Isotretinoin is a retinoid used to treat severe recalcitrant acne.

Brand Names
Absorica, Accutane, Amnesteem, Claravis, Clarus, Epuris, Myorisan, Sotret, Zenatane
Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Isotretinoin is a retinoid derivative of vitamin A used in the treatment of severe recalcitrant acne.Label It was most widely marketed under the brand name Accutane, which has since been discontinued.10 Isotretinoin is associated with major risks in pregnancy and is therefore only available under the iPLEDGE program in the United States.12 The first isotretinoin-containing product was FDA approved on 7 May 1982.10

Small Molecule
Average: 300.4351
Monoisotopic: 300.20893014
Chemical Formula
  • (7E,9E,11E,13Z)-retinoic acid
  • 13-cis-retinoic acid
  • 13-cis-Vitamin A acid
  • 13-RA
  • cis-RA
  • Isotretinoin
  • Isotretinoína
  • Isotrétinoine
  • Isotretinoino
  • Isotretinoinum
  • Neovitamin A acid
External IDs
  • RO 4-3780
  • RO-4-3780



Isotretinoin is indicated to treat severe recalcitrant nodular acne and patients ≥12 years enrolled in the iPLEDGE program.Label,12

Reduce drug development failure rates
Build, train, & validate machine-learning models
with evidence-based and structured datasets.
See how
Build, train, & validate predictive machine-learning models with structured datasets.
See how
Associated Conditions
Indication TypeIndicationCombined Product DetailsApproval LevelAge GroupPatient CharacteristicsDose Form
Treatment ofAcne conglobata•••••••••••••••••••
Treatment ofNeuroblastoma••• •••••
Treatment ofRosacea••• •••••
Treatment ofSezary syndrome••• •••••
Treatment ofEarly mycosis fungoides (mf)••• •••••
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Prevent Adverse Drug Events Today
Tap into our Clinical API for life-saving information on contraindications & blackbox warnings, population restrictions, harmful risks, & more.
Learn more
Avoid life-threatening adverse drug events with our Clinical API
Learn more

The pharmacodynamics of isotretinoin are poorly understood.Label

Mechanism of action

Isotretinoin produces its effects through altering progress through the cell cycle, cell differentiation, survival, and apoptosis.4 These actions reduce sebum production, preventing the blockage of pores, and growth of acne causing bacteria.4 Isotretinoin and 4-oxo-isotretinoin both significantly reduce the production of sebum.4,Label Isotretinoin has little to no affinity for retinol binding proteins (RBPs) and retinoic acid nuclear receptors (RARs).4 Tretinoin and 4-oxo-tretinion bind to the RAR-γ receptor, which is suspected to be part of the action of acne treatment by isotretinoin.4 Isotretinoin induces apoptosis in sebocytes, leading to a decrease in sebum production.4 Isotretinoin also reduces the formation of comedones by reducing hyperkeratinization through an unknown mechanism.4 Isotretinoin does not directly kill bacteria but it does reduce the size of sebum ducts and makes the microenvironment less hospitable to acne causing bacteria.4 It may also increase immune mechanisms and alter chemotaxis of monocytes to reduce inflammation.4

There is preliminary evidence suggesting isotretinoin may interact with FoxO1, which may explain a substantial number of isotretinoin's unexplained actions.9

URetinoic acid receptor gammaNot AvailableHumans
URetinoic acid receptor alpha

Patients reach a maximum concentration of 74-511ng/mL after 1-4 hours following a 100mg oral dose.1 Isotretinoin is better absorbed with a high fat meal and bioavailability may change from one brand to another.Label

Following a 40mg oral dose, fasted subjects reached a maximum concentration of 314ng/mL in 2.9 hours with an area under the curve of 4055ng/mL*hr.Label Subjects given a high fat meal and a 40mg oral doses reached a maximum concentration of 395ng/mL in 6.4 hours with an area under the curve of 6095ng/mL*mL.Label

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution in humans is unknown because there is no intravenous preparation.13 In a study of pediatric patients with neuroblastoma the volume of distribution was found to be 85L.6 The volume of distribution was also found to be 2432mL/kg in guinea pigs and 1716mL/kg in obese rats.5

Protein binding

Isotretinoin is >99.9% protein bound, mainly to serum albumin.Label


Isotretinoin, or 13-cis-retinoic acid can undergo reversible cis-trans isomerization to all-trans-retinoic acid.8 Isotretinoin undergoes 4-hydroxylation to 4-hydroxy-13-cis-retinoic acid, which is oxidized to the main metabolite 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid.8,3. All-trans-retinoic acid undergoes 4-hydroxylation to 4-hydroxy-all-trans-retinoic acid, which is oxidized to 4-oxo-all-trans-retinoic acid.8 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid can undergo reversible cis-trans isomerization to 4-oxo-all-trans-retinoic acid.8

