Proline

Identification

Summary

Proline is an amino acid commonly found as a component of total parenteral nutrition.

Brand Names
Aminosyn II 7 %, Sulfite-free, Aminosyn-PF 7%, Clinimix 2.75/5, Clinimix E 2.75/5, Clinisol 15, Freamine 6.9, Freamine III 10, Hepatamine 8, Olimel, Periolimel, Plenamine, Premasol, Primene, Procalamine 3, Prosol, Travasol 10, Trophamine 10 %
Generic Name
Proline
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00172
Background

Proline is one of the twenty amino acids used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. Proline is sometimes called an imino acid, although the IUPAC definition of an imine requires a carbon-nitrogen double bond. Proline is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 115.1305
Monoisotopic: 115.063328537
Chemical Formula
C5H9NO2
Synonyms
  • (-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • (−)-(S)-proline
  • (−)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • (−)-proline
  • (2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
  • (S)-2-Carboxypyrrolidine
  • (S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • (S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
  • 2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • L-(−)-proline
  • L-alpha-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • L-Prolin
  • L-Prolina
  • L-Proline
  • L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
  • L-α-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • P
  • Prolina
  • Proline
  • Prolinum
External IDs
  • FEMA NO. 3319
  • NSC-46703

Pharmacology

Indication

L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons and also helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.

Pharmacology
Reduce drug development failure rates
Build, train, & validate machine-learning models
with evidence-based and structured datasets.
See how
Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
See how
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events
Improve clinical decision support with information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.
Learn more
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events & improve clinical decision support.
Learn more
Pharmacodynamics

L-Proline is a major amino acid found in cartilage and is important for maintaining youthful skin as well as repair of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. It is also essential for the immune system, and for necessary balance of this formula. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. L-Proline is extremely important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons. Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles.

Mechanism of action

Glycogenic, by L-Proline oxidase in the kidney, it is ring-opened and is oxidized to form L-Glutamic acid. L-Ornithine and L-Glutamic acid are converted to L-Proline via L-Glutamic acid-gamma-semialdehyde. It is contained abundantly in collagen, and is intimately involved in the function of arthrosis and chordae.

