Identification

Summary

Serine is an amino acid commonly found as a component in total parenteral nutrition.

Brand Names
Aminosyn II 7 %, Sulfite-free, Aminosyn-PF 7%, Clinimix 2.75/5, Clinimix E 2.75/5, Clinisol 15, Freamine 6.9, Freamine III 10, Hepatamine 8, Olimel, Periolimel, Plenamine, Premasol, Primene, Procalamine 3, Prosol, Travasol 10, Trophamine 10 %
Generic Name
Serine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00133
Background

A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from glycine or threonine. It is involved in the biosynthesis of purines; pyrimidines; and other amino acids.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational, Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 105.0926
Monoisotopic: 105.042593095
Chemical Formula
C3H7NO3
Synonyms
  • (S)-2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
  • (S)-Serine
  • alpha-Amino-beta-hydroxypropionic acid
  • beta-Hydroxyalanine
  • L-Serine
  • Ser
  • Serina
  • Serine
  • Serinum

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as a natural moisturizing agent in some cosmetics and skin care products.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Serine is classified as a nutritionally non-essential amino acid. Serine is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. Serine is needed for the proper metabolism of fats and fatty acids. It also helps in the production of antibodies. Serine is used as a natural moisturizing agent in some cosmetics and skin care products. The main source of essential amino acids is from the diet, non-essential amino acids are normally synthesize by humans and other mammals from common intermediates.

Mechanism of action

L-Serine plays a role in cell growth and development (cellular proliferation). The conversion of L-serine to glycine by serine hydroxymethyltransferase results in the formation of the one-carbon units necessary for the synthesis of the purine bases, adenine and guanine. These bases when linked to the phosphate ester of pentose sugars are essential components of DNA and RNA and the end products of energy producing metabolic pathways, ATP and GTP. In addition, L-serine conversion to glycine via this same enzyme provides the one-carbon units necessary for production of the pyrimidine nucleotide, deoxythymidine monophosphate, also an essential component of DNA.

