Identification

Name
Pentoxifylline
Accession Number
DB00806
Description

A methylxanthine derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production. [PubChem]

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 278.307
Monoisotopic: 278.137890462
Chemical Formula
C13H18N4O3
Synonyms
  • Oxpentifylline
  • Pentoxifilina
  • Pentoxifyllin
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Pentoxifyllinum
External IDs
  • BL 191
  • BL-191
  • C04AD03
  • PTX

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Pentoxifylline, a synthetic dimethylxanthine derivative structurally related to theophylline and caffeine, is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases and in the management of cerebrovascular insufficiency, sickle cell disease, and diabetic neuropathy.

Mechanism of action

Pentoxifylline inhibits erythrocyte phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte cAMP activity. Subsequently, the erythrocyte membrane becomes more resistant to deformity. Along with erythrocyte activity, pentoxifylline also decreases blood viscosity by reducing plasma fibrinogen concentrations and increasing fibrinolytic activity. It is also a non selective adenosine receptor antagonist.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAdenosine receptor A1
antagonist
Humans
AAdenosine receptor A2a
antagonist
Humans
APhosphodiesterase enzymes
inhibitor
Humans
U5'-nucleotidase
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

70%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Excretion is almost totally urinary; the main biotransformation product is Metabolite V. Essentially no parent drug is found in the urine.

Half-life

0.4-0.8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

LD50=1385 mg/kg(orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirPentoxifylline may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Abciximab can be increased when used in combination with Pentoxifylline.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Pentoxifylline.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Pentoxifylline.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acenocoumarol can be increased when used in combination with Pentoxifylline.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Limit caffeine intake.
  • Take with food. Food reduces irritation.

Products

Product Images
International/Other Brands
Agapurin (Zentiva) / Agapurin SR (Zentiva) / An Ruo Ning (Nanjing Yaoda Bio-Pharmaceutical) / Angiopent (Helcor) / Ao Le Ni (C & O Pharmaceuticals) / Ao Nuo Hong (AosaiKang Pharmaceutical) / Aotong (Treeful Pharmaceutical) / Azupentat / Behrifil (Sanofi-Aventis) / Bo Shu Te (Jisheng Pharmaceutical) / Claudicat (Nycomed) / Durapental (Mylan dura) / Elorgan (Sanofi Aventis) / Endopentoksas (Endokriniai) / Pentilin (Krka) / Pentilin Retard (Krka) / Pentoflux (Bouchara-Recordati) / Pentofyllin (Sopharma) / Pentoksifilin (Panfarma) / Pentolab (Lamsa) / Pentomer (ratiopharm) / Rentylin (Amdipharm) / Torental (Sanofi-Aventis) / Trentilin Retard (Santa-Farma)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Pentoxifylline SRTablet, extended releaseOralAa Pharma Inc1997-01-14Not applicableCanada flag
TrentalTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1984-08-302011-09-30US flag
TrentalTablet, extended release400 mgOralSanofi Aventis1996-10-232013-03-01Canada flag
TrentalTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralSanofi Aventis1984-08-302013-12-31US flag
Trental Srt 400mgTablet, extended releaseOralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1993-12-311998-08-12Canada flag
Trental Tab 400mgTablet, extended releaseOralHoechst Canada Inc.1984-12-311996-08-29Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Nu-pentoxifylline-SR 400 mgTablet, extended releaseOralNu Pharm Inc1998-03-182012-09-04Canada flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralStat Rx USA1998-07-20Not applicableUS flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.1998-01-152019-05-31US flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1999-06-10Not applicableUS flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralMc Kesson Contract Packaging1997-07-082017-09-30US flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2012-08-202013-09-12US flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralMajor Pharmaceuticals1999-06-10Not applicableUS flag
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUS flag53808 051620180907 15195 1r0m9hs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack1999-06-10Not applicableUS flag63629 291020180907 15195 19l564t
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health1999-06-102012-10-31US flag55154 666220180907 15195 f6oifd
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Betamethasone Dipropionate 0.05% / Minoxidil 5% / Niacinamide 2% / Pentoxifylline 0.5%Pentoxifylline (2 g/100g) + Betamethasone dipropionate (0.05 g/100g) + Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-09Not applicableUS flag
Gapeam BudibacPentoxifylline (1 g/1g) + Amantadine hydrochloride (1 g/1g) + Baclofen (1 g/1g) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous (1 g/1g) + Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (1 g/1g) + Diclofenac sodium (1 g/1g) + Gabapentin (1 g/1g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2014-12-052018-03-08US flag
Pentoxifylline 0.5% / Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.1%Pentoxifylline (0.5 g/100g) + Triamcinolone acetonide (0.1 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-15Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C04AD03 — PentoxifyllineR03DA20 — Combinations of xanthines
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
Xanthines
Alternative Parents
6-oxopurines / Alkaloids and derivatives / Pyrimidones / N-substituted imidazoles / Vinylogous amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Ureas / Lactams / Ketones / Azacyclic compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
6-oxopurine / Alkaloid or derivatives / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Carbonyl group / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidazole / Ketone
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
oxopurine (CHEBI:7986)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
SD6QCT3TSU
CAS number
6493-05-6
InChI Key
BYPFEZZEUUWMEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H18N4O3/c1-9(18)6-4-5-7-17-12(19)10-11(14-8-15(10)2)16(3)13(17)20/h8H,4-7H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(CCCCC(C)=O)C(=O)N2C

