Mycophenolic acid

Identification

Name
Mycophenolic acid
Accession Number
DB01024
Description

Mycophenolic acid is an an immunosuppresant drug and potent anti-proliferative, and can be used in place of the older anti-proliferative azathioprine. It is usually used as part of triple therapy including a calcineurin inhibitor (ciclosporin or tacrolimus) and prednisolone. It is also useful in research for the selection of animal cells that express the E. coli gene coding for XGPRT (xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase).

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 320.3371
Monoisotopic: 320.125988372
Chemical Formula
C17H20O6
Synonyms
  • (e)-6-(4-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-phthalanyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoic acid
  • Acide mycophenolique
  • Acido micofenolico
  • Acidum mycophenolicum
  • Micofenolico acido
  • Mycophenolate
  • Mycophenolic acid
  • Mycophenolsäure
External IDs
  • 68618
  • NSC-129185

Pharmacology

Indication

For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal transplants, administered in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Mycophenolic acid is an antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites.

Mechanism of action

Mycophenolic acid is a potent, selective, uncompetitive, and reversible inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), and therefore inhibits the de novo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis without incorporation into DNA. Because T- and B-lymphocytes are critically dependent for their proliferation on de novo synthesis of purines, whereas other cell types can utilize salvage pathways, mycophenolic acid has potent cytostatic effects on lymphocytes. Mycophenolic acid inhibits proliferative responses of T- and B-lymphocytes to both mitogenic and allospecific stimulation. Addition of guanosine or deoxyguanosine reverses the cytostatic effects of mycophenolic acid on lymphocytes. Mycophenolic acid also suppresses antibody formation by B-lymphocytes. Mycophenolic acid prevents the glycosylation of lymphocyte and monocyte glycoproteins that are involved in intercellular adhesion to endothelial cells and may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes into sites of inflammation and graft rejection.

TargetActionsOrganism
AInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1
inhibitor
Humans
AInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Bioavailability following oral administration of Myfortic delayed-release tablet ranges from 70-95%

Volume of distribution
  • 54 ± 25 L
Protein binding

>98%

Metabolism

Mycophenolic acid is metabolized mainly by glucuronyl transferase to glucuronidated metabolites, predominantly the phenolic glucuronide, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG). MPAG does not manifest pharmacological activity. The acyl glucuronide minor metabolite has pharmacological activity similar to mycophenolic acid. The AUC ratio of Mycophenolic acid:MPAG:acyl glucuronide is approximately 1:24:0.28 at steady state.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

The mean elimination half-life for mycophenolic acid ranges from 8-16 hours, while that of the MPAG metabolite ranges from 13-17 hours.

Clearance
  • 140 +/- 30 mL/min [Stable renal transplant patients]
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Oral (LD50): Acute: 352 mg/kg [Rat], 1000 mg/kg [Mouse], and >6000 mg/kg Rabbit. Possible signs and symptoms of acute overdose could include the following: hematological abnormalities such as leukopenia and neutropenia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and dyspepsia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirMycophenolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Abatacept.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Mycophenolic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Mycophenolic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Mycophenolic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Mycophenolic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Mycophenolic acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Mycophenolic acid which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumMycophenolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Take on an empty stomach. Take mycophenolic acid at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Mycophenolate sodiumWX877SQI1G37415-62-6DOZYTHNHLLSNIK-JOKMOOFLSA-M
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Melbex
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MyforticTablet, delayed release360 mg/1OralNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2004-02-27Not applicableUS flag00078 0386 66 nlmimage10 a116d0a6
MyforticTablet, delayed release360 mgOralNovartis2005-02-11Not applicableCanada flag
MyforticTablet, delayed release180 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-03-012017-05-24US flag
MyforticTablet, delayed release180 mg/1OralNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2004-02-27Not applicableUS flag
MyforticTablet, delayed release180 mgOralNovartis2005-02-11Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed releaseOralApotex Corporation2014-07-02Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed releaseOralApotex Corporation2014-07-02Not applicableCanada flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release360 mg/1OralCONCORD BIOTECH LIMITED2019-12-13Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release180 mg/1OralMajor Pharmaceuticals2012-08-21Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release360 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2020-04-03Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release180 mg/1OralAccord Healthcare Inc.2017-09-11Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release180 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2012-08-21Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release360 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.2014-01-20Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release180 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2015-01-06Not applicableUS flag
Mycophenolic AcidTablet, delayed release360 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.2019-08-15Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L04AA06 — Mycophenolic acid
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phthalides. These are compounds containing a 3-hydrocarbylidene-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one moiety,.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Isocoumarans
Sub Class
Isobenzofuranones
Direct Parent
Phthalides
Alternative Parents
Anisoles / Medium-chain fatty acids / Alkyl aryl ethers / Methyl-branched fatty acids / Hydroxy fatty acids / Heterocyclic fatty acids / Unsaturated fatty acids / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Vinylogous acids / Lactones
show 6 more
Substituents
Alkyl aryl ether / Anisole / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Benzenoid / Branched fatty acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid ester / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
2-benzofurans, monocarboxylic acid, phenols, gamma-lactone (CHEBI:168396)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
HU9DX48N0T
CAS number
24280-93-1
InChI Key
HPNSFSBZBAHARI-RUDMXATFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H20O6/c1-9(5-7-13(18)19)4-6-11-15(20)14-12(8-23-17(14)21)10(2)16(11)22-3/h4,20H,5-8H2,1-3H3,(H,18,19)/b9-4+
IUPAC Name
(4E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid
SMILES
COC1=C(C\C=C(/C)CCC(O)=O)C(O)=C2C(=O)OCC2=C1C