TargetActionsOrganism
UCystathionine beta-synthaseNot AvailableHumans
UL-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminaseNot AvailableHumans
USerine racemaseNot AvailableHumans
USerine palmitoyltransferase 2Not AvailableHumans
USerine palmitoyltransferase 1Not AvailableHumans
USerine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHumans
USerine--pyruvate aminotransferaseNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolic
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Cystathionine beta-Synthase DeficiencyDisease
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophyDisease
Sarcosine Oncometabolite PathwayDisease
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/14:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/15:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/18:1(11Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/18:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/20:4(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/22:1(13Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/22:2(13Z,16Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/24:1(15Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/18:3(9Z,12Z,15Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/20:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/20:4(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:1(9Z)/24:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(15:0/14:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(15:0/15:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(15:0/16:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(15:0/18:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(15:0/18:1(11Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(15:0/18:1(9Z))Metabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSerine (125 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (290 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (150 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (182.5 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (100 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (140 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (145 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexSerine (125 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (290 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (150 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (182.5 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (100 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (140 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (145 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexSerine (137.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (316 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (283 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (132 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (165 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (201 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (159.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (154 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (187 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (159.5 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.Serine (137.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (316 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (283 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (132 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (165 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (201 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (159.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (154 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (187 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (215 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (159.5 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada flag
20% ProsolSerine (1.02 g) + Alanine (2.76 g) + Arginine (1.96 g) + Aspartic acid (0.6 g) + D-Methionine (0.76 g) + Glutamic acid (1.02 g) + Glycine (2.06 g) + Histidine (1.18 g) + Isoleucine (1.08 g) + Leucine (1.08 g) + Lysine (1.35 g) + Methionine (0.76 g) + Phenylalanine (1 g) + Proline (1.34 g) + Threonine (0.98 g) + Tryptophan (0.32 g) + Tyrosine (0.05 g) + Valine (1.44 g)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-10-09Not applicableCanada flag
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSerine (212.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (489 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (438 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (204 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (255 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (310 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (246.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (170 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (238 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (289 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (297 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (77 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (178.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (76.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (17 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (246.5 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSerine (212.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (489 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (20 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (438 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (204 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (255 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (310 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (246.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (170 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (238 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (289 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (297 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (77 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (178.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (76.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (17 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (246.5 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSerine (212.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (489 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (438 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (204 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (255 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (310 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (246.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (170 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (238 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (289 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (297 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (77 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (178.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (76.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (17 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (246.5 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrlytes In 10% DextroseSerine (212.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (489 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Glycine (438 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (204 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (255 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (310 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (246.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (170 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (238 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (289 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (178.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (76.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (17 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (246.5 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSerine (212.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (489 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (20 g / 100 mL) + Glycine (438 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (204 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (255 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (310 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (246.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (170 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (238 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (289 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (178.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (76.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (17 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (246.5 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClinimixSerine (1.38 g/1L) + Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (100.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixSerine (4.25 g/2L) + Alanine (17.60 g/2L) + Arginine (9.78 g/2L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.66 g/2L) + D-glucose monohydrate (300.00 g/2L) + Dipotassium phosphate (5.22 g/2L) + Glycine (8.76 g/2L) + Histidine (4.08 g/2L) + Isoleucine (5.10 g/2L) + Leucine (6.20 g/2L) + Lysine (4.93 g/2L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (1.02 g/2L) + Methionine (3.40 g/2L) + Phenylalanine (4.76 g/2L) + Proline (5.78 g/2L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (5.94 g/2L) + Sodium chloride (1.54 g/2L) + Threonine (3.57 g/2L) + Tryptophan (1.53 g/2L) + Tyrosine (0.34 g/2L) + Valine (4.93 g/2L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixSerine (1.38 g/1L) + Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (75.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
FREAMINE III %10 1000 ML(SETLI)Serine (0.59 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Proline (1.12 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %10 1000 ML(SETSIZ)Serine (0.59 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Proline (1.12 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %10 500 ML(SETLI)Serine (0.59 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Proline (1.12 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %10 500 ML(SETSIZ)Serine (0.59 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Proline (1.12 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %8.5 500 ML(SETLI)Serine (0.5 %) + Alanine (0.6 %) + Arginine (0.81 %) + Cysteine (0.014 %) + Glycine (1.19 %) + Histidine (0.24 %) + Isoleucine (0.59 %) + Leucine (0.77 %) + Lysine (0.62 %) + Methionine (0.45 %) + Phenylalanine (0.48 %) + Proline (0.95 %) + Threonine (0.34 %) + Tryptophan (0.13 %) + Valine (0.56 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %8.5 500 ML(SETSIZ)Serine (0.5 %) + Alanine (0.6 %) + Arginine (0.81 %) + Cysteine (0.014 %) + Glycine (1.19 %) + Histidine (0.24 %) + Isoleucine (0.59 %) + Leucine (0.77 %) + Lysine (0.62 %) + Methionine (0.45 %) + Phenylalanine (0.48 %) + Proline (0.95 %) + Threonine (0.34 %) + Tryptophan (0.13 %) + Valine (0.56 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FRESELAMIN %10 1000 ML SETLI SISESerine (0.59 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Proline (1.12 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousOSEL İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as serine and derivatives. These are compounds containing serine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of serine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Serine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
L-alpha-amino acids / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Alcohol / Aliphatic acyclic compound / Alpha-amino acid / Amine / Amino acid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / Hydroxy acid
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, serine, serine family amino acid (CHEBI:17115) / Common amino acids (C00065)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
452VLY9402
CAS number
56-45-1
InChI Key
MTCFGRXMJLQNBG-REOHCLBHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H7NO3/c4-2(1-5)3(6)7/h2,5H,1,4H2,(H,6,7)/t2-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CO)C(O)=O

References

Synthesis Reference

Kenichi Ishiwata, Nobuyoshi Makiguichi, Hideki Kawashima, Tadashi Suzuki, Masami Imadegawa, "Method of producing L-serine." U.S. Patent US4782021, issued August, 1973.

US4782021
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000187
KEGG Drug
D00016
KEGG Compound
C00065
PubChem Compound
5951
PubChem Substance
46506450
ChemSpider
5736
BindingDB
50357212
RxNav
9671
ChEBI
33384
ChEMBL
CHEMBL11298
ZINC
ZINC000000895034
PharmGKB
PA451330
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
SER
Wikipedia
Serine
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Malnutrition1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCritically Ill Patients1
4TerminatedSupportive CareParenteral Nutrition (No Primary Condition Studied)1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareMalnutrition1
3CompletedTreatmentCritically Ill Patients2
3CompletedTreatmentInfants, Premature / Low Birth Weight Infants / Newborn Infants / Sepsis / Small for Gestational Age Infants1
3CompletedTreatmentParenteral Feedings / Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentParenteral Nutrition for Patients With Proven Insufficient Enteral Resorption1
3CompletedTreatmentParenteral Nutrition / Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentParenting2

