Methylphenidate

Identification

Name
Methylphenidate
Accession Number
DB00422
Description

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and for narcolepsy. Also known as the marketed products Ritalin, Concerta, or Biphentin, methylphenidate is used with other treatment modalities (psychological, educational, cognitive behaviour therapy, etc) to improve the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms associated with ADHD: moderate-to-severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity. Long-acting formulations of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, Dextroamphetamine, and Lisdexamfetamine are considered the most effective and widely used treatment for ADHD, and are considered first-line options for children, adolescents, and adults as recommended by CADDRA (Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance). 12 CADDRA recommends the use of methylphenidate due to long term studies, of over twenty years in duration, which show methylphenidate is safe and effective.

While its exact mechanism is unclear, methylphenidate (MPH) has been shown to act as a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), thereby increasing the presence of these neurotransmitters in the extraneuronal space and prolonging their action.6 There is a dose-related effect of psychostimulants on receptor stimulation, where higher doses are shown to increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) efflux throughout the brain which can result in impaired cognition and locomotor-activating effects. In contrast, low doses are found to selectively activate NE and DA neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex which is an area of the brain thought to play a prominent role in ADHD pathophysiology, thereby improving clinical efficacy and preventing side effects.8 The lower doses used to treat ADHD are not associated with the locomotor-activating effects associated with higher doses and instead reduce movement, impulsivity, and increase cognitive function including sustained attention and working memory.6,7 Methylphenidate's beneficial effects in sustaining attention have also been shown to be mediated by alpha-1 adrenergic receptor activity.9 Clinical findings have shown that children with ADHD have an abnormality in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), the D4 receptor gene (DRD-4), and/or the D2 receptor gene that may be at least partly overcome by the dopaminergic effects of methylphenidate, suggesting a possible mode of action.15

When provided as Biphentin®, methylphenidate is released through a multi-layer release delivery system (MLRTM) where 40% of the dose is provided as an immediate release and 60% is provided through a gradual release. Biphentin was designed to be an alternative to separate doses of immediate-release (IR) methylphenidate by providing a biphasic concentration-time profile when given as a single dose. The MLRTM release system allows for a sustained effect for 10-12 hours, allowing for once-daily dosing that covers the major times that ADHD impairment might occur (such as school, homework periods, during the work day, etc).

When provided as Concerta®, methylphenidate is released through the patented Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery (OROS) system where 22% of the dose is provided as an immediate release and 78% is provided through a gradual release.1 OROS is comprised of an osmotically active trilayer core surrounded by a semipermeable membrane with an immediate-release drug overcoat. Within an aqueous environment, such as the stomach, the drug overcoat, which consists of 22% of the dose, dissolves within one hour, providing an initial immediate-release formulation of methylphenidate. Water then permeates through the membrane into the tablet core where the osmotically active polymer excipients expand, allowing methylphenidate to release slowly through the orifice over a period of 6-7 hours. Concerta also provides a sustained 10-12 hour effect, allowing for once-daily dosing.

Methylphenidate contains a blackbox warning stating that CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate-containing products and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. This abuse potential is likely related to the effects associated with higher doses of methylphenidate, which induce surface expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT).10 In particular, increased dopamine in key brain areas is associated with the reinforcing and addictive properties of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, and even amplifies the potency and reinforcing effects of other drugs of abuse such as amphetamines, making ADHD sufferers more susceptible to their addictive effects.11 Concerns about abuse potential have spurred research into medications with fewer effects on DAT and the use of non-stimulant ADHD medications including Atomoxetine and Guanfacine.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 233.3062
Monoisotopic: 233.141578857
Chemical Formula
C14H19NO2
Synonyms
  • Methyl phenidylacetate
  • methyl phenyl(piperidin-2-yl)acetate
  • methyl α-phenyl-α-(2-piperidyl)acetate
  • methyl α-phenyl-α-2-piperidinylacetate
  • Methylphenidan
  • Methylphenidate
  • Methylphenidatum
  • Metilfenidato
  • MPH
  • α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid methyl ester

Pharmacology

Indication

Methylphenidate is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in patients 6 years of age and older and for the treatment of narcolepsy.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Methylphenidate is a racemic mixture comprised of the d- and l-isomers. The d-isomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-isomer. Radioligand binding studies demonstrate that binding of methylphenidate in the brain is localized to dopamine-rich areas, in particular in the prefrontal cortex which has been demonstrated to play a prominent role in ADHD pathophysiology.8 In a number of animal models, methylphenidate enhances locomotor activity and induces stereotypic behaviours.