References

Synthesis Reference

Bernard J. Abbott, John G. Whitney, "Method of preparing mycophenolic acid glucoside." U.S. Patent US4234684, issued January, 1976.

US4234684
General References
  1. Woodroffe R, Yao GL, Meads C, Bayliss S, Ready A, Raftery J, Taylor RS: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation: a systematic review and modelling study. Health Technol Assess. 2005 May;9(21):1-179, iii-iv. [PubMed:15899149]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015159
PubChem Compound
446541
PubChem Substance
46504559
ChemSpider
393865
BindingDB
19264
RxNav
265323
ChEBI
168396
ChEMBL
CHEMBL866
ZINC
ZINC000000001758
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000784
PharmGKB
PA164748728
PDBe Ligand
MOA
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Mycophenolic_acid
AHFS Codes
  • 92:44.00 — Immunosuppressive Agents
PDB Entries
1jr1 / 1me7 / 1meh / 1mei / 4af0 / 4fo4 / 4fxs
MSDS
Download (74 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchTransplantation, Liver1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCytomegalovirus / Transplantation, Kidney1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatocellular Carcinoma1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKidney Transplant Rejection / Other Complications of Kidney Transplant1
4CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Transplantation, Kidney1
4CompletedPreventionDe Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients1
4CompletedPreventionDe Novo Kidney Transplantation1
4CompletedPreventionDisorder Related to Cardiac Transplantation1
4CompletedPreventionEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
4CompletedPreventionHepatitis C Viral Infection1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Novartis AG
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule250 mg
Tablet500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral500 MG
SuspensionOral20 g
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg
Capsule, coatedOral250 mg
Tablet, film coated500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral250 MG
CapsuleOral250 MG
Tablet, delayed releaseOral180 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral360 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral180 MG
Tablet, delayed releaseOral360 MG
TabletOral180 mg
TabletOral360 mg
TabletOral500 mg
Tablet, delayed release180 mg
Tablet, delayed release360 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Myfortic 360 mg Enteric Coated Tabs8.0USD tab
Myfortic 360 mg tablet7.69USD tablet
Myfortic 180 mg tablet3.85USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2250906No2006-10-032017-04-10Canada flag
US6025391No2000-02-152017-04-10US flag
US6172107No2001-01-092017-04-10US flag
US6306900No2001-10-232018-02-27US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)141 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP2.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0355 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.36ALOGPS
logP3.53ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.57ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity85.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.95 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9409
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5826
Caco-2 permeable-0.5583
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8058
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7888
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.545
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8199
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8305
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8575
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6934
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9232
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7237
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9619
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5888
Rat acute toxicity2.9907 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.753
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6329
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-0490000000-99420edc8894323b59c3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-b99d88ff2ddeb6977c4a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0149000000-ed6b854b4f9af495c8d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0972000000-12d0e80f109d1fa6eb11
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0950000000-2e6c3543fe3f9f4e0790
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0930000000-e7a74fbe76e7141ec5f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-022c-0910000000-27f7c0023a8b7e5b4d66
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-4aba5ee4ba77899b36fb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0149000000-497b49ab395f3319c943
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0971000000-68634f04b665bb0e68a3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0950000000-37f2ee0320d2ec560b93
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6x-0930000000-500359a3fd82c686ff99
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-0900000000-6d04c3395aae26f88529
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-0590000000-fe2f27357ba775714c5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-8f75c9bc48b5eb019974
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-57a06531623d00c32d13
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-0490000000-700501110e03f998e99b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-0490000000-d857a6e047fc52e09e65
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0659000000-ba96d820001d9e786c8d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0009000000-8855932a0a5c9af1f1f6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0009000000-5eab5855829b8f8b0eea
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pb9-0093000000-19fd59af4878ea5f1a97
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-6f584505d9b70bbffa5e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0890000000-fb7dec2fc3d23163125f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1910000000-107f1e78387f32f7de88
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pbc-3900000000-b1724166cac37a86cf14
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0009000000-8de82df3dfe7724905cc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pb9-0093000000-921ff4437b7ebfa1c724
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-51bdcbf497148c8b5520
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0890000000-c295a83b84c00d94f85f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1910000000-92e91c6ef0f2c538121f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pbc-3900000000-410eebeb0513756f40b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0009000000-77bcd201c9d0349c0389
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-da3123e3ecb85f0d28ff
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-90103d288430929083b5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0090000000-3f6f29caf26c0469c12c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0090000000-7fc1bdce2eebcc00617c
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0019000000-01d925bb1f9079308d85
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0091000000-22fc916594dbab851293
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0940000000-84f4c65c2cd8b7358b78
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0593000000-1fed07ad435ca0bd7249
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0950000000-87024d6b180d1fc1c64f
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0493000000-9b99fb030e87f52cce17
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0294000000-31d6abb5cfcd65770f2c

