + Threonine (105 mg) + Tryptophan (45 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg) + Valine (115 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexAlanine (520 mg) + Arginine (290 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg) + Glycine (260 mg) + Histidine (120 mg) + Isoleucine (150 mg) + L-Lysine (145 mg) + Leucine (182.5 mg) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg) + Methionine (100 mg) + Phenylalanine (140 mg) + Proline (170 mg) + Serine (125 mg) + Sodium acetate (170 mg) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg) + Threonine (105 mg) + Tryptophan (45 mg) + Tyrosine (10 mg) + Valine (145 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexAlanine (570 mg) + Arginine (316 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (283 mg) + Histidine (132 mg) + Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + Leucine (201 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (110 mg) + Phenylalanine (154 mg) + Proline (187 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Threonine (115.5 mg) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg) + Valine (159.5 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixAlanine (570 mg) + Arginine (285 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (570 mg) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (159 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + Proline (115 mg) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Threonine (115 mg) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg) + Valine (126 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada flag
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixAlanine (570 mg) + Arginine (285 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (215.5 mg) + Glycine (570 mg) + Histidine (120.5 mg) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (159 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg) + Proline (115 mg) + Sodium acetate (256 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Threonine (115 mg) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg) + Valine (126 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.Alanine (570 mg) + Arginine (316 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg) + Glycine (283 mg) + Histidine (132 mg) + Isoleucine (165 mg) + L-Lysine (159.5 mg) + Leucine (201 mg) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg) + Methionine (110 mg) + Phenylalanine (154 mg) + Proline (187 mg) + Serine (137.5 mg) + Sodium acetate (215 mg) + Sodium chloride (112 mg) + Threonine (115.5 mg) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg) + Tyrosine (11 mg) + Valine (159.5 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada flag
20% ProsolAlanine (2.76 g) + Arginine (1.96 g) + Aspartic acid (0.6 g) + D-Methionine (0.76 g) + Glutamic acid (1.02 g) + Glycine (2.06 g) + Histidine (1.18 g) + Isoleucine (1.08 g) + L-Lysine (1.35 g) + Leucine (1.08 g) + Methionine (0.76 g) + Phenylalanine (1 g) + Proline (1.34 g) + Serine (1.02 g) + Threonine (0.98 g) + Tryptophan (0.32 g) + Tyrosine (0.05 g) + Valine (1.44 g)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-10-09Not applicableCanada flag
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixAlanine (880 mg) + Arginine (440 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (20 g) + Glycine (880 mg) + Histidine (186 mg) + Isoleucine (203 mg) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (246 mg) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (263 mg) + Methionine (246 mg) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (263 mg) + Proline (178 mg) + Threonine (178 mg) + Tryptophan (76 mg) + Tyrosine (17 mg) + Valine (195 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClinimixAlanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (100.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + L-Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixAlanine (17.60 g/2L) + Arginine (9.78 g/2L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.66 g/2L) + D-glucose monohydrate (300.00 g/2L) + Dipotassium phosphate (5.22 g/2L) + Glycine (8.76 g/2L) + Histidine (4.08 g/2L) + Isoleucine (5.10 g/2L) + L-Lysine (4.93 g/2L) + Leucine (6.20 g/2L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (1.02 g/2L) + Methionine (3.40 g/2L) + Phenylalanine (4.76 g/2L) + Proline (5.78 g/2L) + Serine (4.25 g/2L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (5.94 g/2L) + Sodium chloride (1.54 g/2L) + Threonine (3.57 g/2L) + Tryptophan (1.53 g/2L) + Tyrosine (0.34 g/2L) + Valine (4.93 g/2L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixAlanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (75.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + L-Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
PrimeneAlanine (2 g/250mL) + Arginine (2.1 g/250mL) + Aspartic acid (1.5 g/250mL) + Cysteine (0.47 g/250mL) + Glutamic acid (2.5 g/250mL) + Glycine (1 g/250mL) + Histidine (0.95 g/250mL) + Isoleucine (1.675 g/250mL) + L-Lysine (2.75 g/250mL) + Leucine (2.5 g/250mL) + Methionine (0.6 g/250mL) + Ornithine hydrochloride (0.8 g/250mL) + Phenylalanine (1.05 g/250mL) + Proline (0.75 g/250mL) + Serine (1 g/250mL) + Taurine (0.15 g/250mL) + Threonine (0.9 g/250mL) + Tryptophan (0.5 g/250mL) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/250mL) + Valine (1.9 g/250mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-11-222019-05-31US flag