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Isotretinoin and its metabolites are conjugated and excreted in the urine and feces in similar amounts.Label 53-74% of an oral dose is eliminated as unchanged isotretinoin in the feces.1


The half life ranges from 7-39 hours13 with a mean elimination half life of 20 hours.1 The half life of 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid ranges from 17-50 hours with a mean elimination half life of 25 hours.13


The clearance of isotretinoin is 15.9L/h in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma.6 Clearance is also 21.3mL/min/kg in guinea pigs and 7.2mL/min/kg in obese rats.5

Adverse Effects
Improve decision support & research outcomes
With structured adverse effects data, including: blackbox warnings, adverse reactions, warning & precautions, & incidence rates. View sample adverse effects data in our new Data Library!
See the data
Improve decision support & research outcomes with our structured adverse effects data.
See a data sample

Patients experiencing an overdose may present with vomiting, facial flushing, cheilosis, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and ataxia.Label These symptoms may rapidly resolve.Label Generally no treatment is required for these overdoses.7

The oral lowest dose causing toxic effect (TDLO) for children is 30mg/kg/21W, oral TDLO for men is 24mg/kg/4W, oral TDLO for women is 56mg/kg/8W.14 The intraperitoneal LD50 for rats is 901mg/kg, oral LD50 for mice is 3389mg/kg, oral LD50 for rats is >4000mg/kg.14

Isotretinoin is associated with major congenital malformations, spontaneous abortion, and premature birth.Label It is unknown if isotretinoin is expressed in breast milk but due to the associated hazards a decision should be made to either stop nursing or stop taking isotretinoin.Label

In animal studies, isotretinoin was associated with an increased risk of pheochromocytoma and adrenal medullary hyperplasia at doses above the recommended clinical dose.Label Isotretinoin was negative for the Ames test of mutagenicity once and weakly positive a second time.Label It has not been shown to be clastogenic.Label A study in dogs noted testicular atrophy after doses of 10-30 times the recommended clinical dose for 30 weeks.Label In trials with men there were no effects seen on sperm count, motility, morphology, ejaculate volume, and seminal plasma fructose.Label

Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
AbacavirIsotretinoin may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Isotretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Isotretinoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol. Alcohol with isotretinoin can lead to inflammation of the liver.
  • Avoid vitamin A supplements.
  • Take with food. High-fat food increases drug absorption.


Drug product information from 10+ global regions
Our datasets provide approved product information including:
dosage, form, labeller, route of administration, and marketing period.
Access now
Access drug product information from over 10 global regions.
Access now
Product Images
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AbsoricaCapsule25 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2015-02-17Not applicableUS flag
AbsoricaCapsule30 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUS flag
AbsoricaCapsule20 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUS flag
AbsoricaCapsule35 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2015-02-17Not applicableUS flag
AbsoricaCapsule40 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2012-06-08Not applicableUS flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AccutaneCapsule, gelatin coated40 mg/1OralJg Pharma Inc.2022-08-01Not applicableUS flag
AccutaneCapsule, gelatin coated20 mg/1OralJg Pharma Inc.2021-01-112023-11-30US flag
AccutaneCapsule, gelatin coated20 mg/1OralJg Pharma Inc.2022-08-01Not applicableUS flag
AccutaneCapsule, gelatin coated30 mg/1OralJg Pharma Inc.2021-01-112024-01-31US flag
AccutaneCapsule, gelatin coated10 mg/1OralJg Pharma Inc.2021-01-112023-12-31US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ETREXİN % 2 + % 0.05 JELIsotretinoin (0.05 %) + Erythromycin (2 %)GelTopicalVEM İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2014-04-07Not applicableTurkey flag
ISOTREXIN JEL, 30 GIsotretinoin (0.05 %) + Erythromycin (2 %)GelTopicalGLAXOSMİTHKLİNE İLAÇLARI SAN. VE TİC. A.Ş.2010-07-062020-05-28Turkey flag
MUNDERM JEL , 30 GRAMIsotretinoin (0.5 mg) + Erythromycin (20 mg)GelTopicalHELBA İLAÇ İÇ VE DIŞ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2014-11-14Not applicableTurkey flag


