Oxymetazoline

Identification

Name
Oxymetazoline
Accession Number
DB00935
Description

Oxymetazoline is an imidazole derivative and alpha (α)-adrenergic agonist with greater affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor than the α1-adrenergic receptor. Due to its vasoconstricting activity, oxymetazoline is used as a decongestant and topical hemostatic agent.1

Oxymetazoline is available in various formulations with a wide variety of clinical implications. The topical formulation of the drug is used to treat persistent facial redness in adults.7 As an effective decongestant, oxymetazoline is available in over-the-counter intranasal sprays that are used to relieve nasal and sinus congestion caused by a wide variety of factors, such as common cold, hay fever, and upper respiratory allergies.3,10 In dentistry, oxymetazoline and tetracaine combination intranasal spray (Kovanaze) is used for regional anesthesia during dental procedures in eligible children and adults.6 In July 2020, the FDA approved the use of an ophthalmic formulation of oxymetazoline (Upneeq) in adults with acquired blepharoptosis, or ptosis, making it the first FDA-approved medical treatment for this medical condition.5,8

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 260.3746
Monoisotopic: 260.1888634
Chemical Formula
C16H24N2O
Synonyms
  • 2-(4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-hydroxybenzyl)-2-imidazoline
  • 3-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
  • 6-t-butyl-3-(2-imidazolin-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
  • 6-tert-butyl-3-(2-imidazolin-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
  • Oximetazolinum
  • Oxymetazolina
  • Oxymetazoline
  • Oxymétazoline
  • Oxymetazolinum
  • Oxymethazoline
  • Oxymetozoline

Pharmacology

Indication

Oxymetazoline is indicated for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea in adults.7

Oxymetazoline in the ophthalmic formulation is indicated for the treatment of acquired blepharoptosis in adults.8

When used in combination with tetracaine intranasally, oxymetazoline is indicated for the for regional anesthesia when performing a restorative procedure on Teeth 4-13 and A-J in adults and children who weigh 40 kg or more.6

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Oxymetazoline a adrenergic alpha-agonists, direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion The sympathomimetic action of oxymetazoline constricts the smaller arterioles of the nasal passages, producing a prolonged (up to 12 hours), gentle and decongesting effect. Oxymetazoline elicits relief of conjunctival hyperemia by causing vasoconstriction of superficial conjunctival blood vessels. The drug's action has been demonstrated in acute allergic conjunctivitis and in chemical (chloride) conjunctivitis.

Oxymetazoline is used in combination with tetracaine for local anesthesia in dentistry, which adds beneficial effects. The vasoconstrictor counteracts the vasodilatory action of the local anesthetic agent, thereby constricting dilated arterioles and reducing blood flow to the application area.2,6 Oxymetazoline induces vasoconstriction of both resistance and capacitance blood vessels on human nasal mucosa, reducing nasal mucosal blood flow.4

Mechanism of action

Oxymetazoline is a direct acting sympathomimetic amine, which acts on alpha-adrenergic receptors in the arterioles of the conjunctiva and nasal mucosa. It produces vasoconstriction, resulting in decreased conjunctival congestion in ophthalmic. In nasal it produces constriction, resulting in decreased blood flow and decreased nasal congestion.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
partial agonist
Humans
UAlpha-2C adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
UAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
binder
Humans
UAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
UAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

In rats, the oral LD50 is 680 ug/kg and the subcutaneous LD50 is 1630 ug/kg. In mice, the oral LD50 is 4700 ug/kg, the intraperitoneal LD50 is 48 mg/kg, and the subcutaneous LD50 is 34 mg/kg.9