Mechanism of action

While its exact mechanism is unclear, methylphenidate (MPH) has been shown to act as a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), thereby increasing the presence of these neurotransmitters in the extraneuronal space and prolonging their action.6 There is a dose-related effect of psychostimulants on receptor stimulation, where higher doses are shown to increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) efflux throughout the brain which can result in impaired cognition and locomotor-activating effects. In contrast, low doses are found to selectively activate NE and DE neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex which is an area of the brain thought to play a prominent role in ADHD pathophysiology, thereby improving clinical efficacy and preventing side effects.8 The lower doses used to treat ADHD are not associated with the locomotor-activating effects associated with higher doses and instead reduce movement, impulsivity, and increase cognitive function including sustained attention and working memory.6,7 Methylphenidate's beneficial effects in sustaining attention have also been shown to be mediated by alpha-1 adrenergic receptor activity.9.

Clinical findings have shown that children with ADHD have an abnormality in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), the D4 receptor gene (DRD-4), and/or the D2 receptor gene that may be at least partly overcome by the dopaminergic effects of methylphenidate, suggesting a possible mode of action.15

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Humans
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Humans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1ANot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Concerta®: Methylphenidate is readily absorbed. Following oral administration of Concerta, plasma methylhphenidate concentrations reach an initial maximum at about 1 hour followed by gradual ascending concentrations over the next 5-9 hours. Mean times to reach peak plasma concentrations across all doses of Concerta occurred between 6-10 hours. Once daily dosing minimizes the fluctuations between peak and trough concentrations associated with multiple doses of immediate-release methylphenidate treatments.15 Depending on the doses provided, Cmax was found to range from 6.0-15.0ng/mL, Tmax ranged from 8.1-9.4h, and AUC ranged from 50.4-121.5 ng·h/mL in children.15

When provided as Concerta®, methylphenidate is released through the patented Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery (OROS) system where 22% of the dose is provided as an immediate release and 78% is provided through a gradual release.1 OROS is comprised of an osmotically active trilayer core surrounded by a semipermeable membrane with an immediate-release drug overcoat. Within an aqueous environment, such as the stomach, the drug overcoat, which consists of 22% of the dose, dissolves within one hour, providing an initial immediate-release formulation of methylphenidate. Water then permeates through the membrane into the tablet core where the osmotically active polymer excipients expand, allowing methylphenidate to release slowly through the orifice over a period of 6-7 hours. Concerta also provides a sustained 10-12 hour effect, allowing for once-daily dosing.

Biphentin®: Methylphenidate is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration, with peak blood levels obtained in 1-3 hours.16

When provided as Biphentin®, methylphenidate is released through a multi-layer release delivery system (MLRTM) where 40% of the dose is provided as an immediate release and 60% is provided through a gradual release. Biphentin was designed to be an alternative to separate doses of immediate-release (IR) methylphenidate by providing a biphasic concentration-time profile when given as a single dose. The MLRTM release system allows for a sustained effect for 10-12 hours, allowing for once-daily dosing that covers the major times that ADHD impairment might occur (such as school, homework periods, during the workday, etc).