ATC Codes
D10AD04 — IsotretinoinD10AD54 — Isotretinoin, combinationsD10BA01 — Isotretinoin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Diterpenoids / Medium-chain fatty acids / Methyl-branched fatty acids / Unsaturated fatty acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound / Branched fatty acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Diterpenoid / Fatty acid / Fatty acyl / Hydrocarbon derivative / Medium-chain fatty acid
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
retinoic acid (CHEBI:6067) / Retinoids (LMPR01090021)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
InChI Key
(2Z,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid


Synthesis Reference

Ashok Kumar, Dharmendra Singh, Ganesh Devidas Mahale, Ragnesh Kumar Rana, Mahesh Kharade, "PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF HIGHLY PURE ISOTRETINOIN." U.S. Patent US20080207946, issued August 28, 2008.

General References
  1. Khoo KC, Reik D, Colburn WA: Pharmacokinetics of isotretinoin following a single oral dose. J Clin Pharmacol. 1982 Aug-Sep;22(8-9):395-402. [Article]
  2. Miastkowska M, Sikora E, Ogonowski J, Zielina M, Łudzik A: The kinetic study of isotretinoin release from nanoemulsion Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2016 Dec 5;510:63-68. [Article]
  3. Vane FM, Bugge CJ: Identification of 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid as the major metabolite of 13-cis-retinoic acid in human blood. Drug Metab Dispos. 1981 Nov-Dec;9(6):515-20. [Article]
  4. Layton A: The use of isotretinoin in acne. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 May;1(3):162-9. doi: 10.4161/derm.1.3.9364. [Article]
  5. Chien DS, Sandri RB, Tang-Liu DS: Systemic pharmacokinetics of acitretin, etretinate, isotretinoin, and acetylenic retinoids in guinea pigs and obese rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 1992 Mar-Apr;20(2):211-7. [Article]
  6. Veal GJ, Cole M, Errington J, Pearson AD, Foot AB, Whyman G, Boddy AV: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) in children with high-risk neuroblastoma - a study of the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group. Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb 12;96(3):424-31. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603554. Epub 2007 Jan 16. [Article]
  7. Aubin S, Lorette G, Muller C, Vaillant L: Massive isotretinoin intoxication. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1995 Jul;20(4):348-50. [Article]
  8. Brazzell RK, Colburn WA: Pharmacokinetics of the retinoids isotretinoin and etretinate. A comparative review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982 Apr;6(4 Pt 2 Suppl):643-51. [Article]
  9. Melnik BC: Isotretinoin and FoxO1: A scientific hypothesis. Dermatoendocrinol. 2011 Jul;3(3):141-65. doi: 10.4161/derm.3.3.15331. Epub 2011 Jul 1. [Article]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Accutane Oral Capsule [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Absorica [Link]
  12. iPLEDGE Program Home Page [Link]
  13. New Zealand Drug Data Sheet: Oratane [Link]
  14. Isotretinoin MSDS [Link]
  15. Health Canada Product Monograph: Accutane Roche (isotretinoin) capsules for oral administration [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
FDA label
Download (175 KB)
Download (37.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
4Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticAcne Vulgaris1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAdverse Drug Reaction (ADR)1
4CompletedDiagnosticAcne Vulgaris1
4CompletedOtherCYP2D6 Polymorphism1
4CompletedPreventionProliferative Vitreoretinopathy1


Not Available
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Mylan
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
Dosage Forms
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral35 mg/1
CapsuleOral16 mg
CapsuleOral16 mg/1
CapsuleOral24 mg
CapsuleOral24 mg/1
CapsuleOral28 mg/1
CapsuleOral32 mg/1
CapsuleOral32 mg
CapsuleOral8 mg
CapsuleOral8 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral10 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral40 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral10 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral20 mg
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral20 mg/1
CapsuleOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral30 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral0.21 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg
CapsuleOral10.00 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral10 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral20 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral30 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral40 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral4000000 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral5 mg
GelTopical50 mg
GelTopical0.05 g
Capsule, liquid filledOral1000000 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral2000000 mg
GelTopical0.05 %
CapsuleOral20.0000 mg
CapsuleOral5.0000 mg
CapsuleOral20.00 mg
CapsuleOral5 MG
CapsuleOral20.000 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral10 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral30 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral40 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral20 mg/1
CapsuleOral20 mg
CapsuleOral10.000 mg
CapsuleOral10.0000 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral20 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Accutane 20 mg capsule23.77USD capsule
Amnesteem 40 mg capsule22.6USD capsule
Claravis 40 mg capsule22.6USD capsule
Amnesteem 20 mg capsule19.45USD capsule
Claravis 20 mg capsule18.7USD capsule
Claravis 30 mg capsule16.45USD capsule
Amnesteem 10 mg capsule16.4USD capsule
Claravis 10 mg capsule15.77USD capsule
Accutane 40 mg capsule14.88USD capsule
Accutane 10 mg capsule10.55USD capsule
Sotret 40 mg capsule10.08USD capsule
Sotret 20 mg capsule8.67USD capsule
Sotret 30 mg capsule8.44USD capsule
Sotret 10 mg capsule7.31USD capsule
Clarus 40 mg Capsule2.14USD capsule
Clarus 10 mg Capsule1.05USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US8367102No2013-02-052021-09-21US flag
US9089534No2015-07-282021-09-21US flag
US7435427No2008-10-142021-09-21US flag
US9078925No2015-07-142021-09-21US flag
US8952064No2015-02-102021-09-21US flag
US9750711No2017-09-052035-05-29US flag
US9700535No2017-07-112035-08-04US flag


