Sodium acetate

Identification

Summary

Sodium acetate is a compound used for electrolyte replenishment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy.

Brand Names
Bss, Bss Ophthalmic Solution, Citrasate, Clinimix E 2.75/5, Hemosate Ultra, Hyperlyte, Intersol, Isolyte P, Isolyte S, Isolyte S pH 7.4, Isoplate, Normosol-R, Olimel, Periolimel, Physiolyte, Physiosol, Plasma-lyte, Plasma-lyte 148, Plasma-lyte 148 In 5 % Dextrose, Plasma-lyte R, Plasmalyte A, Procalamine 3
Generic Name
Sodium acetate
DrugBank Accession Number
DB09395
Background

Sodium Acetate is chemically designated CH3COONa, a hygroscopic powder very soluble in water. Sodium acetate could be used as additives in food, industry, concrete manufacture, heating pads and in buffer solutions. Medically, sodium acetate is important component as an electrolyte replenisher when given intravenously. It is mainly indicated to correct sodium levels in hyponatremic patients. It can be used also in metabolic acidosis and for urine alkalinization.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Weight
Average: 82.0338
Monoisotopic: 82.003074015
Chemical Formula
C2H3NaO2
Synonyms
  • Acetato de sodio
  • acetic acid, sodium salt
  • Acetic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
  • anhydrous sodium acetate
  • Natriumazetat
  • Sodio acetato
  • Sodium acetate anhydrous
  • Sodium acetate, anhydrous
  • Sodium acetate,anhydrous
External IDs
  • Fema no. 3024

Pharmacology

Indication

Injection, USP 40 mEq is indicated as a source of sodium, for addition to large volume intravenous fluids to prevent or correct hyponatremia in patients with restricted or no oral intake. It is also useful as an additive for preparing specific intravenous fluid formulas when the needs of the patient cannot be met by standard electrolyte or nutrient solutions. Sodium acetate and other bicarbonate precursors are alkalinising agents, and can be used to correct metabolic acidosis, or for alkalinisation of the urine.

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Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Used in combination to treatHyponatremiaCombination Product in combination with: Sodium chloride (DB09153), Lactic acid (DB04398)••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••• ••••••••• •••••••••••
Treatment ofHyponatremia•••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••• •••••••••••
Prophylaxis ofHyponatremia•••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••• •••••••••••
Used in combination to treatHypovolaemiaCombination Product in combination with: Magnesium chloride (DB09407), Hydroxyethyl Starch (DB09106), Potassium chloride (DB00761), Sodium chloride (DB09153)•••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••
Used in combination to treatMild, moderate metabolic acidosisCombination Product in combination with: Sodium chloride (DB09153), Lactic acid (DB04398)••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••• ••••••••• •••••••••••
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Sodium is the principal cation of extracellular fluid. It comprises more than 90% of total cations at its normal plasma concentration of approximately 140 mEq/liter. The sodium ion exerts a primary role in controlling total body water and its distribution. Acetate ions acts as hydrogen ion acceptor which is alternative to bicarbonate.

Mechanism of action

It works as a source of sodium ions especially in cases of hyponatremic patients. Sodium has a primary role in regulating extracellular fluid volume. It controls water distribution, fluid and electrolyte balance and the osmotic pressure of body fluids. Sodium is also involved in nerve conduction, muscle contraction, acid-base balance and cell nutrient uptake.

Absorption

It is readily available in the circulation after IV administration.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

In liver, sodium acetate is being metabolized into bicarbonate. To form bicarbonate, acetate is slowly hydrolyzed to carbon dioxide and water, which are then converted to bicarbonate by the addition of a hydrogen ion.

Route of elimination

Both the sodium and bicarbonate ions are excreted mainly in the urine. Some sodium is excreted in the feces, and small amounts may also be excreted in saliva, sweat, bile and pancreatic secretions.

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

LD50: 25956 mg/kg (Rat.)