Methylphenidate (immediate release): Methylphenidate hydrochloride is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the tablets following oral administration; however, owing to extensive first-pass metabolism, bioavailability is low (approx. 30%) and large individual differences exist (11-52%). In one study, the administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride with food accelerated absorption but had no effect on the amount absorbed. Peak plasma concentrations of 10.8 and 7.8 ng/mL were observed, on average, 2 hours after administration of 0.30 mg/kg in children and adults, respectively. Peak plasma concentrations showed marked variability between subjects. Both the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) showed dose-proportionality.17

Volume of distribution

Concerta: Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in adults decline bi-exponentially following oral administration.15

Biphentin: The apparent distribution volume of methylphenidate in children is approximately 20 L/kg, with substantial variability (11 to 33 L/kg).16

Methylphenidate (immediate release): The apparent distribution volume of methylphenidate in children was approximately 20 L/kg, with substantial variability (11-33 L/kg). The volume of distribution after an intravenous dose (Vss) is 2.23 L/kg for the racemate in healthy adult volunteers.17

Protein binding

Concerta: In humans, 15 ± 5% of methylphenidate in the blood is bound to plasma proteins. 15

Biphentin: In blood, methylphenidate and its metabolites are distributed between plasma (57%) and erythrocytes (43%). Methylphenidate and its metabolites exhibit low plasma protein binding (approximately 15%).16

Methylphenidate (immediate release): In blood, methylphenidate and its metabolites are distributed between plasma (57%) and erythrocytes (43%). Methylphenidate and its metabolites exhibit low plasma protein binding (approx. 15%).17

Metabolism

Methylphenidate is hepatically metabolized. More specifically, it is rapidly and extensively metabolized by carboxylesterase CES1A1. Via this enzyme, methylphenidate undergoes de-esterification to ritalinic acid (a-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid, PPAA), which has little to no pharmacologic activity.

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Route of elimination

After oral administration of an immediate release formulation of methylphenidate, 78%-97% of the dose is excreted in the urine and 1%-3% in the feces in the form of metabolites within 48-96 hours. Only small quantities (<1%) of unchanged methylphenidate appear in the urine. Most of the dose is excreted in the urine as ritalinic acid (60%-86%), the remainder being accounted for by minor metabolites.

Half-life

Concerta: The half-life of methylphenidate in adults following oral administration of Concerta® was approximately 3.5 h.15

Biphentin: Methylphenidate is eliminated from plasma with a mean half-life of 2.4 hours in children and 2.1 hours in adults.16

Methylphenidate (immediate release): Methylphenidate is eliminated from the plasma with a mean half-life of 2.4 hours in children and 2.1 hours in adults.17

Clearance

The apparent mean systemic clearance after an oral dose is 10.2 and 10.5 L/h/kg in children and adults, respectively for a 0.3 mg/kg dose, and 0.565 L/h/kg after an intravenous dose of the racemate in healthy adult volunteers.17

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes. LD50=190mg/kg (orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirMethylphenidate may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Methylphenidate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Methylphenidate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Methylphenidate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Methylphenidate.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Methylphenidate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Methylphenidate which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetophenazine is combined with Methylphenidate.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Methylphenidate which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol. Co-administration with alcohol may cause a "dose-dumping" effect with some extended-release formulations of methylphenidate. It may also potentiate the CNS effects of methylphenidate.
  • Take with or without food. Patients may take methylphenidate with food to alleviate GI upset.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Methylphenidate hydrochloride4B3SC438HI23655-65-4JUMYIBMBTDDLNG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Equasym XL / Medikinet XL / Quillivant / Riphenidate / Rubifen SR
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Adhansia XRCapsule, extended release45 mg/1OralAdlon Therapeutics L.P.2019-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Adhansia XRCapsule, extended release25 mg/1OralAdlon Therapeutics L.P.2019-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Adhansia XRCapsule, extended release70 mg/1OralAdlon Therapeutics L.P.2019-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Adhansia XRCapsule, extended release85 mg/1OralAdlon Therapeutics L.P.2019-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Adhansia XRCapsule, extended release35 mg/1OralAdlon Therapeutics L.P.2019-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Adhansia XRCapsule, extended release55 mg/1OralAdlon Therapeutics L.P.2019-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release50 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUS flag
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release15 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUS flag
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release40 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUS flag
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release30 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Metadate ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralLannett Company, Inc.2014-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Metadate ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralUpstate Pharma, LLC2014-11-01Not applicableUS flag
Metadate ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralUnither Pharmaceuticals1988-06-01Not applicableUS flag
MethylinTablet5 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2010-05-202015-06-30US flag
MethylinTablet20 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2010-05-202015-06-30US flag
MethylinTablet10 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2010-05-202015-06-30US flag
Methylin ERTablet, extended release10 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2010-05-202015-06-30US flag
Methylin ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2010-05-202015-06-30US flag
Methylin ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2011-03-182013-03-31US flag
MethylphenidateTablet5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-05-14Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
N06BA04 — Methylphenidate
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aralkylamines. These are alkylamines in which the alkyl group is substituted at one carbon atom by an aromatic hydrocarbyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Amines
Direct Parent
Aralkylamines
Alternative Parents
Piperidines / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Methyl esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Dialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Amino acid or derivatives / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid ester / Hydrocarbon derivative / Methyl ester
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, methyl ester, beta-amino acid ester (CHEBI:84276)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
207ZZ9QZ49
CAS number
113-45-1
InChI Key
DUGOZIWVEXMGBE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H19NO2/c1-17-14(16)13(11-7-3-2-4-8-11)12-9-5-6-10-15-12/h2-4,7-8,12-13,15H,5-6,9-10H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
methyl 2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate
SMILES
COC(=O)C(C1CCCCN1)C1=CC=CC=C1

