Identification

Name
Vincristine
Accession Number
DB00541
Description

Vincristine is an antitumor vinca alkaloid isolated from Vinca Rosea. It is marketed under several brand names, many of which have different formulations such as Marqibo (liposomal injection) and Vincasar. Vincristine is indicated for the treatment of acute leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, acute erythraemia, and acute panmyelosis. vincristine sulfate is often chosen as part of polychemotherapy because of lack of significant bone–marrow suppression (at recommended doses) and of unique clinical toxicity (neuropathy).

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 824.972
Monoisotopic: 824.399644019
Chemical Formula
C46H56N4O10
Synonyms
  • 22-Oxovincaleukoblastin
  • 22-Oxovincaleukoblastine
  • Leurocristine
  • Vincristin
  • Vincristina
  • Vincristine
  • Vincristinum
External IDs
  • L 37231
  • NSC 67574

Pharmacology

Indication

Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Wilms' tumor, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma. Liposomal vincristine is indicated for the treatment of relapsed Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid antineoplastic agent used as a treatment for various cancers including breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, and testicular cancer. The vinca alkaloids are structurally similar compounds comprised of 2 multiringed units, vindoline and catharanthine. The vinca alkaloids have become clinically useful since the discovery of their antitumour properties in 1959. Initially, extracts of the periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) were investigated because of putative hypoglycemic properties, but were noted to cause marrow suppression in rats and antileukemic effects in vitro. Vincristine binds to the microtubular proteins of the mitotic spindle, leading to crystallization of the microtubule and mitotic arrest or cell death. Vincristine has some immunosuppressant effect. The vinca alkaloids are considered to be cell cycle phase-specific.

Mechanism of action

The antitumor activity of Vincristine is thought to be due primarily to inhibition of mitosis at metaphase through its interaction with tubulin. Like other vinca alkaloids, Vincristine may also interfere with: 1) amino acid, cyclic AMP, and glutathione metabolism, 2) calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-transport ATPase activity, 3) cellular respiration, and 4) nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
ATubulin beta chain
inhibitor
Humans
UTubulin alpha-4A chain
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution

Within 15 to 30 minutes after injection, over 90% of the drug is distributed from the blood into tissue, where it remains tightly, but not irreversibly, bound.

Protein binding

~75%

Metabolism

Hepatic. Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes of the CYP3A subfamily facilitate the metabolism of vincristine.

Route of elimination

The liver is the major excretory organ in humans and animals. 80% of an injected dose of vincristine sulfate is excreted via feces. 10 - 20% is excreted via urine.

Half-life

When intravenously injected into cancer patients, a triphasic serum decay patten was observed. The initial, middle, and terminal half-lives are 5 minutes, 2.3 hours, 85 hours respectively. The range of the terminal half-life is humans is 19 - 155 hours.