SynthaminAlanine (20.70 g/1000mL) + Arginine (11.50 g/1000mL) + Glycine (10.30 g/1000mL) + Histidine (4.80 g/1000mL) + Isoleucine (6 g/1000mL) + L-Lysine (5.80 g/1000mL) + Leucine (7.30 g/1000mL) + Methionine (4 g/1000mL) + Phenylalanine (5.60 g/1000mL) + Proline (6.80 g/1000mL) + Serine (5 g/1000mL) + Threonine (4.20 g/1000mL) + Tryptophan (1.80 g/1000mL) + Tyrosine (400 mg/1000mL) + Valine (5.80 g/1000mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-11-032020-06-30US flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alanine and derivatives. These are compounds containing alanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of alanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
L-alpha-amino acids / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alanine or derivatives / Aliphatic acyclic compound / Alpha-amino acid / Amine / Amino acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / L-alpha-amino acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, alanine, pyruvate family amino acid (CHEBI:16977) / Common amino acids (C00041)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
OF5P57N2ZX
CAS number
56-41-7
InChI Key
QNAYBMKLOCPYGJ-REOHCLBHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2H,4H2,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
SMILES
C[[email protected]](N)C(O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Daniel T. Belmont, Valerie Hendrickson, Mark J. Hoekman, "Process for the preparation of an L-alanine compound." U.S. Patent US5268483, issued October, 1953.

US5268483
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000161
KEGG Drug
D00012
KEGG Compound
C00041
PubChem Compound
5950
PubChem Substance
46504866
ChemSpider
5735
BindingDB
50000099
RxNav
426
ChEBI
16977
ChEMBL
CHEMBL279597
ZINC
ZINC000004658553
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000805
PharmGKB
PA448055
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
ALA
Wikipedia
Alanine
MSDS
Download (71.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIllness, Critical / Starvation1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Malnutrition1
4TerminatedSupportive CareIllness, Critical1
4TerminatedSupportive CareParenteral Nutrition (No Primary Condition Studied)1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareMalnutrition1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease (CAD)1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Parenteral Feeding1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Parenteral Nutrition1
3CompletedTreatmentIllness, Critical1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous0.25 g/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2.5 g/500mL
SolutionIntravenous2.453 g
Solution, concentrateIntravenous5 g
SolutionIntravenous10.4 g/L
Injection, solutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous5 g
SolutionIntravenous4.15 g
SolutionIntravenous1.566 g
SolutionIntraperitoneal951 mg/L
Tablet250 mg
SolutionIntravenous0.69 %
SolutionIntravenous0.59 %
SolutionIntravenous1.03 g
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous110 g
InjectionIntravenous165 g
InjectionIntravenous220 g
InjectionIntravenous275 g
InjectionIntravenous107 g
InjectionIntravenous143 g
InjectionIntravenous178 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous600 mg/200mL
Solution16 g/L
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous1.83 g
InjectionIntravenous1.03 g
Injection, emulsionIntravenous1.6 g/100mL
Injection, emulsion; injection, solutionIntravenous3.2 g/100mL
EmulsionIntravenous20 mg
EmulsionIntravenous16 g
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionIntraperitoneal510 mg/l
Injection, emulsionIntravenous1.6 g
InjectionIntravenous2.27 g/l
InjectionIntravenous4.12 g/l
EmulsionIntravenous4 g
SolutionIntravenous7.14 g
SolutionIntravenous9.52 g
SolutionIntravenous11.9 g
EmulsionIntravenous6.41 g
EmulsionIntravenous9.61 g
EmulsionIntravenous12.82 g
SolutionIntravenous8.24 g
SolutionIntravenous12.36 g
SolutionIntravenous16.48 g
EmulsionIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous3 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.69 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.59 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.9 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.49 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.76 %
SolutionIntravenous
Solution3.2 g/100mL
Solution1.6 g/100mL
InjectionIntravenous0.67 g/100ml
SolutionParenteral3 g/100ml
EmulsionParenteral50 g
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.76 g/100mL
InjectionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous434 mg
SolutionIntravenous594 mg
SolutionIntravenous12 g/L
SolutionIntravenous16 g/L
SolutionIntravenous5.1 g/16g N
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-alanine powder2.35USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)300 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.64E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.85SANGSTER (1994)
pKa2.34 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility447.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS0.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity20.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (6.76 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-c7f6dbace291e8305a4e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-381ddf4d9ea77be0b8a5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-6a7c1bb2915e5dd0791f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-84b389f82562c29a8148
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-b2f7507be509a85d821b
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-941672891ab94cf5015d