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium acetate which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium acetate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium acetate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium acetate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Sodium acetate which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium acetate trihydrate4550K0SC9B6131-90-4AYRVGWHSXIMRAB-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium cationionicLYR4M0NH3717341-25-2FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Acetic acidprodrugQ40Q9N063P64-19-7QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Acetateionic569DQM74SC71-50-1QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
16.4% Sodium Acetate Injection, USPSolution16.4 %IntravenousBaxter Laboratories2003-02-132011-05-10Canada flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate3.28 g/20mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2014-03-05Not applicableUS flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate164 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2013-11-19Not applicableUS flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate164 mg/1mLIntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-302013-03-01US flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution200 meq/100mLIntravenousExela Pharma Sciences, LLC2022-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate164 mg/1mLIntravenousWoodward Pharma Services Llc2021-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate328 mg/1mLIntravenousWoodward Pharma Services Llc2021-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate164 mg/1mLIntravenousWoodward Pharma Services Llc2021-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Sodium AcetateInjection, solution, concentrate4 meq/100mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2017-10-30Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (290 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (150 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (182.5 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (100 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (140 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (170 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (125 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (145 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixSodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (120 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (145 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (105 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (115 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexSodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (290 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (150 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (182.5 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (100 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (140 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (170 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (125 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (145 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexSodium acetate (215.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (316 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (283 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (132 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (165 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (201 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (159.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (154 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (187 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (137.5 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (159.5 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixSodium acetate (215.5 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (285 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120.5 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (159 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg / 100 mL) + Proline (115 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (126 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClinimixSodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (75.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixSodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (100.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Proline (1.87 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixSodium acetate trihydrate (5.94 g/2L) + Alanine (17.60 g/2L) + Arginine (9.78 g/2L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.66 g/2L) + D-glucose monohydrate (300.00 g/2L) + Dipotassium phosphate (5.22 g/2L) + Glycine (8.76 g/2L) + Histidine (4.08 g/2L) + Isoleucine (5.10 g/2L) + Leucine (6.20 g/2L) + Lysine (4.93 g/2L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (1.02 g/2L) + Methionine (3.40 g/2L) + Phenylalanine (4.76 g/2L) + Proline (5.78 g/2L) + Serine (4.25 g/2L) + Sodium chloride (1.54 g/2L) + Threonine (3.57 g/2L) + Tryptophan (1.53 g/2L) + Tyrosine (0.34 g/2L) + Valine (4.93 g/2L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
Cytosol Ophthalmics - Balanced Salt SolutionSodium acetate trihydrate (3.90 mg/1mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (48 mg/1mL) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (30 mg/1mL) + Potassium chloride (75 mg/1mL) + Sodium chloride (6.40 mg/1mL) + Sodium citrate dihydrate (1.70 mg/1mL)SolutionIrrigationBiomet Biologics2010-01-012010-09-04US flag
Hyperlyte CRSodium acetate trihydrate (0.68 g/20mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.37 g/20mL) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/20mL) + Potassium acetate (1.96 g/20mL) + Sodium chloride (1.17 g/20mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2012-04-12Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
B05XA08 — Sodium acetate
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acetate salts. These are organic compounds containing acetic acid as its acid component.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Carboxylic acid derivatives
Direct Parent
Acetate salts
Alternative Parents
Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic sodium salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Acetate salt / Aliphatic acyclic compound / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Organic alkali metal salt / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organic salt
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organic sodium salt (CHEBI:32954)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
NVG71ZZ7P0
CAS number
127-09-3
InChI Key
VMHLLURERBWHNL-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H4O2.Na/c1-2(3)4;/h1H3,(H,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
IUPAC Name
sodium acetate
SMILES
[Na+].CC([O-])=O

References

General References
  1. rxlist [Link]
  2. monograph [Link]
PubChem Compound
517045
PubChem Substance
347827840
ChemSpider
29105
RxNav
267453
ChEBI
32954
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1354
PharmGKB
PA451369
Wikipedia
Sodium_acetate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentHypovolaemia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShock1
4RecruitingPreventionIntestinal Obstruction / Laparotomy / Mesenteric vascular insufficiency1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypotension During Surgery1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Malnutrition1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous16.4 %
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionIntravenous10.50 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous0.5 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.25 g/1000ml
SolutionIrrigation; Parenteral
SolutionIntraocular
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionHemodialysis
Injection, solutionParenteral
SolutionIrrigation
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous
EmulsionIntravenous0.468 g
LiquidIntraocular
SolutionIntravenous
EmulsionParenteral20.000 g
InjectionIntravenous1.6 g/l
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, emulsion; injection, solutionIntravenous
EmulsionParenteral
EmulsionIntravenous
Injection, solution
Injection, emulsionIntravenous4.656 g/1000ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous6.792 g/1000ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous4 g
SolutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
EmulsionIntravenous3 g
IrrigantIrrigation
Injection, solutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous30 mg/100ml
TabletOral
InjectionIntravenous0.21 g/100ml
EmulsionIntravenous13.000 g
Injection, solutionParenteral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous3 MEQ/ML
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 meq/100mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous164 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous3.28 g/20mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous4 meq/100mL
LiquidIntravenous328 mg / mL
SolutionIntravenous328 mg / mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous328 mg/1mL
SolutionIntraocular; Irrigation
SolutionParenteral
SolutionIntravenous0.3675 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
LiquidOphthalmic
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility429.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.2ALOGPS
logP-0.22Chemaxon
logS0.72ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.54Chemaxon
Physiological Charge-1Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area40.13 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count0Chemaxon
Refractivity23.48 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability4.96 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings0Chemaxon
Bioavailability1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveYesChemaxon
Ghose FilterNoChemaxon
Veber's RuleNoChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSsplash10-000x-9000000000-ab04275b8b817bbb73cb
Chromatographic Properties
Collision Cross Sections (CCS)
AdductCCS Value (Å2)Source typeSource
[M-H]-116.04955
predicted
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
[M+H]+118.11168
predicted
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
[M+Na]+126.58659
predicted
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atp binding
Specific Function
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name
ACSS2
Uniprot ID
Q9NR19
Uniprot Name
Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
78579.11 Da
References
  1. article [Link]

Drug created at November 30, 2015 19:10 / Updated at March 03, 2024 02:16