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

IVN-RAT LD50 1300 mg/kg; IPR-MUS LD50 5.2 mg/kg. Marqibo® must only be administered IV because it is fatal if administered by other routes. Marqibo® also has different dosing than vincristine sulphate injection, so attention is needed to prevent overdoses. The most clinically significant adverse effect of vincristine is neurotoxicity.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Vincristine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Vincristine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbemaciclibAbemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Vincristine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Vincristine can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetazolamideThe metabolism of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineVincristine may increase the neurotoxic activities of Acetophenazine.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vincristine.
AcipimoxThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Vincristine is combined with Acipimox.
AdalimumabThe metabolism of Vincristine can be increased when combined with Adalimumab.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Exercise caution with grapefruit products. Grapefruit inhibits CYP3A4 metabolism, which may increase the serum concentration of vincristine.
  • Exercise caution with St. John's Wort. This herb induces CYP3A4 metabolism, which may reduce serum levels of vincristine.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Vincristine sulfateT5IRO3534A2068-78-2AQTQHPDCURKLKT-PNYVAJAMSA-N
International/Other Brands
Alcavixin (Korea United Pharma) / Alcrist (Alkem) / Citomid (CSC) / Cytocristin (Cipla) / Oncocristin (Sun) / Oncovin (Lilly) / Oncrivin (Teva) / Sindovin (Actavis) / Tevacristin (Teva) / Vinces (Ivax) / Vincrisin (Teva) / Vincristin (Gedeon Richter) / Vincrisul (STADA) / Vinlon (Celon) / Vinracine (Meizler)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Marqibo5 mg/5mLIntravenousAcrotech Biopharma Llc2013-01-14Not applicableUS flag
MarqiboKit5 mg/5mLIntravenousTalon Therapeutics, Inc.2013-01-14Not applicableUS flag
Oncovin Solution 1mg/mlLiquidIntravenousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1984-12-311998-08-04Canada flag
Vincristine Sulfate Inj 1mg/ml USPLiquidIntravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1989-12-311999-08-10Canada flag
Vincristine Sulfate Inj 5mg/vial USPPowder, for solutionIntravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1989-12-311996-09-10Canada flag
Vincristine Sulfate InjectionSolutionIntravenousTEVA Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Vincristine Sulfate InjectionSolutionIntravenousAccord Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Vincristine Sulfate Injection USPSolutionIntravenousPfizer Canada Ulc1997-08-07Not applicableCanada flag
Vincristine Sulfate Injection USPSolutionIntravenousUman PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Vincasar PFSInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2000-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Vincasar PFSInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2000-05-01Not applicableUS flag
VinCRIStine SulfateInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2013-11-27Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L01CA02 — Vincristine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vinca alkaloids. These are alkaloids with a dimeric chemical structure composed of an indole nucleus (catharanthine), and a dihydroindole nucleus (vindoline), joined together.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Vinca alkaloids
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Vinca alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Carbazoles / 3-alkylindoles / Tricarboxylic acids and derivatives / Anisoles / Alkyl aryl ethers / Aralkylamines / Piperidines / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Methyl esters / Heteroaromatic compounds
show 12 more
Substituents
1,2-aminoalcohol / 3-alkylindole / Alcohol / Alkyl aryl ether / Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / Anisole / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle
show 30 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
5J49Q6B70F
CAS number
57-22-7
InChI Key
OGWKCGZFUXNPDA-CFWMRBGOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C46H56N4O10/c1-7-42(55)22-28-23-45(40(53)58-5,36-30(14-18-48(24-28)25-42)29-12-9-10-13-33(29)47-36)32-20-31-34(21-35(32)57-4)50(26-51)38-44(31)16-19-49-17-11-15-43(8-2,37(44)49)39(60-27(3)52)46(38,56)41(54)59-6/h9-13,15,20-21,26,28,37-39,47,55-56H,7-8,14,16-19,22-25H2,1-6H3/t28-,37-,38+,39+,42-,43+,44+,45-,46-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl (1R,9R,10S,11R,12R,19R)-11-(acetyloxy)-12-ethyl-4-[(1R,13S,15R,17S)-17-ethyl-17-hydroxy-13-(methoxycarbonyl)-1,11-diazatetracyclo[13.3.1.0^{4,12}.0^{5,10}]nonadeca-4(12),5,7,9-tetraen-13-yl]-8-formyl-10-hydroxy-5-methoxy-8,16-diazapentacyclo[10.6.1.0^{1,9}.0^{2,7}.0^{16,19}]nonadeca-2(7),3,5,13-tetraene-10-carboxylate
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@]12N3CC[[email protected]@]11C4=C(C=C(OC)C(=C4)[[email protected]]4(C[[email protected]]5C[[email protected]](C[[email protected]](O)(CC)C5)CCC5=C4NC4=CC=CC=C54)C(=O)OC)N(C=O)[[email protected]@]1([H])[[email protected]](O)([[email protected]](OC(C)=O)[[email protected]]2(CC)C=CC3)C(=O)OC

References

Synthesis Reference

Homer L. Pearce, "Method of preparing vincristine." U.S. Patent US4303584, issued November, 1967.