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbaloparatideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Abaloparatide.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxymetazoline can be decreased when used in combination with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Aclidinium.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Adenosine is combined with Oxymetazoline.
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Alclofenac.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Oxymetazoline.
AlfuzosinThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxymetazoline can be decreased when used in combination with Alfuzosin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Oxymetazoline hydrochlorideK89MJ0S5VY2315-02-8BEEDODBODQVSIM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Dristan 12-Hour (Pfizer) / Duramist Plus (Pfeiffer Pharmaceuticals) / Genasal Nasal Spray Up to 12 Hour Relief / Iliadin / Neo-Synephrine 12 Hour Spray / Nezeril / Nostrilla 12 Hour Nasal Decongestant / OcuClear / Vicks Sinex 12 Hour Nasal Spray / Vicks Sinex 12 Hour Ultra Fine Mist for Sinus Relief
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
RhofadeCream1 g/100gTopicalAclaris Therapeutics, Inc.2017-01-18Not applicableUS flag
RhofadeCream10 mg/1gTopicalAllergan, Inc.2017-01-18Not applicableUS flag
UpneeqSolution / drops1 mg/1mLOphthalmicRvl Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2020-08-21Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
12 Hour NasalSpray0.05 g/100mLNasalHealthlife of Usa2018-01-02Not applicableUS flag
12 Hour NasalSpray.05 g/100mLNasalMeijer Distribution Inc2015-05-062019-08-19US flag
12 Hour NasalSpray0.05 g/100mLNasalAltaire Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-06-012014-02-21US flag
12 Hour NasalSpray0.05 g/100mLNasalSelect Brand Distributors2000-03-012020-04-30US flag
12 Hour Original Nasal DecongestantLiquid50 mg/100mLNasalPreferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.2018-01-02Not applicableUS flag
12 Hour Original Nasal DecongestantLiquid50 mg/100mLNasalSheffield Pharmaceuticals LLC2014-05-30Not applicableUS flag
7 Select NasalSpray0.05 g/100mLNasal7-Eleven2014-08-052019-10-23US flag
7 Select Original NasalSpray0.05 g/1mLNasal7-ELEVEN, INC.2016-10-04Not applicableUS flag
Aesb - Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride Nasal Solution USP, 0.025%SolutionNasalBayerNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
AfrinSpray0.05 g/100mLTopicalNavajo Manufacturing Company Inc.2017-12-04Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
KovanazeOxymetazoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Tetracaine hydrochloride (30 mg/1mL)SprayNasalSt. Renatus2016-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Mucinex Sinus-Max Pressure, Pain and Cough and Mucinex Sinus-Max Severe Congestion Relief Clear and CoolOxymetazoline hydrochloride (0.05 g/100mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate (10 mg/1) + Guaifenesin (200 mg/1) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1)Nasal; OralRB Health (US) LLC2020-08-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01GA04 — OxymetazolineR01AB07 — OxymetazolineR01AA05 — Oxymetazoline
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xylenols. These are aromatic compounds that contain a xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups, and at least one hydroxyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Xylenes
Direct Parent
Xylenols
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanes / m-Xylenes / Para cresols / Ortho cresols / Imidolactams / Imidazolines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Carboxamidines / Azacyclic compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
2-imidazoline / Amidine / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Carboximidamide / Carboxylic acid amidine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidolactam / M-xylene / O-cresol
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenols, carboxamidine, imidazolines (CHEBI:7862)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
8VLN5B44ZY
CAS number
1491-59-4
InChI Key
WYWIFABBXFUGLM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H24N2O/c1-10-8-13(16(3,4)5)15(19)11(2)12(10)9-14-17-6-7-18-14/h8,19H,6-7,9H2,1-5H3,(H,17,18)
IUPAC Name
6-tert-butyl-3-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
SMILES
CC1=CC(=C(O)C(C)=C1CC1=NCCN1)C(C)(C)C