References

Synthesis Reference
US2512572
General References
  1. Keating GM, McClellan K, Jarvis B: Methylphenidate (OROS formulation). CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):495-500; discussion 501-3. [PubMed:11524026]
  2. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Pestreich LK, Patrick KS, Muniz R: A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-methylphenidate: an exploratory study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;16(6):687-98. [PubMed:17201613]
  3. Fone KC, Nutt DJ: Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(1):87-93. [PubMed:15661631]
  4. Sharma RP, Javaid JI, Pandey GN, Easton M, Davis JM: Pharmacological effects of methylphenidate on plasma homovanillic acid and growth hormone. Psychiatry Res. 1990 Apr;32(1):9-17. [PubMed:2190251]
  5. Hodgkins P, Shaw M, Coghill D, Hechtman L: Amfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment options. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;21(9):477-92. doi: 10.1007/s00787-012-0286-5. Epub 2012 Jul 5. [PubMed:22763750]
  6. Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM, Andrzejewski ME, Arnsten AF, Kelley AE, Schmeichel B, Hamilton C, Spencer RC: Methylphenidate preferentially increases catecholamine neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex at low doses that enhance cognitive function. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1111-20. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.04.022. Epub 2006 Jun 23. [PubMed:16806100]
  7. Solanto MV: Neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of stimulant drug action in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review and integration. Behav Brain Res. 1998 Jul;94(1):127-52. [PubMed:9708845]
  8. Brennan AR, Arnsten AF: Neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the influence of arousal on prefrontal cortical function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1129:236-45. doi: 10.1196/annals.1417.007. [PubMed:18591484]
  9. Berridge CW, Shumsky JS, Andrzejewski ME, McGaughy JA, Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Waterhouse BD: Differential sensitivity to psychostimulants across prefrontal cognitive tasks: differential involvement of noradrenergic alpha(1) - and alpha(2)-receptors. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Mar 1;71(5):467-73. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.07.022. Epub 2011 Sep 3. [PubMed:21890109]
  10. Calipari ES, Ferris MJ, Salahpour A, Caron MG, Jones SR: Methylphenidate amplifies the potency and reinforcing effects of amphetamines by increasing dopamine transporter expression. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2720. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3720. [PubMed:24193139]
  11. Marshall CA, Brodnik ZD, Mortensen OV, Reith MEA, Shumsky JS, Waterhouse BD, Espana RA, Kortagere S: Selective activation of Dopamine D3 receptors and norepinephrine transporter blockade enhances sustained attention. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Apr;148:178-188. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.01.003. Epub 2019 Jan 8. [PubMed:30633928]
  12. CADDRA - Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines [Link]
  13. Concerta FDA label [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: Daytrana® transdermal system [Link]
  15. Health Canada Label - Concerta [File]
  16. Health Canada Label - Biphentin [File]
  17. Health Canada - Ritalin [File]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014566
KEGG Drug
D04999
KEGG Compound
C07196
PubChem Compound
4158
PubChem Substance
46505929
ChemSpider
4015
BindingDB
50062912
RxNav
6901
ChEBI
84276
ChEMBL
CHEMBL796
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000024
PharmGKB
PA450464
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Methylphenidate
AHFS Codes
  • 28:20.32 — Respiratory and CNS Stimulants