US4303584
General References
  1. Graf WD, Chance PF, Lensch MW, Eng LJ, Lipe HP, Bird TD: Severe vincristine neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Cancer. 1996 Apr 1;77(7):1356-62. [PubMed:8608515]
  2. Qweider M, Gilsbach JM, Rohde V: Inadvertent intrathecal vincristine administration: a neurosurgical emergency. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007 Mar;6(3):280-3. [PubMed:17355029]
  3. JOHNSON IS, ARMSTRONG JG, GORMAN M, BURNETT JP Jr: THE VINCA ALKALOIDS: A NEW CLASS OF ONCOLYTIC AGENTS. Cancer Res. 1963 Sep;23:1390-427. [PubMed:14070392]
  4. Gidding CE, Kellie SJ, Kamps WA, de Graaf SS: Vincristine revisited. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 1999 Feb;29(3):267-87. [PubMed:10226730]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014681
KEGG Drug
D08679
KEGG Compound
C07204
PubChem Compound
5978
PubChem Substance
46507033
ChemSpider
4535015
BindingDB
38872
RxNav
11202
ChEBI
28445
ChEMBL
CHEMBL499458
ZINC
ZINC000085537024
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000114
PharmGKB
PA451879
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Vincristine
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
FDA label
Download (362 KB)
MSDS
Download (90.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Follicular Lymphoma1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphobkastic Leukemia1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)7
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia4
4CompletedTreatmentBurkitt's Lymphoma / Large Cell Anaplastic Lymphoma / Lymphoma, Lymphoblastic / Mediastinal Neoplasms1
4CompletedTreatmentDiffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentImmune Thrombocytopenia1
4CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Lymphoblastic1
4CompletedTreatmentPeripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinoblastoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Bristol myers squibb
  • Abic ltd
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Mission Pharmacal
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Sicor Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
KitIntravenous5 mg/5mL
SuspensionOphthalmic3 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral1 mg
Injection, solutionParenteral2 mg
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous1 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg/2ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Parenteral1 MG/ML
Injection, solutionParenteral1 MG/ML
Injection, solution1 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/mL
Injection, solution10 mg
Injection, solution1 mg/1ml
Injection, solution2 mg/2ml
Injection
Injection, powder, for solution1 mg
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vincristine 2 mg/2 ml vial18.06USD ml
Oncovite tablet0.19USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6723338No2004-04-202020-03-31US flag
US7887836No2011-02-152020-03-31US flag
US7247316No2007-07-242020-09-25US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)220 °CPhysProp
logP2.82HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa5MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.03 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.36ALOGPS
logP3.13ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.85ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area171.17 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity221.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability88.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings9ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9738
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9514
Caco-2 permeable+0.6262
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9027
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6573
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6919
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8178
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9138
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7666
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9203