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore pl...
Gene Name
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID
P20839
Uniprot Name
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight
55405.365 Da
References
  1. Dzidic A, Prgomet C, Mohr A, Meyer K, Bauer J, Meyer HH, Pfaffl MW: Effects of mycophenolic acid on inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase I and II mRNA expression in white blood cells and various tissues in sheep. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006 May;53(4):163-9. [PubMed:16629948]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore pl...
Gene Name
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID
P12268
Uniprot Name
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
55804.495 Da
References
  1. Vannozzi F, Filipponi F, Di Paolo A, Danesi R, Urbani L, Bocci G, Catalano G, De Simone P, Mosca F, Del Tacca M: An exploratory study on pharmacogenetics of inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase II in peripheral mononuclear cells from liver-transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2004 Nov;36(9):2787-90. [PubMed:15621150]
  2. Wang J, Zeevi A, Webber S, Girnita DM, Addonizio L, Selby R, Hutchinson IV, Burckart GJ: A novel variant L263F in human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with diminished enzyme activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Apr;17(4):283-90. [PubMed:17496727]
  3. Penuelas S, Noe V, Morales R, Ciudad CJ: Sensitization of human erythroleukemia K562 cells resistant to methotrexate by inhibiting IMPDH. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jan;11(1):BR6-12. [PubMed:15614187]
  4. Yam P, Jensen M, Akkina R, Anderson J, Villacres MC, Wu J, Zaia JA, Yee JK: Ex vivo selection and expansion of cells based on expression of a mutated inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 after HIV vector transduction: effects on lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD34+ stem cells. Mol Ther. 2006 Aug;14(2):236-44. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16647299]
  5. Dzidic A, Prgomet C, Mohr A, Meyer K, Bauer J, Meyer HH, Pfaffl MW: Effects of mycophenolic acid on inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase I and II mRNA expression in white blood cells and various tissues in sheep. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006 May;53(4):163-9. [PubMed:16629948]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F: Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.036608. Epub 2010 Dec 1. [PubMed:21123165]
  2. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16790558]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F: Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.036608. Epub 2010 Dec 1. [PubMed:21123165]
  2. Picard N, Ratanasavanh D, Premaud A, Le Meur Y, Marquet P: Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jan;33(1):139-46. Epub 2004 Oct 6. [PubMed:15470161]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F: Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.036608. Epub 2010 Dec 1. [PubMed:21123165]
  2. Picard N, Ratanasavanh D, Premaud A, Le Meur Y, Marquet P: Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jan;33(1):139-46. Epub 2004 Oct 6. [PubMed:15470161]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW7
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7
Molecular Weight
59818.315 Da
References
  1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16790558]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID
P19224
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6
Molecular Weight
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16790558]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 17, 2020 23:29

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