References

General References
  1. Authors unspecified: European Pentoxifylline Multi-Infarct Dementia Study. Eur Neurol. 1996;36(5):315-21. [PubMed:8864715]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014944
KEGG Drug
D00501
KEGG Compound
C07424
PubChem Compound
4740
PubChem Substance
46505940
ChemSpider
4578
BindingDB
10850
RxNav
8013
ChEBI
7986
ChEMBL
CHEMBL628
ZINC
ZINC000001530776
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000048
PharmGKB
PA450864
PDBe Ligand
PNX
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pentoxifylline
AHFS Codes
  • 20:24.00 — Hemorrheologic Agents
PDB Entries
2a3c / 3arr / 3aru / 3tvx
FDA label
Download (51.7 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
4CompletedPreventionNephropathy, Diabetic1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hemodialysis Treatment / Inflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoradionecrosis1
4CompletedTreatmentSevere Alcoholic Hepatitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDecompensated Heart Failure / Hemolysis Intravascular1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNephritis, Lupus1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease stage3 and 4 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Biovail laboratories inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotex Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Biovail Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Gallipot
  • Golden State Medical Supply Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Merrell Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Torpharm Inc.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Upsher Smith Laboratories
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Zoetica Pharmaceutical Corp.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionTopical
KitTopical
InjectionIntravenous100 mg
Capsule, coated pelletsOral400 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/5ml
Capsule400 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 MG
Tablet, extended releaseOral600 MG
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
GelTopical
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coated600 mg
Tablet, film coated400 mg
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/5ml
Tablet, coatedOral400 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
TRENtal 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.4USD tab
Trental er 400 mg tablet1.27USD tablet
Pentoxifylline powder0.91USD g
Trental 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.88USD tablet
Pentoxifylline 400 mg tablet sa0.71USD tablet
Pentoxifylline CR 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil er 400 mg tablet0.62USD tablet
Pentoxifylline er 400 mg tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Pentoxifylline Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
Nu-Pentoxifylline-Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)105 °CNot Available
water solubility7.7E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.29BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.17 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP0.23ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9851
Caco-2 permeable-0.5056
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.595
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6905
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7157
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7023
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6511
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9313
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9827
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.901
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8965
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7457
Rat acute toxicity2.4070 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6463
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-1890000000-c9be2fe26b2862cba4f5
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-2900000000-d54457aaede5317cef72
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-2970000000-95d1edcd63b61b13b22e

Targets

Details
1. Adenosine receptor A1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA1
Uniprot ID
P30542
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A1
Molecular Weight
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D: Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;230:41-63. [PubMed:3588607]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID
P29274
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A2a
Molecular Weight
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Kreth S, Ledderose C, Luchting B, Weis F, Thiel M: Immunomodulatory properties of pentoxifylline are mediated via adenosine-dependent pathways. Shock. 2010 Jul;34(1):10-6. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181cdc3e2. [PubMed:19997047]
3. Phosphodiesterase enzymes
Kind
Group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
A group consisting of various phosphodiesterase enzymes
References
  1. Gresele P, Momi S, Falcinelli E: Anti-platelet therapy: phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Oct;72(4):634-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.04034.x. [PubMed:21649691]
  2. Kruuse C, Jacobsen TB, Thomsen LL, Hasselbalch SG, Frandsen EK, Dige-Petersen H, Olesen J: Effects of the non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline on regional cerebral blood flow and large arteries in healthy subjects. Eur J Neurol. 2000 Nov;7(6):629-38. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2000.00116.x. [PubMed:11136348]
  3. Swierczek A, Wyska E, Bas S, Woyciechowska M, Mlynarski J: PK/PD studies on non-selective PDE inhibitors in rats using cAMP as a marker of pharmacological response. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2017 Oct;390(10):1047-1059. doi: 10.1007/s00210-017-1406-z. Epub 2017 Jul 20. [PubMed:28730281]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. Exhibits AMP-, NAD-, and NMN-nucleosidase activities.
Gene Name
NT5E
Uniprot ID
P21589
Uniprot Name
5'-nucleotidase
Molecular Weight
63367.255 Da
References
  1. Ustunsoy H, Sivrikoz MC, Tarakcioglu M, Bakir K, Guldur E, Celkan MA: The effects of pentoxifylline on the myocardial inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Card Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-61. [PubMed:16426349]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Lee SH, Slattery JT: Cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in lisofylline metabolism to pentoxifylline in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Dec;25(12):1354-8. [PubMed:9394024]
  2. Zhou SF, Yang LP, Zhou ZW, Liu YH, Chan E: Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2. AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):481-94. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9127-y. Epub 2009 Jul 10. [PubMed:19590965]
  3. Peterson TC, Peterson MR, Wornell PA, Blanchard MG, Gonzalez FJ: Role of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 in the pentoxifylline ciprofloxacin drug interaction. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jul 15;68(2):395-402. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2004.03.035. [PubMed:15194011]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 22, 2020 02:10

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