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9072
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7491
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8574
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8938
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.9324 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9699
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5265
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name
TUBB
Uniprot ID
P07437
Uniprot Name
Tubulin beta chain
Molecular Weight
49670.515 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kurtzberg LS, Roth SD, Bagley RG, Rouleau C, Yao M, Crawford JL, Krumbholz RD, Schmid SM, Teicher BA: Bone marrow CFU-GM and human tumor xenograft efficacy of three tubulin binding agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;64(5):1029-38. doi: 10.1007/s00280-009-0959-z. Epub 2009 Mar 10. [PubMed:19277662]
  4. Gan PP, McCarroll JA, Po'uha ST, Kamath K, Jordan MA, Kavallaris M: Microtubule dynamics, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis: drug-induced differential effects of betaIII-tubulin. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 May;9(5):1339-48. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0679. Epub 2010 May 4. [PubMed:20442307]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID
P68366
Uniprot Name
Tubulin alpha-4A chain
Molecular Weight
49923.995 Da
References
  1. Yasui M, Koyama N, Koizumi T, Senda-Murata K, Takashima Y, Hayashi M, Sugimoto K, Honma M: Live cell imaging of micronucleus formation and development. Mutat Res. 2010 Oct 13;692(1-2):12-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.07.009. Epub 2010 Aug 5. [PubMed:20691709]
  2. Gan PP, McCarroll JA, Po'uha ST, Kamath K, Jordan MA, Kavallaris M: Microtubule dynamics, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis: drug-induced differential effects of betaIII-tubulin. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 May;9(5):1339-48. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0679. Epub 2010 May 4. [PubMed:20442307]
  3. Vilpo JA, Koski T, Vilpo LM: Selective toxicity of vincristine against chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro. Eur J Haematol. 2000 Dec;65(6):370-8. [PubMed:11168494]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Kayilioglu H, Kocak U, Kan Karaer D, Percin EF, Sal E, Tekkesin F, Isik M, Oner N, Belen FB, Yilmaz Keskin E, Okur A, Albayrak M, Kaya Z, Pinarli FG, Yenicesu I, Karadeniz C, Oguz A, Gursel T: Association of CYP3A5 Expression and Vincristine Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Malignancies in Turkish Population. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017 Aug;39(6):458-462. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000910. [PubMed:28697165]
  2. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou XJ, Zhou-Pan XR, Gauthier T, Placidi M, Maurel P, Rahmani R: Human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A isozymes mediated vindesine biotransformation. Metabolic drug interactions. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Feb 24;45(4):853-61. [PubMed:8452560]
  2. Egbelakin A, Ferguson MJ, MacGill EA, Lehmann AS, Topletz AR, Quinney SK, Li L, McCammack KC, Hall SD, Renbarger JL: Increased risk of vincristine neurotoxicity associated with low CYP3A5 expression genotype in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Mar;56(3):361-7. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22845. Epub 2010 Nov 11. [PubMed:21225912]
  3. Kayilioglu H, Kocak U, Kan Karaer D, Percin EF, Sal E, Tekkesin F, Isik M, Oner N, Belen FB, Yilmaz Keskin E, Okur A, Albayrak M, Kaya Z, Pinarli FG, Yenicesu I, Karadeniz C, Oguz A, Gursel T: Association of CYP3A5 Expression and Vincristine Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Malignancies in Turkish Population. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017 Aug;39(6):458-462. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000910. [PubMed:28697165]
  4. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]