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)189-190MSDS
boiling point (°C)462.8
water solubility0.00477mg/mL
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00477 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.76Chemaxon
Physiological Charge-1Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count5Chemaxon
Refractivity97.79 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability36.15 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings1Chemaxon
Rule of FiveNoChemaxon
Ghose FilterYesChemaxon
Veber's RuleYesChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9925
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9311
Caco-2 permeable+0.7603
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6144
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8912
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8088
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8639
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8221
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6025
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8831
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9301
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9252
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8944
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5554
Rat acute toxicity2.1455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9562
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSsplash10-052r-2090000000-42b8aa0666b5a088671b
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0009000000-12dbd83959268dee6dbf
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-4900000000-31c9262cbbf0bad5b738
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fsl-9600000000-c6681587f0a9ae7a712e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0390000000-af1a6974c2a7872f36c7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-82a486e1feafa5cf4f1b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-08192331c8e265ce508b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00lu-2970000000-05e8c3f4df3fed93b093
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-2890000000-2b136364b4a3a972b85b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-4910000000-f6c3b4ffdf3dc3f695a2
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
Chromatographic Properties
Collision Cross Sections (CCS)
AdductCCS Value (Å2)Source typeSource
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
DarkChem Lite v0.1.0
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)
DeepCCS 1.0 (2019)


Build, predict & validate machine-learning models
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new
insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new insights and accelerate drug research.
Learn more
Pharmacological action
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
50341.405 Da
  1. Layton A: The use of isotretinoin in acne. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 May;1(3):162-9. doi: 10.4161/derm.1.3.9364. [Article]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
50770.805 Da
  1. Dahl AR, Grossi IM, Houchens DP, Scovell LJ, Placke ME, Imondi AR, Stoner GD, De Luca LM, Wang D, Mulshine JL: Inhaled isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is an effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent in A/J mice at low doses: a pilot study. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Aug;6(8):3015-24. [Article]
  2. Zouboulis CC: Isotretinoin revisited: pluripotent effects on human sebaceous gland cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Oct;126(10):2154-6. [Article]
  3. Vu-Dac N, Gervois P, Torra IP, Fruchart JC, Kosykh V, Kooistra T, Princen HM, Dallongeville J, Staels B: Retinoids increase human apo C-III expression at the transcriptional level via the retinoid X receptor. Contribution to the hypertriglyceridemic action of retinoids. J Clin Invest. 1998 Aug 1;102(3):625-32. [Article]
  4. Taylor LE, Bennett GD, Finnell RH: Altered gene expression in murine branchial arches following in utero exposure to retinoic acid. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1995 Jan-Mar;15(1):13-25. [Article]
  5. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Hendrix CW, Jackson KA, Whitmore E, Guidos A, Kretzer R, Liss CM, Shah LP, Khoo KC, McLane J, Trapnell CB: The effect of isotretinoin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 May;75(5):464-75. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.01.003. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
  1. Layton A: The use of isotretinoin in acne. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 May;1(3):162-9. doi: 10.4161/derm.1.3.9364. [Article]
  2. Tsukada M, Schroder M, Seltmann H, Orfanos CE, Zouboulis CC: High albumin levels restrict the kinetics of 13-cis retinoic acid uptake and intracellular isomerization to all-trans retinoic acid and inhibit its anti-proliferative effect on SZ95 sebocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Jul;119(1):182-5. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.01816.x. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at April 12, 2024 17:11