TargetActionsOrganism
UProlyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2Not AvailableHumans
UProline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase HNot AvailableHumans
UProline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog proteinNot AvailableHumans
UProlyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHumans
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B
binder
Humans
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase CNot AvailableHumans
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A
binder
Humans
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase GNot AvailableHumans
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 1Not AvailableHumans
UPyrroline-5-carboxylate reductaseNot AvailableHumans
UProbable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 2Not AvailableHumans
UProlyl 3-hydroxylase 3Not AvailableHumans
UPyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3Not AvailableHumans
UTrans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydrataseNot AvailableHumans
UPyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UBifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligaseNot AvailableHumans
USodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)Not AvailableHumans
USodium-dependent proline transporterNot AvailableHumans
UPyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2Not AvailableHumans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
Improve decision support & research outcomes
With structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates.
Learn more
Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
Learn more
Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug action
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IDisease
L-Arginine:Glycine Amidinotransferase DeficiencyDisease
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug action
Troleandomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Josamycin Action PathwayDrug action
The Oncogenic Action of SuccinateDisease
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug action
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug action
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug action
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug action
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Creatine Deficiency, Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with Gyrate Atrophy (HOGA)Disease
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug action
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug action
The Oncogenic Action of FumarateDisease
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)Disease
Prolinemia Type IIDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Products2
Drug product information from 10+ global regions
Our datasets provide approved product information including:
dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
Access now
Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
Access now
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseProline (170 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (290 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (150 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (182.5 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (100 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (140 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (125 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (145 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixProline (105 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (120 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (145 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (115 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada flag
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixProline (105 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (10 g / 100 mL) + Glycine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (120 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (155 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (195 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (195 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (155 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (115 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexProline (170 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (520 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (290 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (130.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (260 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (150 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (182.5 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine (145 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (25.5 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (100 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (140 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (125 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (29.3 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (105 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (45 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (10 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (145 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexProline (187 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (316 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (283 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (132 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (165 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (201 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine (159.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (154 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (137.5 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (159.5 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada flag
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixProline (115 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (285 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (25 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120.5 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (159 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (215.5 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (126 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada flag
