Identification

Name
Norfloxacin
Accession Number
DB01059
Description

A synthetic fluoroquinolone (fluoroquinolones) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 319.3308
Monoisotopic: 319.133219662
Chemical Formula
C16H18FN3O3
Synonyms
  • 1-Ethyl-6-fluor-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-chinolincarbonsäure
  • 1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
  • 1,4-Dihydro-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
  • NFLX
  • Norfloxacin
  • Norfloxacine
  • Norfloxacino
  • Norfloxacinum
External IDs
  • MK-366

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of urinary tract infection

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Norfloxacin is a quinolone/fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Norfloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian.

Mechanism of action

The bactericidal action of Norfloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic agent that is shown to be effective against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species. The fluorine atom at the 6 position increases potency against gram-negative organisms, and the piperazine moiety at the 7 position is responsible for anti-pseudomonal activity

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
inhibitor
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
ADNA gyrase subunit A
inhibitor
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
UDNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Rapid

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

10 and 15% (Serum protein binding)

Metabolism

Via liver and kidney

Route of elimination

Norfloxacin is eliminated through metabolism, biliary excretion, and renal excretion. It is expected to undergo both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion during renal excretion, as shown by its high renal clearance rate of approximately 275 mL/min.

Half-life

3-4 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Abiraterone can be decreased when combined with Norfloxacin.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Acalabrutinib can be decreased when combined with Norfloxacin.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Norfloxacin.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Norfloxacin is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.
AcenocoumarolThe serum concentration of Acenocoumarol can be increased when it is combined with Norfloxacin.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Norfloxacin.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be increased when used in combination with Norfloxacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Limit caffeine intake.
  • Take on an empty stomach.

Products

International/Other Brands
Chibroxin
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Co NorfloxacinTabletOralCobalt Laboratories2006-07-182018-05-18Canada flag
NorfloxacinTabletOralAa Pharma Inc1998-07-20Not applicableCanada flag
NorfloxacinTabletOralCobalt LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
NorfloxacinTabletOralPharmel IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Norfloxacine-400TabletOralPro Doc Limitee1999-08-232010-07-13Canada flag
NoroxinSolution3 mgOphthalmicMerck Ltd.1990-12-312005-06-18Canada flag
NoroxinTablet400 mgOralMerck Ltd.1986-12-312005-06-18Canada flag
NoroxinTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1986-10-312014-11-30US flag
NoroxinTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1986-10-312012-10-08US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ava-norfloxacinTabletOralAvanstra Inc2011-11-232014-08-21Canada flag
Ntp-norfloxacinTabletOralTEVA Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
PMS-norfloxacinTabletOralPharmascience Inc2002-09-262017-09-30Canada flag
Riva-norfloxacinTabletOralLaboratoire Riva Inc2008-06-132013-07-31Canada flag
Riva-norfloxacinTabletOralLaboratoire Riva Inc2000-01-312013-07-31Canada flag
Teva-norfloxacinTabletOralTEVA Canada Limited1998-08-202019-04-01Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more

Categories

ATC Codes
J01RA13 — Norfloxacin and tinidazoleS01AE02 — NorfloxacinJ01MA06 — Norfloxacin
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Quinolines and derivatives
Sub Class
Quinoline carboxylic acids
Direct Parent
Quinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Fluoroquinolones / N-arylpiperazines / Haloquinolines / Hydroquinolones / Aminoquinolines and derivatives / Hydroquinolines / Pyridinecarboxylic acids / Dialkylarylamines / Benzenoids / Aryl fluorides
show 12 more
Substituents
1,4-diazinane / Amine / Amino acid / Amino acid or derivatives / Aminoquinoline / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Azacycle / Benzenoid
show 29 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
N-arylpiperazine, quinolone antibiotic, fluoroquinolone antibiotic, quinolone, quinolinemonocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:100246) / Fluoroquinolones (C06687)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
N0F8P22L1P
CAS number
70458-96-7
InChI Key
OGJPXUAPXNRGGI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H18FN3O3/c1-2-19-9-11(16(22)23)15(21)10-7-12(17)14(8-13(10)19)20-5-3-18-4-6-20/h7-9,18H,2-6H2,1H3,(H,22,23)
IUPAC Name
1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(piperazin-1-yl)-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
CCN1C=C(C(O)=O)C(=O)C2=CC(F)=C(C=C12)N1CCNCC1