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0f79-0910000000-47bd3e3aa274a653a64e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-c7f6dbace291e8305a4e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-381ddf4d9ea77be0b8a5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1940000000-5def9f7c902aaf1ef607
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-6a7c1bb2915e5dd0791f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-84b389f82562c29a8148
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-96b54b269c91ab21be08
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a8008305399aa1097e1a
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-7253c912562200edc231
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-72694f3a1a5de3b49790
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-55d0139f513946f76461
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5b0dff13a98daf782205
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-37db595fcf7364600bc9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-5129e160acf979ac549e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-11c20eba8c5ad41d806c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-df7c7d6a6ae2d6bccefe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-32477244247613182214
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9002000000-4873ce0cdcac54d68186
MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-8193842b36c819ca3ec6
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-55d0139f513946f76461
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5b0dff13a98daf782205
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-37db595fcf7364600bc9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fefc31c264a2f0fcf6d0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-ba42bcd60aa9182a780e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-df7c7d6a6ae2d6bccefe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-32477244247613182214
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9002000000-4873ce0cdcac54d68186
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
AGXT
Uniprot ID
P21549
Uniprot Name
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Salido EC, Li XM, Lu Y, Wang X, Santana A, Roy-Chowdhury N, Torres A, Shapiro LJ, Roy-Chowdhury J: Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-deficient mice, a model for primary hyperoxaluria that responds to adenoviral gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28;103(48):18249-54. Epub 2006 Nov 16. [PubMed:17110443]
  4. Amoroso A, Pirulli D, Florian F, Puzzer D, Boniotto M, Crovella S, Zezlina S, Spano A, Mazzola G, Savoldi S, Ferrettini C, Berutti S, Petrarulo M, Marangella M: AGXT gene mutations and their influence on clinical heterogeneity of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Oct;12(10):2072-9. [PubMed:11562405]
  5. Pirulli D, Puzzer D, Ferri L, Crovella S, Amoroso A, Ferrettini C, Marangella M, Mazzola G, Florian F: Molecular analysis of hyperoxaluria type 1 in Italian patients reveals eight new mutations in the alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase gene. Hum Genet. 1999 Jun;104(6):523-5. [PubMed:10453743]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-al...
Gene Name
ABAT
Uniprot ID
P80404
Uniprot Name
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Amadasi A, Bertoldi M, Contestabile R, Bettati S, Cellini B, di Salvo ML, Borri-Voltattorni C, Bossa F, Mozzarelli A: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(12):1291-324. [PubMed:17504214]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hyd...
Gene Name
KYNU
Uniprot ID
Q16719
Uniprot Name
Kynureninase
Molecular Weight
52351.14 Da
References
  1. Christensen M, Duno M, Lund AM, Skovby F, Christensen E: Xanthurenic aciduria due to a mutation in KYNU encoding kynureninase. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Apr;30(2):248-55. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [PubMed:17334708]
  2. Lima S, Khristoforov R, Momany C, Phillips RS: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2735-44. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17300176]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrec...
Gene Name
AARS2
Uniprot ID
Q5JTZ9
Uniprot Name
Alanine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
107339.48 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [PubMed:10871402]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [PubMed:8601277]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [PubMed:7742303]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent breakdown of 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine, converting it to ammonia, inorganic phosphate and 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde.
Gene Name
PHYKPL
Uniprot ID
Q8IUZ5
Uniprot Name
5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyase
Molecular Weight
49710.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name
GPT2
Uniprot ID
Q8TD30
Uniprot Name
Alanine aminotransferase 2
Molecular Weight
57903.11 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. Genomics. 2002 Mar;79(3):445-50. [PubMed:11863375]
  4. Jadhao SB, Yang RZ, Lin Q, Hu H, Anania FA, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: Murine alanine aminotransferase: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and differential gene regulation in mouse fatty liver. Hepatology. 2004 May;39(5):1297-302. [PubMed:15122758]
  5. Rajamohan F, Nelms L, Joslin DL, Lu B, Reagan WJ, Lawton M: cDNA cloning, expression, purification, distribution, and characterization of biologically active canine alanine aminotransferase-1. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Jul;48(1):81-9. Epub 2006 Jan 30. [PubMed:16495081]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting wi...