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2
4CompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity2
4CompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedNot AvailableNeurofibromatosis Type 11
4CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCarboxylesterase 1 (CES1) Genotype / CES1 Activity2
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Shire development inc
  • Ucb inc
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Tris pharma inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceutical inc
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Packagers
  • Alliant Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Alza Corp.
  • Apothecon
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Chattem Chemicals Inc.
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Eurand Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Janssen-Ortho Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • McNeil Laboratories
  • Novartis AG
  • Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ortho Mcneil Janssen Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Patriot Pharmaceuticals
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Purdue Pharma LP
  • Qualitest
  • Quality Care
  • Sandoz
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Shire Inc.
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Superior Pharmeceuticals
  • UCB Pharma
  • Upstate Pharma LLC
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseOral25 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral35 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral55 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral70 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral85 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral18 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral27 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral36 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral54 mg/1
TabletOral18 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral18 MG
Tablet, coatedOral27 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral27 MG
TabletOral36 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral36 MG
TabletOral54 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral54 MG
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral17.3 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25.9 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral8.6 mg/1
PatchTransdermal10 mg/9h
PatchTransdermal15 mg/9h
PatchTransdermal20 mg/9h
PatchTransdermal30 mg/9h
CapsuleOral10 MG
CapsuleOral20 MG
CapsuleOral30 MG
CapsuleOral40 MG
CapsuleOral50 MG
CapsuleOral60 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 MG
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral20 mg/1
CapsuleOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral60 mg/1
CapsuleOral80 mg/1
Tablet, extended release18 mg
Tablet, extended release27 mg
Tablet, extended release36 mg
Tablet, extended release54 mg
CapsuleOral5 MG
Tablet10 MG
Tablet20 MG
Tablet5 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral5 MG
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 MG
Capsule, delayed releaseOral10 mg
Capsule10 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral20 mg
Capsule20 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral30 mg
Capsule30 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral40 mg
Capsule40 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral5 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral50 mg
Capsule5 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral60 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral10 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral10 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral2.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral5 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
SolutionOral1 mg/1mL
SolutionOral10 mg/10mL
SolutionOral10 mg/5mL
SolutionOral2 mg/1mL
SolutionOral5 mg/5mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral18 mg/1
TabletOral27 mg/1
TabletOral36 mg/1
TabletOral54 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral18 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral27 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral36 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral54 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
TabletOral
Tablet, chewable, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Tablet, chewable, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Tablet, chewable, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Suspension, extended releaseOral300 mg/60mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral600 mg/120mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral750 mg/150mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral900 mg/180mL