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SyrupOral
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionParenteral
SolutionIntravenous10.50 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous0.5 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.25 g/1000ml
Solution, concentrateIntravenous
Solution, concentrateIntravenous5 g
InjectionIntravenous0.52 g/l
Injection, solutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous11.000 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous5.5 g/1000ml
EmulsionParenteral
InjectionIntravenous16 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous2.3 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous1.6 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.37 g/l
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, emulsionParenteral
Injection, emulsion; injection, solutionIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
Injection, solution
Injection, emulsionIntravenous4.656 g/1000ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous6.792 g/1000ml
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionIntraperitoneal0.184 g/l
SolutionIntraperitoneal
EmulsionIntravenous0.3 g/l
EmulsionIntravenous176 g/l
EmulsionIntravenous4 g
EmulsionIntravenous3 g
SolutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous4 g/l
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous0.21 g/100ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous14 g/1000ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous4.3 g/1000ml
EmulsionIntravenous0.74 g/L
InjectionIntravenous10.30 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.54 g/100ml
InjectionIntravenous6.3 g/1000ml
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-serine powder3.85USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)228 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility4.25E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.21 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility480.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.4ALOGPS
logP-3.9ChemAxon
logS0.66ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.03ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.55 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity22.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9407
Blood Brain Barrier-0.6529
Caco-2 permeable-0.7839
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7693
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9862
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9877
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9436
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8673
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.846
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8389
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9087
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9512
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9349
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.945
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.908
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9914
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9088
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.82
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9489
Rat acute toxicity1.2700 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9923
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9811
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.77 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0udi-0940000000-59d5e0f76fd204be8110
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0udi-0980000000-ab49fc3ee88db87d1a16
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0159-0900000000-8e169037bcbe1dcd5de8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0uxr-0970000000-67271ed235e35c662db5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9540000000-1297bf302358bcf0f1c0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0uxr-1790000000-caaa37778f5a4686f5f0
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0159-0900000000-ae4f860052c41e9ba734
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0uxr-0590000000-ce32a8bfb64d16590b52
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0940000000-59d5e0f76fd204be8110
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0980000000-ab49fc3ee88db87d1a16
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0159-0900000000-8e169037bcbe1dcd5de8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0uxr-0970000000-67271ed235e35c662db5
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQGC-MSsplash10-00dr-7966000000-7b5b37fd4ac885548172
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9540000000-1297bf302358bcf0f1c0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0uxr-1790000000-caaa37778f5a4686f5f0
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9100000000-38f84912ebfc7b4e8339
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-89e57995d3ca765a20e8
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-01ox-9100000000-f3baf93032cc9f09cf2d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zfr-0900000000-b6085e53e881cdaa1824
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-2e16e9d6f9b3c2688f8a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9857daa028fb3016a7e2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0009200000-0617acd25c69bf24ad1f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-823dfcf6229956372e31
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-eec63565f8a9fe4bd336
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-008412efd202c202d56a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0930000000-932aedc4efb5e1dd5e7b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0951000000-cd0895e475dd50e4934d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-15294ba22b153cf5ab5b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-48c370acff657443f0e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0190000000-1bad10ba7388ce0c2249
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ue9-0792100000-9f2bfe40e4c01044d209
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-dfa7aca58cc28303ebc7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-282f31d8021649afdbe8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0290000000-eeee98e6b0514b08cd63
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-ed66566e27a94ee99f13
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-b9f6b4b6ee7c88a9c569
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-929aea63ace0e20c6d43
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ba9cd5b3e37ded5d3764
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-6900000000-5622633ab0a27d2e5360
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-3e25ca80e2e62be19ac5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-5b5167f3e69dd9d329d6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dm-9000000000-87d693d73343037f6da8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-2347006a6af6d310cb68
MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-5df9317d7fbd63cf5620