References

General References
  1. Tobias JD, Cartabuke R, Taghon T: Oxymetazoline (Afrin(R)): maybe there is more that we need to know. Paediatr Anaesth. 2014 Aug;24(8):795-8. doi: 10.1111/pan.12399. [PubMed:25039870]
  2. Sisk AL: Vasoconstrictors in local anesthesia for dentistry. Anesth Prog. 1992;39(6):187-93. [PubMed:8250339]
  3. Watanabe H, Foo TH, Djazaeri B, Duncombe P, Mackay IS, Durham SR: Oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily for four weeks in normal subjects is not associated with rebound congestion or tachyphylaxis. Rhinology. 2003 Sep;41(3):167-74. [PubMed:14579657]
  4. Bende M, Loth S: Vascular effects of topical oxymetazoline on human nasal mucosa. J Laryngol Otol. 1986 Mar;100(3):285-8. doi: 10.1017/s0022215100099151. [PubMed:3950497]
  5. Drugs.com: FDA Approves Upneeq [Link]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: KOVANAZE (tetracaine HCl and oxymetazoline HCl) Nasal Spray [Link]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: RHOFADE (oxymetazoline hydrochloride) cream, for topical use [Link]
  8. FDA Approved Drug Products: UPNEEQ (oxymetazoline hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.1%, for topical ophthalmic use [Link]
  9. Cayman Chemical: Oxymetazoline Safety Data Sheet [Link]
  10. DailyMed Label: AFRIN NO DRIP ORIGINAL PUMP MIST- oxymetazoline hydrochloride spray, metered [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015070
KEGG Drug
D08322
KEGG Compound
C07363
PubChem Compound
4636
PubChem Substance
46505622
ChemSpider
4475
BindingDB
30712
RxNav
7812
ChEBI
7862
ChEMBL
CHEMBL762
ZINC
ZINC000000057435
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000235
PharmGKB
PA164748840
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Oxymetazoline
AHFS Codes
  • 52:32.00 — Vasoconstrictors
MSDS
Download (74.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEndoscopic Sinus Surgery / Polyps, Nasal1
4CompletedOtherHealthy Controls / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedPreventionThroat Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Rosacea1
4CompletedTreatmentAdenoidal Hypertrophy1
4CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR)1
4CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR) / Rhinitis Medicamentosa / Tachyphylaxis1
4CompletedTreatmentCitalopram / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentNasal Obstruction Present Finding1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Schering plough healthcare products inc
  • Johnson and johnson group consumer companies
Packagers
  • Altaire Pharmaceuticals
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Chain Drug
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • S&P Healthcare
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Target Corp.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Wyeth Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SprayTopical0.05 g/100mL
SprayNasal
Spray, meteredNasal0.5 g/1mL
Spray, meteredNasal0.05 g/100mL
Spray, meteredNasal0.05 mg/1mL
LiquidNasal0.5 mg/1mL
SolutionIntrasinal; Nasal0.25 mg
SolutionIntrasinal; Nasal0.5 mg
SprayNasal0.05 mg/100mL
SprayNasal0.2 mg/0.4mL
SprayNasal0.05 g/1mL
SprayNasal0.05 %
SprayNasal0.025 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic0.25 mg
SprayNasal0.00050 g/1mL
Solution / dropsNasal
Solution / drops0.025 %
SprayNasal
SprayNasal0.05 mg/100mg
LiquidNasal50 mg/100mL
Solution / dropsNasal50 mg/100mL
SolutionNasal0.05 g/100mL
SolutionNasal0.05 mg/100mL
Solution / drops; sprayNasal
KitTopical0.05 g/100mL
SprayNasal5 g/100mL
Solution / dropsNasal0.05 g/100mL
LiquidTopical0.05 g/100mL
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsNasal0.05 %
Spray0.05 %
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsNasal0.025 %
Spray0.025 %
SolutionIntrasinal; Nasal0.1 mg
LiquidNasal50 mg/1mL
SprayNasal0.05 mg/1mL
Spray, meteredNasal0.0005 mL/100mL
Spray, meteredNasal0.05 mg/100mL
Solution / dropsNasal0.025 %
SolutionIntrasinal; Nasal50 mg
SuspensionIntrasinal; Nasal25 mg
SolutionNasal; Respiratory (inhalation)0.025 g
Spray, meteredNasal
SolutionNasal; Oral0.026 g
SolutionNasal; Respiratory (inhalation)0.5 mg
SolutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic0.25 mg
SolutionTopical25 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical50 mg/100mL
Spray25 mg/100mL
Spray50 mg/100mL
Solution / dropsNasal25 mg/100mL
Solution; sprayNasal25 mg/100mL
SprayOral0.5 mg/1mL
Spray, meteredNasal0.2 mg/0.4mL
Spray, meteredNasal0.5 mg/1mL
SprayNasal0.05 mg/1
Solution0.01 %
Solution0.05 %
SprayNasal50.0 mg/100.0mL
SprayNasal50 mg/100mL
SprayNasal1 mg/10ml
CreamTopical1 g/100g
CreamTopical10 mg/1g
SprayNasal0.01 %
Solution / dropsNasal2.5 mg/10ml
SprayNasal5.25 mg/10ml
Solution; sprayNasal50 mg/100mL
SprayNasal7.5 mg/15mL
SprayNasal0.5 mg/1mL
SprayNasal0.05 g/100mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 mg/1mL
SprayNasal0.512 mg/1mL
SprayNasal0.0005 g/1mL
LiquidNasal
SprayNasal0.0005055 g/1mL
SprayNasal0.0005095 g/1mL
SprayNasal0.000512 g/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic0.25 mg/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic
Solution0.5 mg/ml
SprayNasal.005 g/100mL
SprayNasal.05 g/100mL
SprayNasal.5 mg/1mL
SolutionNasal
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Oxymetazoline hcl powder84.42USD g
Afrin 0.05% nose spray0.62USD ml
Drixoral cold & allergy tablet sa0.4USD tablet
Afrin no drip sinus pump mist0.38USD ml
Oxymetazoline 0.05% spray0.38USD ml
Anefrin 0.05% nasal spray0.37USD ml
Afrin sinus spray0.33USD ml
Dristan long lasting mist0.32USD ml
Neo-synephrine 12 hour spray0.28USD ml
Visine long lasting eye drops0.27USD ml
12 hour nasal relief spray0.24USD ml
Dristan cold multi-symp tablet0.23USD tablet
Ocuclear eye drops0.23USD ml
CVS Pharmacy nasal spray 0.05%0.22USD ml
No drip 0.05% nasal spray0.13USD ml
Nasal spray 0.05%0.06USD ml
Sinus nasal spray0.06USD ml
Nasal decongestant 0.05% spray0.03USD ml
Pv nasal spray 0.05%0.03USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US8580282No2013-11-122030-04-02US flag
US6413499No2002-07-022020-03-20US flag
US9308191No2016-04-122030-04-02US flag
US8883838No2014-11-112031-12-01US flag
US7812049No2010-10-122028-05-02US flag
US8420688No2013-04-162024-08-02US flag
US9974773No2018-05-222035-06-11US flag
US8815929No2014-08-262024-01-22US flag
US10335391No2019-07-022035-06-11US flag
US8357714No2011-08-262031-08-26US flag