Tablet, extended releaseOral72 mg/1
Capsule, delayed release10 mg
Capsule, delayed release20 mg
Capsule, delayed release30 mg
Capsule, delayed release40 mg
CapsuleOral
Tablet
TabletOral10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Daytrana 30 15 mg/9hr Patches Box175.64USD box
Daytrana 30 30 mg/9hr Patches Box174.73USD box
Daytrana 30 10 mg/9hr Patches Box172.78USD box
Daytrana 30 20 mg/9hr Patches Box168.72USD box
Methylphenidate hcl powder44.62USD g
Concerta er 54 mg tablet25.45USD tablet
Concerta er 36 mg tablet23.38USD tablet
Concerta er 27 mg tablet22.65USD tablet
Concerta er 18 mg tablet22.11USD tablet
Metadate cd 50 mg capsule7.08USD capsule
Metadate cd 60 mg capsule7.02USD capsule
Concerta 54 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.18USD tab
Metadate cd 40 mg capsule5.77USD capsule
Concerta 36 mg Controlled Release Tabs5.72USD tab
Focalin xr 30 mg capsule5.42USD capsule
Focalin XR 20 mg 24 Hour Capsule5.31USD capsule
Daytrana 10 mg/9 hr patch5.16USD patch
Daytrana 15 mg/9 hr patch5.16USD patch
Daytrana 20 mg/9 hour patch5.16USD patch
Daytrana 30 mg/9 hour patch5.16USD patch
Focalin xr 15 mg capsule5.16USD capsule
Focalin xr 20 mg capsule5.16USD capsule
Focalin XR 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule5.15USD capsule
Focalin xr 10 mg capsule5.02USD capsule
Concerta 18 mg Controlled Release Tabs5.0USD tab
Concerta 27 mg Controlled Release Tabs5.0USD tab
Focalin XR 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.96USD capsule
Focalin xr 5 mg capsule4.95USD capsule
Concerta 54 mg tablet sa4.91USD tablet
Focalin XR 15 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.89USD capsule
Focalin XR 5 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.83USD capsule
Ritalin la 40 mg capsule4.55USD capsule
Concerta 36 mg tablet sa4.51USD tablet
Ritalin la 30 mg capsule4.43USD capsule
Ritalin LA 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Ritalin LA 20 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Ritalin LA 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Ritalin LA 40 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Concerta 27 mg tablet sa4.37USD tablet
Ritalin la 10 mg capsule4.33USD capsule
Ritalin la 20 mg capsule4.33USD capsule
Concerta 18 mg tablet sa4.27USD tablet
Metadate cd 20 mg capsule4.24USD capsule
Metadate cd 30 mg capsule4.24USD capsule
Metadate cd 10 mg capsule4.2USD capsule
Methylphenidate er 10 mg tablet3.24USD tablet
Ritalin SR 20 mg Controlled Release Tabs3.0USD tab
Ritalin sr 20 mg tablet2.67USD tablet
Ritalin 20 mg tablet1.87USD tablet
Focalin 10 mg tablet1.7USD tablet
Ritalin 5 mg tablet1.42USD tablet
Metadate er 20 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Methylin ER 20 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.3USD tab
Ritalin 10 mg tablet1.29USD tablet
Metadate er 10 mg tablet sa1.28USD tablet
Focalin 5 mg tablet1.26USD tablet
Methylphenidate HCl CR 20 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.2USD tab
Methylin er 20 mg tablet1.12USD tablet
Methylphenidate HCl 20 mg tablet1.05USD tablet
Methylin ER 10 mg1.0USD tab
Methylphenidate HCl 10 mg tablet0.95USD tablet
Methylphenidate HCl 5 mg tablet0.94USD tablet
Methylin er 10 mg tablet0.84USD tablet
Focalin 2.5 mg tablet0.76USD tablet
Methylin 20 mg tablet0.69USD tablet
Methylphenidate 20 mg tablet0.69USD tablet
Ritalin 20 mg Tablet0.67USD tablet
Ritalin Sr 20 mg Extended-Release Tablet0.67USD tablet
Methylin 10 mg tablet0.48USD tablet
Methylphenidate 10 mg tablet0.48USD tablet
Ritalin 10 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Apo-Methylphenidate 20 mg Tablet0.37USD tablet
Apo-Methylphenidate Sr 20 mg Extended-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Pms-Methylphenidate 20 mg Tablet0.37USD tablet
Sandoz Methylphenidate 20 mg Extended-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Methylin 5 mg tablet0.33USD tablet
Methylphenidate 5 mg tablet0.33USD tablet
Apo-Methylphenidate 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Pms-Methylphenidate 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Pms-Methylphenidate 5 mg Tablet0.1USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5958446No1999-09-282012-12-12US flag
CA2355644No2009-01-202019-12-17Canada flag
CA2264852No2005-11-012017-09-16Canada flag
US8999386No2015-04-072033-04-14US flag
US6919373Yes2005-07-192018-01-31US flag
US6930129Yes2005-08-162018-01-31US flag
US9000038Yes2015-04-072018-01-31US flag
US9144549No2015-09-292017-07-31US flag
US9029416No2015-05-122017-07-31US flag
US8163798Yes2012-04-242018-01-31US flag
US8629179Yes2014-01-142018-01-31US flag
US6344215No2002-02-052020-10-27US flag
US6228398No2001-05-082019-11-01US flag
US6635284No2003-10-212015-12-04US flag
US7431944No2008-10-072015-12-04US flag
US5837284No1998-11-172015-12-04US flag
