Identification

Name
Mercaptopurine
Accession Number
DB01033
Description

An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 152.177
Monoisotopic: 152.015666838
Chemical Formula
C5H4N4S
Synonyms
  • 6 MP
  • 6-Mercaptopurine
  • 6-MP
  • 6-Thiohypoxanthine
  • 6-Thioxopurine
  • Mercaptopurina
  • Mercaptopurine
  • Mercaptopurine anhydrous
  • Mercaptopurinum
  • Mercapurin

Pharmacology

Indication

For remission induction and maintenance therapy of acute lymphatic leukemia.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Mercaptopurine is one of a large series of purine analogues which interfere with nucleic acid biosynthesis and has been found active against human leukemias. It is an analogue of the purine bases adenine and hypoxanthine. It is not known exactly which of any one or more of the biochemical effects of mercaptopurine and its metabolites are directly or predominantly responsible for cell death.

Mechanism of action

Mercaptopurine competes with hypoxanthine and guanine for the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) and is itself converted to thioinosinic acid (TIMP). TIMP inhibits several reactions that involve inosinic acid (IMP), such as the conversion of IMP to xanthylic acid (XMP) and the conversion of IMP to adenylic acid (AMP) via adenylosuccinate (SAMP). Upon methylation, TIMP forms 6-methylthioinosinate (MTIMP) which inhibits glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase in addition to TIMP. Glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase is the first enzyme unique to the de novo pathway for purine ribonucleotide synthesis. According to experimental findings using radiolabeled mercaptopurine, mercaptopurine may be recovered from the DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine. In comparison, some mercaptopurine may be converted to nucleotide derivatives of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) via actions of inosinate (IMP) dehydrogenase and xanthylate (XMP) aminase that convert TIMP to thioguanylic acid (TGMP).

TargetActionsOrganism
AHypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
inhibitor
Humans
UAmidophosphoribosyltransferase
inhibitor
Humans
UInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Clinical studies have shown that the absorption of an oral dose of mercaptopurine in humans is incomplete and variable, averaging approximately 50% of the administered dose. The factors influencing absorption are unknown.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution exceeded that of the total body water.

Protein binding

Plasma protein binding averages 19% over the concentration range 10 to 50 µg/mL (a concentration only achieved by intravenous administration of mercaptopurine at doses exceeding 5 to 10 mg/kg).

Metabolism

Hepatic. Degradation primarily by xanthine oxidase. The catabolism of mercaptopurine and its metabolites is complex. In humans, after oral administration of 35S-6-mercaptopurine, urine contains intact mercaptopurine, thiouric acid (formed by direct oxidation by xanthine oxidase, probably via 6-mercapto-8-hydroxypurine), and a number of 6-methylated thiopurines. The methylthiopurines yield appreciable amounts of inorganic sulfate.

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Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

Triphasic: 45 minutes, 2.5 hours, and 10 hours.

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Signs and symptoms of overdosage may be immediate such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; or delayed such as myelosuppression, liver dysfunction, and gastroenteritis. The oral LD50 of mercaptopurine was determined to be 480 mg/kg in the mouse and 425 mg/kg in the rat.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug action
Azathioprine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug action
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug action
Mercaptopurine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Thiopurine S-methyltransferaseTPMT*2(G;G) / (C;G)G AlleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of mercaptopurine resulting in increased toxicity.Details
Thiopurine S-methyltransferaseTPMT*3A(A;A) / (A;G)A AlleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of mercaptopurine resulting in increased toxicity.Details
Thiopurine S-methyltransferaseTPMT*3C(G;G) / (A;G)G AlleleADR Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of mercaptopurine resulting in increased toxicity.Details
Thiopurine S-methyltransferaseTPMT*3BNot Availablec.460G>AADR InferredMyelosuppressionDetails
Thiopurine S-methyltransferaseTPMT*4ANot AvailableG > AADR InferredMyelosuppressionDetails

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Mercaptopurine.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Mercaptopurine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Mercaptopurine.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when used in combination with Mercaptopurine.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Mercaptopurine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe excretion of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AcyclovirThe excretion of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Acyclovir.
AdalimumabThe serum concentration of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when it is combined with Adalimumab.
AdenosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Adenosine can be decreased when used in combination with Mercaptopurine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Take on an empty stomach.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Mercaptopurine monohydrateE7WED276I56112-76-1WFFQYWAAEWLHJC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Leukerin
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralTeva2005-04-272013-10-31US flag
Mercaptopurine Tablets USPTabletOralSterimax Inc2013-11-27Not applicableCanada flag
PurinetholTablet50 mgOralTEVA Canada Limited1954-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
PurinetholTablet50 mg/1OralTeva Select Brands2004-07-302013-10-31US flag
PurixanSuspension20 mg/1mLOralNova Laboratories, Ltd2014-04-28Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.2004-02-13Not applicableUS flag00054 4581 11 nlmimage10 fe3c7f73
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2009-12-162015-09-30US flag
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-07-01Not applicableUS flag00378 3547 52 nlmimage10 8046c026
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-11-032012-11-03US flag
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-23Not applicableUS flag54868 528220180907 15195 1u0pkju
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralFlorida Pharmaceutical Product, LLC.2016-10-05Not applicableUS flag
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2004-02-11Not applicableUS flag49884 0922 02 nlmimage10 5e08af65
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-03-012017-05-24US flag69189 458120180907 15195 1xk063c
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L01BB02 — MercaptopurineR03DA20 — Combinations of xanthines
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purinethiones. These are purines in which the purine moiety bears a thioketone.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
Purinethiones
Alternative Parents
Pyrimidinethiones / Imidazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organosulfur compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidazole / Organic nitrogen compound / Organonitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organosulfur compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aryl thiol (CHEBI:2208)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
PKK6MUZ20G
CAS number
50-44-2
InChI Key
GLVAUDGFNGKCSF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H4N4S/c10-5-3-4(7-1-6-3)8-2-9-5/h1-2H,(H2,6,7,8,9,10)
IUPAC Name
6,7-dihydro-3H-purine-6-thione
SMILES
S=C1N=CNC2=C1NC=N2