Gene Name
GPT
Uniprot ID
P24298
Uniprot Name
Alanine aminotransferase 1
Molecular Weight
54636.415 Da
References
  1. Miyashita Y, Dolferus R, Ismond KP, Good AG: Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(6):1108-21. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17319845]
  2. Gray S, Wang B, Orihuela Y, Hong EG, Fisch S, Haldar S, Cline GW, Kim JK, Peroni OD, Kahn BB, Jain MK: Regulation of gluconeogenesis by Kruppel-like factor 15. Cell Metab. 2007 Apr;5(4):305-12. [PubMed:17403374]
  3. Taracha E, Habrat B, Chrapusta SJ, Lehner M, Wislowska A, Woronowicz BT, Bogulas M, Charewicz J, Markuszewski C, Plaznik A: Combining markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity for improved monitoring and detection of chronic alcohol abuse. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(12):1446-52. [PubMed:17163821]
  4. Chen CH, Lee RP, Wu WT, Liao KW, Hsu N, Hsu BG: Fluvastatin ameliorates endotoxin induced multiple organ failure in conscious rats. Resuscitation. 2007 Jul;74(1):166-74. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [PubMed:17353078]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur from cysteine to produce alanine. It supplies the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. May be involved in the biosynthesis of molybdenum cofac...
Gene Name
NFS1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y697
Uniprot Name
Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
50195.21 Da
References
  1. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. [PubMed:17469805]
  2. Zeng J, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Xia L, Liu J, Qiu G: Expression, purification and characterization of a cysteine desulfurase, IscS, from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biotechnol Lett. 2007 Dec;29(12):1983-90. Epub 2007 Jul 28. [PubMed:17660944]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recog...
Gene Name
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID
Q7Z2H8
Uniprot Name
Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53075.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Miyauchi S, Abbot EL, Zhuang L, Subramanian R, Ganapathy V, Thwaites DT: Isolation and function of the amino acid transporter PAT1 (slc36a1) from rabbit and discrimination between transport via PAT1 and system IMINO in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Mol Membr Biol. 2005 Nov-Dec;22(6):549-59. [PubMed:16373326]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when asso...
Gene Name
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI5
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2
Molecular Weight
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Broer S, Broer A, Hansen JT, Bubb WA, Balcar VJ, Nasrallah FA, Garner B, Rae C: Alanine metabolism, transport, and cycling in the brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Sep;102(6):1758-70. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17504263]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and th...
Gene Name
AGXT2
Uniprot ID
Q9BYV1
Uniprot Name
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57155.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Okuno E, Ishikawa T, Kawai J, Kido R: Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities in liver of Suncus murinus (insectivora). Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1988;90(4):773-8. [PubMed:2907870]
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. [PubMed:6703688]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrec...
Gene Name
AARS
Uniprot ID
P49588
Uniprot Name
Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
106809.525 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nagan MC, Beuning P, Musier-Forsyth K, Cramer CJ: Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jul 1;28(13):2527-34. [PubMed:10871402]
  4. McClain WH, Gabriel K, Schneider J: Specific function of a G.U wobble pair from an adjacent helical site in tRNA(Ala) during recognition by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. RNA. 1996 Feb;2(2):105-9. [PubMed:8601277]
  5. Buechter DD, Schimmel P: Minor groove recognition of the critical acceptor helix base pair by an appended module of a class II tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1995 May 9;34(18):6014-9. [PubMed:7742303]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function
Transporter for alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine. Exhibits sodium dependence.
Gene Name
SLC1A4
Uniprot ID
P43007
Uniprot Name
Neutral amino acid transporter A
Molecular Weight
55722.455 Da
References
  1. Zhang Z, Papageorgiou G, Corrie JE, Grewer C: Pre-steady-state currents in neutral amino acid transporters induced by photolysis of a new caged alanine derivative. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 27;46(12):3872-80. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17311416]
  2. Takasaki C, Miura E, Watanabe M: Segmental and complementary expression of L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 in the mouse kidney. Biomed Res. 2007 Apr;28(2):61-9. [PubMed:17510490]
  3. Zhang Z, Grewer C: The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates. Biophys J. 2007 Apr 1;92(7):2621-32. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [PubMed:17237199]
  4. Pinho MJ, Pinto V, Serrao MP, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Underexpression of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat kidney. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):R538-47. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475673]
  5. Wu Y, Shen D, Chen Z, Clayton S, Vadgama JV: Taxol induced apoptosis regulates amino acid transport in breast cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2007 Mar;12(3):593-612. Epub 2006 Dec 29. [PubMed:17195090]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 03, 2020 19:01

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