US7691880No2010-04-062024-10-07US flag
US6210705No2001-04-032018-09-30US flag
US6348211No2002-02-192018-09-30US flag
US8632802No2014-01-212025-10-07US flag
US9034370No2015-05-192025-10-07US flag
US8062667No2011-11-222029-03-29US flag
US8465765No2013-06-182031-02-15US flag
US8778390No2014-07-152031-02-15US flag
US8563033No2013-10-222031-02-15US flag
US8956649No2015-02-172031-02-15US flag
US9040083No2015-05-262031-02-15US flag
US8287903No2012-10-162031-02-15US flag
US9295642No2016-03-292033-08-14US flag
US8202537No2012-06-192027-03-15US flag
US7438930Yes2008-10-212020-06-16US flag
US9066869Yes2015-06-302020-06-16US flag
US7247318Yes2007-07-242020-06-16US flag
US7083808Yes2006-08-012020-06-16US flag
US6419960Yes2002-07-162020-06-16US flag
US8580310Yes2013-11-122020-06-16US flag
US8840924No2014-09-232026-06-05US flag
US9668981No2017-06-062025-10-07US flag
US9545399No2017-01-172033-08-14US flag
US9089496No2015-07-282032-06-28US flag
US9072680No2015-07-072032-06-28US flag
US9844544No2017-12-192033-08-14US flag
US9801823Yes2017-10-312020-06-16US flag
US10039719Yes2018-08-072020-06-16US flag
US9498447No2016-11-222032-03-23US flag
US9283214No2016-03-152032-03-23US flag
US9023389No2015-05-052032-03-23US flag
US8927010No2015-01-062032-03-23US flag
US9028868No2015-05-122032-03-23US flag
US9034902No2015-05-192032-03-23US flag
US9603809No2017-03-282032-03-23US flag
US8916588No2014-12-232032-03-23US flag
US10182995No2019-01-222032-03-23US flag
US10111839No2018-10-302035-10-30US flag
US9974752No2018-05-222035-10-30US flag
US10292939No2019-05-212035-10-30US flag
US10292938No2019-05-212035-10-30US flag
US10292937No2019-05-212032-03-23US flag
US10449159No2019-10-222035-10-30US flag
US10463624No2019-11-052019-12-16US flag
US10512613No2019-12-242035-10-30US flag
US10500162No2019-12-102035-10-30US flag
US10507186No2019-12-172035-10-30US flag
US10512612No2019-12-242035-10-30US flag
US10568841No2015-10-302035-10-30US flag
US10617651No2012-03-232032-03-23US flag
US10688060No2015-10-302035-10-30US flag
US10722473No2018-11-192038-11-19US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1255mg/LNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.182 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP2.25ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity66.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9941
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9663
Caco-2 permeable+0.6564
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5466
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7964
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9601
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.532
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5985
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.592
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.897
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5245
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9265
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8539
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9328
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9648
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5759
Rat acute toxicity2.7718 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8466
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7491
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.79 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-b461cd02e59ebf84d3f9
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-9100000000-c75de12fbdae54dce658
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-001i-9100000000-1a9c5badbee827946da1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Dewey SL, Wang GJ, Logan J, Ding YS, Franceschi D, Gifford A, Morgan A, Pappas N, King P: Comparable changes in synaptic dopamine induced by methylphenidate and by cocaine in the baboon brain. Synapse. 1999 Jan;31(1):59-66. [PubMed:10025684]
  2. Wayment HK, Deutsch H, Schweri MM, Schenk JO: Effects of methylphenidate analogues on phenethylamine substrates for the striatal dopamine transporter: potential as amphetamine antagonists? J Neurochem. 1999 Mar;72(3):1266-74. [PubMed:10037500]
  3. Dresel SH, Kung MP, Huang X, Plossl K, Hou C, Shiue CY, Karp J, Kung HF: In vivo imaging of serotonin transporters with [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in nonhuman primates. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr;26(4):342-7. [PubMed:10199939]
  4. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Fischman M, Foltin R, Abumrad NN, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Wong C, Gifford A, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Pappas N: Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain. Life Sci. 1999;65(1):PL7-12. [PubMed:10403500]