Transporters

Details
1. P-glycoprotein 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Arora A, Shukla Y: Modulation of vinca-alkaloid induced P-glycoprotein expression by indole-3-carbinol. Cancer Lett. 2003 Jan 28;189(2):167-73. [PubMed:12490309]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674]
  3. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945]
  4. Doppenschmitt S, Langguth P, Regardh CG, Andersson TB, Hilgendorf C, Spahn-Langguth H: Characterization of binding properties to human P-glycoprotein: development of a [3H]verapamil radioligand-binding assay. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Jan;288(1):348-57. [PubMed:9862789]
  5. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103]
  6. Li D, Jang SH, Kim J, Wientjes MG, Au JL: Enhanced drug-induced apoptosis associated with P-glycoprotein overexpression is specific to antimicrotubule agents. Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;20(1):45-50. [PubMed:12608535]
  7. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. [PubMed:10617675]
  8. Kuo CC, Hsieh HP, Pan WY, Chen CP, Liou JP, Lee SJ, Chang YL, Chen LT, Chen CT, Chang JY: BPR0L075, a novel synthetic indole compound with antimitotic activity in human cancer cells, exerts effective antitumoral activity in vivo. Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 1;64(13):4621-8. [PubMed:15231674]
  9. Woodahl EL, Crouthamel MH, Bui T, Shen DD, Ho RJ: MDR1 (ABCB1) G1199A (Ser400Asn) polymorphism alters transepithelial permeability and sensitivity to anticancer agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;64(1):183-8. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0906-4. Epub 2009 Jan 4. [PubMed:19123050]
  10. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Apr 11. [PubMed:19427995]
  11. Noguchi K, Kawahara H, Kaji A, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Substrate-dependent bidirectional modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance by erlotinib. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1701-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 12. [PubMed:19493273]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Shnitsar V, Eckardt R, Gupta S, Grottker J, Muller GA, Koepsell H, Burckhardt G, Hagos Y: Expression of human organic cation transporter 3 in kidney carcinoma cell lines increases chemosensitivity to melphalan, irinotecan, and vincristine. Cancer Res. 2009 Feb 15;69(4):1494-501. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2483. Epub 2009 Feb 3. [PubMed:19190342]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Loe DW, Almquist KC, Cole SP, Deeley RG: ATP-dependent 17 beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) transport by multidrug resistance protein (MRP). Inhibition by cholestatic steroids. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19;271(16):9683-9. [PubMed:8621644]
  2. Godinot N, Iversen PW, Tabas L, Xia X, Williams DC, Dantzig AH, Perry WL 3rd: Cloning and functional characterization of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/ABCC1) from the cynomolgus monkey. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Mar;2(3):307-16. [PubMed:12657726]
  3. Nunoya K, Grant CE, Zhang D, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1016-26. [PubMed:12867490]
  4. Sumizawa T, Chen ZS, Chuman Y, Seto K, Furukawa T, Haraguchi M, Tani A, Shudo N, Akiyama SI: Reversal of multidrug resistance-associated protein-mediated drug resistance by the pyridine analog PAK-104P. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Mar;51(3):399-405. [PubMed:9058594]
  5. Renes J, de Vries EG, Nienhuis EF, Jansen PL, Muller M: ATP- and glutathione-dependent transport of chemotherapeutic drugs by the multidrug resistance protein MRP1. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Feb;126(3):681-8. [PubMed:10188979]
  6. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [PubMed:9281595]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name
ABCC10
Uniprot ID
Q5T3U5
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7
Molecular Weight
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806]
  2. Hopper-Borge E, Xu X, Shen T, Shi Z, Chen ZS, Kruh GD: Human multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10) is a resistance factor for nucleoside analogues and epothilone B. Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):178-84. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1420. [PubMed:19118001]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946]
  2. Hong J, Lambert JD, Lee SH, Sinko PJ, Yang CS: Involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in regulating cellular levels of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and its methyl metabolites. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Oct 10;310(1):222-7. [PubMed:14511674]
  3. Ishikawa T, Muller M, Klunemann C, Schaub T, Keppler D: ATP-dependent primary active transport of cysteinyl leukotrienes across liver canalicular membrane. Role of the ATP-dependent transport system for glutathione S-conjugates. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 5;265(31):19279-86. [PubMed:2172249]
  4. Chen ZS, Kawabe T, Ono M, Aoki S, Sumizawa T, Furukawa T, Uchiumi T, Wada M, Kuwano M, Akiyama SI: Effect of multidrug resistance-reversing agents on transporting activity of human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;56(6):1219-28. [PubMed:10570049]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. [PubMed:10617675]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Allen JD, Van Dort SC, Buitelaar M, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH: Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1339-44. [PubMed:12649196]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Can activate specifically hydrolysis of GTP bound to RAC1 and CDC42, but not RALA. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-glutathione (DNP-SG) and doxorubicin (DOX) and is the ma...
Gene Name
RALBP1
Uniprot ID
Q15311
Uniprot Name
RalA-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
76062.86 Da
References
  1. Drake KJ, Singhal J, Yadav S, Nadkar A, Pungaliya C, Singhal SS, Awasthi S: RALBP1/RLIP76 mediates multidrug resistance. Int J Oncol. 2007 Jan;30(1):139-44. [PubMed:17143522]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [PubMed:22541068]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [PubMed:22541068]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2020 01:55

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