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixProline (115 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (285 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (215.5 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (120.5 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (131.5 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (170 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (159 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (159 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (170 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (256 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (126 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.Proline (187 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (570 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (316 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (5 g / 100 mL) + Dipotassium phosphate (261 mg / 100 mL) + Glycine (283 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (132 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (165 mg / 100 mL) + Leucine (201 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine (159.5 mg / 100 mL) + Magnesium chloride (51 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (110 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine (154 mg / 100 mL) + Serine (137.5 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium acetate (215 mg / 100 mL) + Sodium chloride (112 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (115.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (49.5 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (11 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (159.5 mg / 100 mL)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada flag
20% ProsolProline (1.34 g) + Alanine (2.76 g) + Arginine (1.96 g) + Aspartic acid (0.6 g) + D-Methionine (0.76 g) + Glutamic acid (1.02 g) + Glycine (2.06 g) + Histidine (1.18 g) + Isoleucine (1.08 g) + Leucine (1.08 g) + Lysine (1.35 g) + Methionine (0.76 g) + Phenylalanine (1 g) + Serine (1.02 g) + Threonine (0.98 g) + Tryptophan (0.32 g) + Tyrosine (0.05 g) + Valine (1.44 g)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-10-09Not applicableCanada flag
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixProline (178 mg / 100 mL) + Alanine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Arginine (440 mg / 100 mL) + Dextrose, unspecified form (20 g / 100 mL) + Glycine (880 mg / 100 mL) + Histidine (186 mg / 100 mL) + Isoleucine (203 mg / 100 mL) + L-Leucine hydrochloride (263 mg / 100 mL) + Lysine hydrochloride (246 mg / 100 mL) + Methionine (246 mg / 100 mL) + Phenylalanine hydrochloride (263 mg / 100 mL) + Threonine (178 mg / 100 mL) + Tryptophan (76 mg / 100 mL) + Tyrosine (17 mg / 100 mL) + Valine (195 mg / 100 mL)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClinimixProline (1.87 g/1L) + Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (100.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixProline (5.78 g/2L) + Alanine (17.60 g/2L) + Arginine (9.78 g/2L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.66 g/2L) + D-glucose monohydrate (300.00 g/2L) + Dipotassium phosphate (5.22 g/2L) + Glycine (8.76 g/2L) + Histidine (4.08 g/2L) + Isoleucine (5.10 g/2L) + Leucine (6.20 g/2L) + Lysine (4.93 g/2L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (1.02 g/2L) + Methionine (3.40 g/2L) + Phenylalanine (4.76 g/2L) + Serine (4.25 g/2L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (5.94 g/2L) + Sodium chloride (1.54 g/2L) + Threonine (3.57 g/2L) + Tryptophan (1.53 g/2L) + Tyrosine (0.34 g/2L) + Valine (4.93 g/2L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
ClinimixProline (1.87 g/1L) + Alanine (5.70 g/1L) + Arginine (3.17 g/1L) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (0.33 g/1L) + D-glucose monohydrate (75.00 g/1L) + Dipotassium phosphate (2.61 g/1L) + Glycine (2.84 g/1L) + Histidine (1.32 g/1L) + Isoleucine (1.65 g/1L) + Leucine (2.01 g/1L) + Lysine (2.00 g/1L) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (0.51 g/1L) + Methionine (1.10 g/1L) + Phenylalanine (1.54 g/1L) + Serine (1.38 g/1L) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (2.16 g/1L) + Sodium chloride (1.12 g/1L) + Threonine (1.16 g/1L) + Tryptophan (0.50 g/1L) + Tyrosine (0.11 g/1L) + Valine (1.60 g/1L)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Healthcare Corporation2017-10-252019-11-30US flag
FREAMINE III %10 1000 ML(SETLI)Proline (1.12 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Serine (0.59 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %10 1000 ML(SETSIZ)Proline (1.12 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Serine (0.59 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %10 500 ML(SETLI)Proline (1.12 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Serine (0.59 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %10 500 ML(SETSIZ)Proline (1.12 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Serine (0.59 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %8.5 500 ML(SETLI)Proline (0.95 %) + Alanine (0.6 %) + Arginine (0.81 %) + Cysteine (0.014 %) + Glycine (1.19 %) + Histidine (0.24 %) + Isoleucine (0.59 %) + Leucine (0.77 %) + Lysine (0.62 %) + Methionine (0.45 %) + Phenylalanine (0.48 %) + Serine (0.5 %) + Threonine (0.34 %) + Tryptophan (0.13 %) + Valine (0.56 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FREAMINE III %8.5 500 ML(SETSIZ)Proline (0.95 %) + Alanine (0.6 %) + Arginine (0.81 %) + Cysteine (0.014 %) + Glycine (1.19 %) + Histidine (0.24 %) + Isoleucine (0.59 %) + Leucine (0.77 %) + Lysine (0.62 %) + Methionine (0.45 %) + Phenylalanine (0.48 %) + Serine (0.5 %) + Threonine (0.34 %) + Tryptophan (0.13 %) + Valine (0.56 %)SolutionIntravenousECZACIBAŞI-BAXTER HASTANE ÜRÜNLERİ SAN.VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
FRESELAMIN %10 1000 ML SETLI SISEProline (1.12 %) + Alanine (0.71 %) + Arginine (0.95 %) + Cysteine (0.016 %) + Glycine (1.4 %) + Histidine (0.28 %) + Isoleucine (0.69 %) + Leucine (0.91 %) + Lysine (0.73 %) + Methionine (0.53 %) + Phenylalanine (0.56 %) + Serine (0.59 %) + Threonine (0.4 %) + Tryptophan (0.15 %) + Valine (0.66 %)SolutionIntravenousOSEL İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as proline and derivatives. These are compounds containing proline or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of proline at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Proline and derivatives
Alternative Parents
L-alpha-amino acids / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acids / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Dialkylamines / Carboxylic acids / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound / Alpha-amino acid / Amine / Amino acid / Azacycle / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / L-alpha-amino acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
show 13 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, proline, glutamine family amino acid (CHEBI:17203) / Common amino acids (C00148)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
9DLQ4CIU6V
CAS number
147-85-3
InChI Key
ONIBWKKTOPOVIA-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO2/c7-5(8)4-2-1-3-6-4/h4,6H,1-3H2,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)[C@@H]1CCCN1