References

General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015167
KEGG Drug
D04931
KEGG Compound
C02380
PubChem Compound
667490
PubChem Substance
46506988
ChemSpider
580869
BindingDB
50423778
RxNav
103
ChEBI
94796
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1425
ZINC
ZINC000004658290
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000147
PharmGKB
PA450379
PDBe Ligand
PM6
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Mercaptopurine
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
PDB Entries
3bgd / 3ns1
FDA label
Download (44.1 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphobkastic Leukemia1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)5
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia4
4CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Lymphoblastic1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentChildhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia1
4RecruitingTreatment6-mercaptopurine Therapy / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)2
4RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • DSM Corp.
  • Gate Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Mylan
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxane Labs
  • Stason Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet50 mg
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral
TabletOral50 mg
SuspensionOral20 mg/1mL
SuspensionOral20 MG/ML
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Mercaptopurine powder33.97USD g
Purinethol 50 mg tablet6.09USD tablet
Mercaptopurine 50 mg tablet4.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)313 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility6.85E+004 mg/LYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.01HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.735 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.13ALOGPS
logP-0.12ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity43.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8854
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8946
Caco-2 permeable-0.6556
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7141
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9143
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9848
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8543
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8607
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8533
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7949
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7555
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6955
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8224
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7472
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6635
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5076
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9369
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.3684 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9857
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-80fade3542b1b7a4f542
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-4900000000-ae3cab845511e09fd7d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-9400000000-eb3a9e5b93f0954dda1f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-066u-9300000000-e920208db376745577ae
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014r-9100000000-9452425dda09b342a804
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-fb1e1ed0d15536d940b5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-ae82c485895af50f18e0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ba-9700000000-70542617d846459d1edb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kb-9400000000-34922db319d482f338c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-7de65dacfd12ff92f5e4

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role...
Gene Name
HPRT1
Uniprot ID
P00492
Uniprot Name
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
Molecular Weight
24579.155 Da
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [PubMed:15354273]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PPAT
Uniprot ID
Q06203
Uniprot Name
Amidophosphoribosyltransferase
Molecular Weight
57398.52 Da
References
  1. Sahasranaman S, Howard D, Roy S: Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of thiopurines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;64(8):753-67. doi: 10.1007/s00228-008-0478-6. Epub 2008 May 28. [PubMed:18506437]
  2. Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP: ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D1100-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr777. Epub 2011 Sep 23. [PubMed:21948594]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore pl...

Components:
References
  1. Sahasranaman S, Howard D, Roy S: Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of thiopurines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;64(8):753-67. doi: 10.1007/s00228-008-0478-6. Epub 2008 May 28. [PubMed:18506437]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thiopurine s-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine.
Gene Name
TPMT
Uniprot ID
P51580
Uniprot Name
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
28180.09 Da
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [PubMed:15354273]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Ha...
Gene Name
XDH
Uniprot ID
P47989
Uniprot Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Molecular Weight
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [PubMed:15354273]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal...
Gene Name
AOX1
Uniprot ID
Q06278
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde oxidase
Molecular Weight
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729]
  2. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang YS, Hosoya K, Terasaki T: Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Apr;23(4):432-40. [PubMed:12679720]
  3. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. [PubMed:15100168]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Kruh GD: Transport of cyclic nucleotides and estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide by multidrug resistance protein 4. Resistance to 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33747-54. Epub 2001 Jul 10. [PubMed:11447229]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name
ABCC5
Uniprot ID
O15440
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5
Molecular Weight
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Wijnholds J, Mol CA, van Deemter L, de Haas M, Scheffer GL, Baas F, Beijnen JH, Scheper RJ, Hatse S, De Clercq E, Balzarini J, Borst P: Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 20;97(13):7476-81. [PubMed:10840050]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Purine nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-dependent and purine-selective transporter. Exhibits the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cif or N1 subtype (N1/cif) (selective for purine nucleosides and uridine...
Gene Name
SLC28A2
Uniprot ID
O43868
Uniprot Name
Sodium/nucleoside cotransporter 2
Molecular Weight
71925.565 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Pyrimidine- and adenine-specific:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-dependent, pyrimidine- and purine-selective. Involved in the homeostasis of endogenous nucleosides. Exhibits the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cib or N3 subtyp...
Gene Name
SLC28A3
Uniprot ID
Q9HAS3
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 28 member 3
Molecular Weight
76929.61 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR...
Gene Name
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID
Q99808
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Molecular Weight
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates equilibrative transport of purine, pyrimidine nucleosides and the purine base hypoxanthine. Very less sensitive than SLC29A1 to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dipyridamole, ...
Gene Name
SLC29A2
Uniprot ID
Q14542
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2
Molecular Weight
50112.335 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2020 02:08

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