References

Synthesis Reference
US4146719
General References
  1. Goldstein EJ: Norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Classification, mechanism of action, and in vitro activity. Am J Med. 1987 Jun 26;82(6B):3-17. [PubMed:3111257]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015192
KEGG Drug
D00210
KEGG Compound
C06687
PubChem Compound
4539
PubChem Substance
46508634
ChemSpider
4380
BindingDB
50045000
RxNav
7517
ChEBI
100246
ChEMBL
CHEMBL9
ZINC
ZINC000000003742
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000654
PharmGKB
PA450654
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Norfloxacin
AHFS Codes
  • 52:04.04 — Antibacterials
  • 08:12.18 — Quinolones
FDA label
Download (599 KB)
MSDS
Download (42.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionAdverse Reaction to Other Drugs and Medicines1
4CompletedPreventionHepatorenal Syndrome / Liver Cirrhosis / Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Tract Infection1
4TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infection1
3CompletedPreventionCirrhosis With Ascites1
3CompletedPreventionLiver Cirrhosis1
3RecruitingPreventionAscites / Liver Cirrhosis / Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP)1
3RecruitingPreventionSpontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP)1
3TerminatedPreventionLiver Cirrhosis1
3Unknown StatusPreventionLiver Cirrhosis / Varices, Esophageal1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Merck & Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Shire Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral400 MG
CapsuleOral200 MG
CapsuleOral400 MG
Tablet400 MG
TabletOral
TabletOral400 mg
Tablet, coatedOral400 mg
Tablet
SolutionOphthalmic3 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/1
SolutionOral
Capsule, coatedOral400 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Noroxin 400 mg tablet4.21USD tablet
Apo-Norflox 400 mg Tablet1.44USD tablet
Co Norfloxacin 400 mg Tablet1.28USD tablet
Novo-Norfloxacin 400 mg Tablet1.28USD tablet
Pms-Norfloxacin 400 mg Tablet1.28USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)227-228 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.78E+005 mg/LNot Available
logP-1.03HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.01 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.47ALOGPS
logP-0.92ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.68ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity85.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.26 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9916
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9824
Caco-2 permeable-0.8683
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8554
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.849
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8657
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7588
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8301
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9268
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8988
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5702
Ames testAMES toxic0.9108
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7923
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.8785 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7034
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5292
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0019000000-209bfb114ccbb6d9e304
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0069000000-4d54becdaa4caedbe3b2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0391000000-a84cfa736c2dcec4d545
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-0069000000-246d2ae5a6ec6a55d6b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0009000000-f809266e62551b06d730
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fmi-0039000000-b7128cd18b98a04daf9e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0069000000-d5c4d2c4b68d5f6d03a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ue9-0095000000-901dbfc8f7d02a135c4d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0491000000-be9683c47fbf7a3cb0ba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0970000000-90dc103f49990c57d26f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0009000000-13d5054c01078e14d8f0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fmi-0039000000-74150f6e5c4d2dcba6ab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0059000000-dd2ee816e5228385835d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f89-0195000000-596094ef32a4ddd39544
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0491000000-20c74694b378fdb752b2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0970000000-06c84236dac00c44e42e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-0069000000-5c4650a9bab59ded6701
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0910000000-71f0a353a8e37a26b402
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1398000000-86efb47466226acbabf9

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name
parC
Uniprot ID
P43702
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
Molecular Weight
83366.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Rafii F, Park M, Novak JS: Alterations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens found after in vitro treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):488-92. [PubMed:15673722]
  4. Vila J, Sanchez-Cespedes J, Sierra JM, Piqueras M, Nicolas E, Freixas J, Giralt E: Antibacterial evaluation of a collection of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin derivatives against multiresistant bacteria. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006 Jul;28(1):19-24. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16781123]
  5. Oyamada Y, Ito H, Fujimoto K, Asada R, Niga T, Okamoto R, Inoue M, Yamagishi J: Combination of known and unknown mechanisms confers high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecium. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jun;55(Pt 6):729-36. [PubMed:16687591]
  6. Drlica K, Zhao X: DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997 Sep;61(3):377-92. [PubMed:9293187]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, inc...
Gene Name
gyrA
Uniprot ID
P43700
Uniprot Name
DNA gyrase subunit A
Molecular Weight
97817.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hombrouck C, Capmau ML, Moreau N: Overexpression, purification and photoaffinity labeling with a 3H-analogue of norfloxacin, of the GyrA and GyrB subunits of the DNA gyrase. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1999 May;45(3):347-52. [PubMed:10386791]
  4. Hooper DC: Quinolone mode of action--new aspects. Drugs. 1993;45 Suppl 3:8-14. [PubMed:7689456]
  5. Fukuda H, Hori S, Hiramatsu K: Antibacterial activity of gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG5501, BMS-206584), a newly developed fluoroquinolone, against sequentially acquired quinolone-resistant mutants and the norA transformant of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Aug;42(8):1917-22. [PubMed:9687384]
  6. Drlica K, Zhao X: DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997 Sep;61(3):377-92. [PubMed:9293187]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segr...
Gene Name
TOP2A
Uniprot ID
P11388
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Molecular Weight
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
This drug is a fluoroquinolone, and these agents are known to inhibit CYP1A2.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhang L, Wei MJ, Zhao CY, Qi HM: Determination of the inhibitory potential of 6 fluoroquinolones on CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008 Dec;29(12):1507-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2008.00908.x. [PubMed:19026171]
  2. English BA, Dortch M, Ereshefsky L, Jhee S: Clinically significant psychotropic drug-drug interactions in the primary care setting. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012 Aug;14(4):376-90. doi: 10.1007/s11920-012-0284-9. [PubMed:22707017]
  3. Shahzadi A, Javed I, Aslam B, Muhammad F, Asi MR, Ashraf MY, Zia-ur-Rahman: Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jan;24(1):63-8. [PubMed:21190921]
  4. Fuhr U, Anders EM, Mahr G, Sorgel F, Staib AH: Inhibitory potency of quinolone antibacterial agents against cytochrome P450IA2 activity in vivo and in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 May;36(5):942-8. [PubMed:1510417]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. McLellan RA, Drobitch RK, Monshouwer M, Renton KW: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated microsomal drug metabolism in rat and human. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Oct;24(10):1134-8. [PubMed:8894516]
  2. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. McLellan RA, Drobitch RK, Monshouwer M, Renton KW: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated microsomal drug metabolism in rat and human. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Oct;24(10):1134-8. [PubMed:8894516]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. [PubMed:10411577]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 25, 2020 15:13

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