References

Synthesis Reference

Richard I. Leavitt, "L-Proline production from algae." U.S. Patent US4383039, issued October, 1968.

US4383039
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000162
KEGG Drug
D00035
KEGG Compound
C00148
PubChem Compound
145742
PubChem Substance
46506858
ChemSpider
128566
BindingDB
50000100
RxNav
8737
ChEBI
17203
ChEMBL
CHEMBL54922
ZINC
ZINC000000895360
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000198
PharmGKB
PA451125
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
PRO
Wikipedia
Proline
MSDS
Download (72.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCritically Ill Patients / Starvation1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCancer-related Malnutrition1
4TerminatedSupportive CareCritically Ill Patients1
4TerminatedSupportive CareParenteral Nutrition (No Primary Condition Studied)1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareMalnutrition1
3CompletedOtherPolycythemia Vera (PV)1
3CompletedTreatmentCritically Ill Patients2
3CompletedTreatmentInfants, Premature / Low Birth Weight Infants / Newborn Infants / Septic / Small for Gestational Age Infants1
3CompletedTreatmentParenteral Feedings / Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentParenteral Nutrition for Patients With Proven Insufficient Enteral Resorption1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Professional Co.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionParenteral
SolutionIntravenous10.50 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous0.5 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.25 g/1000ml
Solution, concentrateIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous0.52 g/l
Injection, solutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous11.000 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous5.5 g/1000ml
EmulsionParenteral
InjectionIntravenous16 g/1000ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous2.3 g/1000ml
InjectionIntravenous1.6 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.37 g/l
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection, emulsionParenteral
Injection, emulsion; injection, solutionIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
Injection, solution
Injection, emulsionIntravenous4.656 g/1000ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous6.792 g/1000ml
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal
LiquidHemodialysis
SolutionIntraperitoneal0.184 g/l
SolutionIntraperitoneal
EmulsionIntravenous0.3 g/l
EmulsionIntravenous176 g/l
EmulsionIntravenous4 g
EmulsionIntravenous3 g
SolutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous4 g/l
InjectionIntravenous0.21 g/100ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous14 g/1000ml
Injection, emulsionIntravenous0.28 g/1000ml
EmulsionIntravenous0.74 g/L
InjectionIntravenous10.30 g/l
InjectionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous0.54 g/100ml
InjectionIntravenous6.3 g/1000ml
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-proline crystal3.6USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)221 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.62E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP-2.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility365.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity28.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.5 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9755
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9245
Caco-2 permeable-0.6216
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5641
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9938
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9819
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8047
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8458
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7439
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7563
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9627
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9595
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9656
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.992
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9918
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8927
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9574
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9077
Rat acute toxicity2.0201 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9555
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9506
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.03 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-a9127c0e370afb80259b
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-000f-0910000000-3195f21e625520d51316
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-119af746c347969e8ae7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-006x-8900000000-b31beabb1ed6235e7145
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-c1c67bc521741ee891cb
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0006-1900000000-84e6fb318323fd0261b1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00xs-8910000000-74b0c34ca5fd7c85f1d9
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00fu-9000000000-716c3d01b301162863b6
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-0d7354201ed866c87b13
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-a9127c0e370afb80259b
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-000f-0910000000-3195f21e625520d51316
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-119af746c347969e8ae7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQGC-MSsplash10-001i-1920000000-09006ee4e7a137d8a45a
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-006x-8900000000-b31beabb1ed6235e7145
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0006-1900000000-84e6fb318323fd0261b1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00xs-8910000000-74b0c34ca5fd7c85f1d9
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-c1c67bc521741ee891cb
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00xr-9600000000-ba51a901e786b1a4663e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-f72e2f3812225708fc56
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-59887da6580f63bcc1c5
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fu-9000000000-c69dcaf7cb2d1e9d285e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0930000000-984f9a23ebfe28f95017
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-f75575cac28a54aa923d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-221cfb8c82f3df76eb51
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-e5741fd9870218d57caf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-6bc9b4e775be37fa18d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-a8eb419b26655a6a1dab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-873ee03b61d1ffcae70f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-61d583960651669fb9e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-2c23774af5f6a0c217d5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-d89c1e626ef24a79c89f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-fc27094f2eb75e65b438
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-3221c23504b8847abf8d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-8169367f5127c57fae12
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-f704eb8402fcacfccd18
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ccd74eea36efab2cbab8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9f214692cd39a6581813
MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-ef038c77922e4c89eeb0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-4073ea1df57a60b36d69
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-495fdbd2f565bd794632
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-e1d0a4b20419dc7bae92
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-2c23774af5f6a0c217d5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-d89c1e626ef24a79c89f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-fc27094f2eb75e65b438
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-e1d0a4b20419dc7bae92
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-3221c23504b8847abf8d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-8169367f5127c57fae12