US9867808No2011-08-262031-08-26US flag
US10751325No2015-06-112035-06-11US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)182 °CPhysProp
logP3.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0515 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.7ALOGPS
logP3.03ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area44.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity79.8 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9761
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5388
Caco-2 permeable-0.567
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8858
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9477
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6585
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6039
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7585
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5707
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5394
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.854
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8682
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7951
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8923
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity4.4155 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8402
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7432
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (10.5 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Yang HT, Endoh M: (+/-)-tamsulosin, an alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, inhibits the positive inotropic effect but not the accumulation of inositol phosphates in rabbit heart. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Oct 3;312(3):281-91. [PubMed:8894610]
  2. Deplanne V, Galzin AM: Functional characterization of alpha-1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the prostatic urethra and trigone of male rabbit. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Aug;278(2):527-34. [PubMed:8768700]
  3. Shibata K, Taketani K: [Excitatory effect of noradrenaline on rat airway parasympathetic ganglion neurons]. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2001 Nov;92(11):377-83. [PubMed:11774707]
  4. Furukawa K, Rosario DJ, Smith DJ, Chapple CR, Uchiyama T, Chess-Williams R: Alpha 1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile responses of the human vas deferens. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;116(1):1605-10. [PubMed:8564226]
  5. Gonzalez-Espinosa C, Romero-Avila MT, Mora-Rodriguez DM, Gonzalez-Espinosa D, Garcia-Sainz JA: Molecular cloning and functional expression of the guinea pig alpha(1a)-adrenoceptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Aug 31;426(3):147-55. [PubMed:11527538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
Partial agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. MacKinnon AC, Kilpatrick AT, Kenny BA, Spedding M, Brown CM: [3H]-RS-15385-197, a selective and high affinity radioligand for alpha 2-adrenoceptors: implications for receptor classification. Br J Pharmacol. 1992 Aug;106(4):1011-8. [PubMed:1327384]
  2. Mitrani P, Srinivasan M, Dodds C, Patel MS: Role of the autonomic nervous system in the development of hyperinsulinemia by high-carbohydrate formula feeding to neonatal rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Apr;292(4):E1069-78. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17164433]
  3. Lepretre N, Mironneau J: Alpha 2-adrenoceptors activate dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels via Gi-proteins and protein kinase C in rat portal vein myocytes. Pflugers Arch. 1994 Dec;429(2):253-61. [PubMed:7892112]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID
P18825
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Haenisch B, Walstab J, Herberhold S, Bootz F, Tschaikin M, Ramseger R, Bonisch H: Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;24(6):729-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00805.x. [PubMed:20030735]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Uhlen S, Wikberg JE: Delineation of rat kidney alpha 2A- and alpha 2B-adrenoceptors with [3H]RX821002 radioligand binding: computer modelling reveals that guanfacine is an alpha 2A-selective compound. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Sep 17;202(2):235-43. [PubMed:1666366]
  2. Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP: ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D1100-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr777. Epub 2011 Sep 23. [PubMed:21948594]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Haenisch B, Walstab J, Herberhold S, Bootz F, Tschaikin M, Ramseger R, Bonisch H: Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;24(6):729-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00805.x. [PubMed:20030735]
  2. Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Alcantara-Hernandez R, Garcia-Sainz JA, Pupo AS: Differential phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization of alpha1A-adrenoceptors activated by norepinephrine and oxymetazoline. Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;83(4):870-81. doi: 10.1124/mol.112.082313. Epub 2013 Jan 30. [PubMed:23364786]
  3. Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP: ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D1100-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr777. Epub 2011 Sep 23. [PubMed:21948594]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Haenisch B, Walstab J, Herberhold S, Bootz F, Tschaikin M, Ramseger R, Bonisch H: Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;24(6):729-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00805.x. [PubMed:20030735]
  2. Akinaga J, Lima V, Kiguti LR, Hebeler-Barbosa F, Alcantara-Hernandez R, Garcia-Sainz JA, Pupo AS: Differential phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization of alpha1A-adrenoceptors activated by norepinephrine and oxymetazoline. Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;83(4):870-81. doi: 10.1124/mol.112.082313. Epub 2013 Jan 30. [PubMed:23364786]
  3. Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP: ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D1100-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr777. Epub 2011 Sep 23. [PubMed:21948594]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 25, 2020 09:16

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