  5. Izenwasser S, Coy AE, Ladenheim B, Loeloff RJ, Cadet JL, French D: Chronic methylphenidate alters locomotor activity and dopamine transporters differently from cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun 4;373(2-3):187-93. [PubMed:10414438]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  8. Viggiano D, Vallone D, Sadile A: Dysfunctions in dopamine systems and ADHD: evidence from animals and modeling. Neural Plast. 2004;11(1-2):97-114. [PubMed:15303308]
  9. Tilley MR, Gu HH: The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):554-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.141713. Epub 2008 Aug 12. [PubMed:18698001]
  10. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Pestreich LK, Patrick KS, Muniz R: A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-methylphenidate: an exploratory study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;16(6):687-98. [PubMed:17201613]
  11. Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM, Andrzejewski ME, Arnsten AF, Kelley AE, Schmeichel B, Hamilton C, Spencer RC: Methylphenidate preferentially increases catecholamine neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex at low doses that enhance cognitive function. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1111-20. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.04.022. Epub 2006 Jun 23. [PubMed:16806100]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Yang L, Wang YF, Li J, Faraone SV: Association of norepinephrine transporter gene with methylphenidate response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;43(9):1154-8. [PubMed:15322419]
  2. Williard RL, Middaugh LD, Zhu HJ, Patrick KS: Methylphenidate and its ethanol transesterification metabolite ethylphenidate: brain disposition, monoamine transporters and motor activity. Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;18(1):39-51. [PubMed:17218796]
  3. Chuhan YS, Taukulis HK: Impairment of single-trial memory formation by oral methylphenidate in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2006 Mar;85(2):125-31. Epub 2005 Oct 24. [PubMed:16246598]
  4. Gray JD, Punsoni M, Tabori NE, Melton JT, Fanslow V, Ward MJ, Zupan B, Menzer D, Rice J, Drake CT, Romeo RD, Brake WG, Torres-Reveron A, Milner TA: Methylphenidate administration to juvenile rats alters brain areas involved in cognition, motivated behaviors, appetite, and stress. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 4;27(27):7196-207. [PubMed:17611273]
  5. Sandoval V, Riddle EL, Ugarte YV, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Methamphetamine-induced rapid and reversible changes in dopamine transporter function: an in vitro model. J Neurosci. 2001 Feb 15;21(4):1413-9. [PubMed:11160413]
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  7. Tilley MR, Gu HH: The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):554-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.141713. Epub 2008 Aug 12. [PubMed:18698001]
  8. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Pestreich LK, Patrick KS, Muniz R: A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-methylphenidate: an exploratory study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;16(6):687-98. [PubMed:17201613]
  9. Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM, Andrzejewski ME, Arnsten AF, Kelley AE, Schmeichel B, Hamilton C, Spencer RC: Methylphenidate preferentially increases catecholamine neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex at low doses that enhance cognitive function. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1111-20. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.04.022. Epub 2006 Jun 23. [PubMed:16806100]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Ramamoorthy S, Zhu HJ: The psychostimulant d-threo-(R,R)-methylphenidate binds as an agonist to the 5HT(1A) receptor. Pharmazie. 2009 Feb;64(2):123-5. [PubMed:19322953]
  2. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Pestreich LK, Patrick KS, Muniz R: A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-methylphenidate: an exploratory study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;16(6):687-98. [PubMed:17201613]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Carboxylic ester hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
CES1A1a
Uniprot ID
Q6LAP9
Uniprot Name
Carboxylesterase
Molecular Weight
1908.25 Da
References
  1. Sun Z, Murry DJ, Sanghani SP, Davis WI, Kedishvili NY, Zou Q, Hurley TD, Bosron WF: Methylphenidate is stereoselectively hydrolyzed by human carboxylesterase CES1A1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Aug;310(2):469-76. doi: 10.1124/jpet.104.067116. Epub 2004 Apr 13. [PubMed:15082749]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 27, 2020 11:13

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