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-f704eb8402fcacfccd18
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ccd74eea36efab2cbab8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9f214692cd39a6581813
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-f75575cac28a54aa923d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-221cfb8c82f3df76eb51
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-e5741fd9870218d57caf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-a8eb419b26655a6a1dab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-873ee03b61d1ffcae70f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-61d583960651669fb9e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9400000000-4073ea1df57a60b36d69
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-495fdbd2f565bd794632
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Drugtargets2
Build, predict & validate machine-learning models
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new
insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name
P4HA2
Uniprot ID
O15460
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
60901.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name
PRODH
Uniprot ID
O43272
Uniprot Name
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
68001.405 Da
References
  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. [Article]
  2. White TA, Krishnan N, Becker DF, Tanner JJ: Structure and kinetics of monofunctional proline dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14316-27. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [Article]
  3. White TA, Tanner JJ: Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005 Aug 1;61(Pt 8):737-9. Epub 2005 Jul 8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ribonucleoprotein complex binding
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. Participates in pre-mRNA splicing. May play a role in the asse...
Gene Name
PPIH
Uniprot ID
O43447
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase H
Molecular Weight
19208.04 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PROSC
Uniprot ID
O94903
Uniprot Name
Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein
Molecular Weight
30343.7 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name
P4HA1
Uniprot ID
P13674
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name
PPIB
Uniprot ID
P23284
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B
Molecular Weight
23742.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. Involved in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability trans...
Gene Name
PPIF
Uniprot ID
P30405
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
22040.09 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name
PPIC
Uniprot ID
P45877
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C
Molecular Weight
22763.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Virion binding
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name
PPIA
Uniprot ID
P62937
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A
Molecular Weight
18012.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. May be implicated in the folding, transport, and assembly of p...
Gene Name
PPIG
Uniprot ID
Q13427
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G
Molecular Weight
88616.535 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein complex binding
Specific Function
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in...
Gene Name
P3H1
Uniprot ID
Q32P28
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1
Molecular Weight
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
P5CR2
Uniprot ID
Q4W8W1
Uniprot Name
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Molecular Weight
33726.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Proline-trna ligase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PARS2
Uniprot ID
Q7L3T8
Uniprot Name
Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
53262.18 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H2
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL5
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2
Molecular Weight
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name
P3H3
Uniprot ID
Q8IVL6
Uniprot Name
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3
Molecular Weight
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PYCRL
Uniprot ID
Q53H96
Uniprot Name
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3
Molecular Weight
28663.025 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trans-l-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the dehydration of trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline to Delta(1)-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (Pyr2C). May be required to degrade trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline from the diet and originating from the degra...
Gene Name
L3HYPDH
Uniprot ID
Q96EM0
Uniprot Name
Trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline dehydratase
Molecular Weight
38137.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. Can utilize both NAD and NADP, but has higher affinity for NAD. Involved in the cellular response to oxidative stress.
Gene Name
PYCR1
Uniprot ID
P32322
Uniprot Name
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
33360.27 Da
References
  1. Huang TC, Huang YW, Hung HJ, Ho CT, Wu ML: Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5097-102. Epub 2007 May 31. [Article]
  2. Hu CA, Donald SP, Yu J, Lin WW, Liu Z, Steel G, Obie C, Valle D, Phang JM: Overexpression of proline oxidase induces proline-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jan;295(1-2):85-92. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [Article]
  3. Meng Z, Lou Z, Liu Z, Hui D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Purification, characterization, and crystallization of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Sep;49(1):83-7. Epub 2006 Mar 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rna stem-loop binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the attachment of the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA in a two-step reaction: the amino acid is first activated by ATP to form a covalent intermediate with AMP and is then tr...
Gene Name
EPRS
Uniprot ID
P07814
Uniprot Name
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase
Molecular Weight
170589.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the uptake of a broad range of neutral and cationic amino acids (with the exception of proline) in a Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent manner.
Gene Name
SLC6A14
Uniprot ID
Q9UN76
Uniprot Name
Sodium- and chloride-dependent neutral and basic amino acid transporter B(0+)
Molecular Weight
72152.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Terminates the action of proline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A7
Uniprot ID
Q99884
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent proline transporter
Molecular Weight
70909.935 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity
Specific Function
Housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. In some cell types, such as erythrocytes, its primary function may be the generation of NADP(+). Can utilize both NAD and N...
Gene Name
PYCR2
Uniprot ID
Q96C36
Uniprot Name
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2
Molecular Weight
33636.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [Article]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [Article]
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name
PRODH
Uniprot ID
O43272
Uniprot Name
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
68001.405 Da
References
  1. Phang JM, Donald SP, Pandhare J, Liu Y: The metabolism of proline, a stress substrate, modulates carcinogenic pathways. Amino Acids. 2008 Nov;35(4):681-90. doi: 10.1007/s00726-008-0063-4. Epub 2008 Apr 10. [Article]
  2. Phang JM, Liu W, Zabirnyk O: Proline metabolism and microenvironmental stress. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:441-63. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104638. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on October 03, 2021 00:35