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-ed66566e27a94ee99f13
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-b9f6b4b6ee7c88a9c569
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-929aea63ace0e20c6d43
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ba9cd5b3e37ded5d3764
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-15294ba22b153cf5ab5b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-dfa7aca58cc28303ebc7
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-f0c0b4b0e46cc5898d91
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-6900000000-eadedc5e90cae2073397
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-e2ca7435d1b0278f3c4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9000000000-5b5167f3e69dd9d329d6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dm-9000000000-87d693d73343037f6da8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-2347006a6af6d310cb68
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-2e16e9d6f9b3c2688f8a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9857daa028fb3016a7e2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-eec63565f8a9fe4bd336
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Hydro-lyase catalyzing the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, where the hydroxyl group of L-serine is displaced by L-homocysteine in a beta-replacement reaction to form L-cystathionine, th...
Gene Name
CBS
Uniprot ID
P35520
Uniprot Name
Cystathionine beta-synthase
Molecular Weight
60586.05 Da
References
  1. Sen S, Banerjee R: A pathogenic linked mutation in the catalytic core of human cystathionine beta-synthase disrupts allosteric regulation and allows kinetic characterization of a full-length dimer. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 3;46(13):4110-6. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [Article]
  2. Qu K, Lee SW, Bian JS, Low CM, Wong PT: Hydrogen sulfide: neurochemistry and neurobiology. Neurochem Int. 2008 Jan;52(1-2):155-65. Epub 2007 Jun 8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
SDS
Uniprot ID
P20132
Uniprot Name
L-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminase
Molecular Weight
34625.105 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Velayudhan J, Jones MA, Barrow PA, Kelly DJ: L-serine catabolism via an oxygen-labile L-serine dehydratase is essential for colonization of the avian gut by Campylobacter jejuni. Infect Immun. 2004 Jan;72(1):260-8. [Article]
  4. Snell K, Walker DG: Regulation of hepatic L-serine dehydratase and L-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase in the developing neonatal rat. Biochem J. 1974 Dec;144(3):519-31. [Article]
  5. Wong HC, Lessie TG: Hydroxy amino acid metabolism in Pseudomonas cepacia: role of L-serine deaminase in dissimilation of serine, glycine, and threonine. J Bacteriol. 1979 Oct;140(1):240-5. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Threonine racemase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.
Gene Name
SRR
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT4
Uniprot Name
Serine racemase
Molecular Weight
36565.905 Da
References
  1. Fujitani Y, Horiuchi T, Ito K, Sugimoto M: Serine racemases from barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and other plant species represent a distinct eukaryotic group: gene cloning and recombinant protein characterization. Phytochemistry. 2007 Jun;68(11):1530-6. Epub 2007 May 17. [Article]
  2. Ying-Luan Z, Zhao YL, Mori H: [Role of D-serine in the mammalian brain]. Brain Nerve. 2007 Jul;59(7):725-30. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine c-palmitoyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with LCB1/SPTLC1 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate ...
Gene Name
SPTLC2
Uniprot ID
O15270
Uniprot Name
Serine palmitoyltransferase 2
Molecular Weight
62923.765 Da
References
  1. Yard BA, Carter LG, Johnson KA, Overton IM, Dorward M, Liu H, McMahon SA, Oke M, Puech D, Barton GJ, Naismith JH, Campopiano DJ: The structure of serine palmitoyltransferase; gateway to sphingolipid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):870-86. Epub 2007 May 10. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine c-palmitoyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with SPTLC2 or SPTLC3 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the subst...
Gene Name
SPTLC1
Uniprot ID
O15269
Uniprot Name
Serine palmitoyltransferase 1
Molecular Weight
52743.41 Da
References
  1. Yard BA, Carter LG, Johnson KA, Overton IM, Dorward M, Liu H, McMahon SA, Oke M, Puech D, Barton GJ, Naismith JH, Campopiano DJ: The structure of serine palmitoyltransferase; gateway to sphingolipid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):870-86. Epub 2007 May 10. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of serine to tRNA(Ser). Is also probably able to aminoacylate tRNA(Sec) with serine, to form the misacylated tRNA L-seryl-tRNA(Sec), which will be further converted into se...
Gene Name
SARS
Uniprot ID
P49591
Uniprot Name
Serine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
58776.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Zhang Y, Cui J, Zhang R, Wang Y, Hong M: A novel fibrinolytic serine protease from the polychaete Nereis (Neanthes) virens (Sars): purification and characterization. Biochimie. 2007 Jan;89(1):93-103. Epub 2006 Aug 22. [Article]
  4. Follis KE, York J, Nunberg JH: Serine-scanning mutagenesis studies of the C-terminal heptad repeats in the SARS coronavirus S glycoprotein highlight the important role of the short helical region. Virology. 2005 Oct 10;341(1):122-9. [Article]
  5. McClendon CL, Vaidehi N, Kam VW, Zhang D, Goddard WA 3rd: Fidelity of seryl-tRNA synthetase to binding of natural amino acids from HierDock first principles computations. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006 May;19(5):195-203. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transaminase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
AGXT
Uniprot ID
P21549
Uniprot Name
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
Molecular Weight
43009.535 Da
References
  1. Ikushiro H, Islam MM, Tojo H, Hayashi H: Molecular characterization of membrane-associated soluble serine palmitoyltransferases from Sphingobacterium multivorum and Bdellovibrio stolpii. J Bacteriol. 2007 Aug;189(15):5749-61. Epub 2007 Jun 8. [Article]
  2. Cowart LA, Hannun YA: Selective substrate supply in the regulation of yeast de novo sphingolipid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12330-40. Epub 2007 Feb 23. [Article]
  3. Son JH, Yoo HH, Kim DH: Activation of de novo synthetic pathway of ceramides is responsible for the initiation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Aug;70(15-16):1310-8. [Article]
  4. Yard BA, Carter LG, Johnson KA, Overton IM, Dorward M, Liu H, McMahon SA, Oke M, Puech D, Barton GJ, Naismith JH, Campopiano DJ: The structure of serine palmitoyltransferase; gateway to sphingolipid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):870-86. Epub 2007 May 10. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at October 03, 2021 00:34