Hyaluronic acid

Identification

Name
Hyaluronic acid
Accession Number
DB08818
Description

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi, and can be very large, with its molecular weight often reaching the millions. One of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 776.6486
Monoisotopic: 776.233485724
Chemical Formula
C28H44N2O23
Synonyms
  • Hyaluronan
  • Hyaluronate

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat knee pain in patients with joint inflammation (osteoarthritis). It is usually used in patients who have not responded to other treatments such as acetaminophen, exercise, or physical therapy. Hyaluronic acid may also be used in plastic surgery to reduce wrinkles on the face or as a filler in other parts of the body. May be used in ophthalmology to assist in the extraction of cataracts, the implantation of intraocular lenses, corneal transplants, glaucoma filtration, retinal attachment and in the treatment of dry eyes. Finally, hyaluronic acid is also used to coat the bladder lining in treating interstitial cystitis.

Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Hyaluronic acid is similar to a substance that occurs naturally in the joints. It may work by acting as a lubricant and shock absorber in the joint, helping the knee to move smoothly, thereby lessening pain.

Mechanism of action

Hyaluronic acid performs its activities as a tissue lubricant and hence, it is thought to be key in the modulation of interactions between adjacent tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a polysaccharide which is distributed widely in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue in man. It forms a viscoelastic solution in water which makes it suitable for aqueous and vitreous humor in ophthalmic surgery. It is suggested to provide mechanical protection for ocular tissues and cell layers due to its high viscosity. The elasticity of the solutions of hyaluronic acid can assist in the absorption of mechanical stress and the generation of a protective buffer for the tissues. This viscoelasticity enables maintenance of a deep chamber during surgical manipulation since the solution does not flow out of the open anterior chamber.

In the area of wound healing, hyaluronic acid acts as a protective vehicle that allows the transport of peptide growth factors and other structural proteins to the site of action. After promoting the transport of key molecules, it is enzymatically degraded and the transported proteins are released to promote tissue repair.

Hyaluronic acid is being used intra-articularly to treat osteoarthritis. Cell receptors that have been identified for hyaluronic acid fall into three main groups: CD44, Receptor for Hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).

CD44 mediates cell interaction with hyaluronic acid and the binding of the two functions as an important part in various physiologic events, such as cell aggregation, migration, proliferation and activation; cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion; endocytosis of hyaluronic acid, which leads to hyaluronic acid catabolism in macrophages; and assembly of petircellular matrices from HA and proteoglycan. CD44 has two important roles in skin, regulation of keratinocyte proliferation in response to extracellular stimuli and the maintenance of local hyaluronic acid homeostasis.

ICAM-1 is known mainly as a metabolic cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid, and this protein may be responsible mainly for the clearance of hyaluronic acid from lymph and blood plasma, which accounts for perhaps most of its whole-body turnover. Ligand binding of this receptor, thus, triggers a highly coordinated cascade of events that includes the formation of an endocytotic vesicle, its fusion with primary lysosomes, enzymatic digestion to monosaccharides, active transmembrane transport of these sugars to cell sap, phosphorylation of GlcNAc and enzymatic deacetylation. ICAM-1 may also serve as a cell adhesion molecule, and the binding of hyaluronic acid to ICAM-1 may contribute to the control of ICAM-1-mediated inflammatory activation.

TargetActionsOrganism
ACD44 antigenNot AvailableHumans
AIntercellular adhesion molecule 1Not AvailableHumans
AHyaluronan mediated motility receptorNot AvailableHumans
UNeurocan core protein
binder
Humans
UVersican core protein
binder
Humans
UComplement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial
binder
Humans
UHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1
binder
Humans
UHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 3
binder
Humans
UHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 4
binder
Humans
UHyaluronan-binding protein 2
binder
Humans
ULayilin
binder
Humans
UStabilin-2
binder
Humans
UTumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein
binder
Humans
UInterphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2
binder
Humans
UIntracellular hyaluronan-binding protein 4
binder
Humans
Absorption

Hyaluronic acid is absorbed and diffuses slowly out of the injection site.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hyaluronic acid is degraded by a family of enzymes called hyaluronidases.

Route of elimination

Hyaluronic acid is eliminated via the canal of Schlemm.

Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

>2400 mg/kg (mouse, oral, sodium salt) >4000 mg/kg (mouse, subcutaneous, sodium salt) 1500 mg/kg (mouse, intraperitoneal, sodium salt)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Hyaluronate sodiumNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Potassium hyaluronateNot Available31799-91-4Not applicable
Sodium hyaluronateYSE9PPT4TH9067-32-7Not applicable
International/Other Brands
AMO Vitrax / AMVISIC Plus / Cystistar / Euflexxa (Ferring) / Hyalart / Hyalgan (Fidia) / Hylo-Comod / Legend / Monovisc (Anika Therapeutics, Inc.) / Recosyn / Synvisc / Viscure / Yardel
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
HyGelGel0.25 g/10gTopicalGentex Pharma, Llc2015-10-152016-07-01US flag
HYLASE WoundGel2.5 g/100gTopicalECR Pharmaceuticals Co., Inc.2012-01-062012-01-18US flag
HylinateLotion1 mg/1mLTopicalArtesa Labs, Llc2020-01-132020-03-30US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Hyaluronic AcidInjection2.5 g/1IntraepidermalQuimfa S.A2002-12-06Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AcnepatchPatch0.4298 mg/100mgTopicalSmall Lab Co., Ltd.2020-04-28Not applicableUS flag
C-eye DayCream0.00006 g/30mLTopicalLCELLS SA DE CV2019-11-15Not applicableUS flag
C-eye NightGel0.000015 g/15mLTopicalLCELLS SA DE CV2019-11-15Not applicableUS flag
Cluederm Aqua Solution Rejuve PlusLiquid20 mg/500mLTopicalClassys Inc.2018-06-282019-03-29US flag
CurestinPatch99.97 mg/100mgTopicalJ World2019-07-21Not applicableUS flag
CurithysPatch94.39 mg/100mgTopicalJ World2019-07-21Not applicableUS flag
Deepair Micro Intensive MagicPatch6.1 g/100mgTopicalAcosmetic. co.ltd2016-08-01Not applicableUS flag
E- RepairCream0.00006 g/30mLTopicalLCELLS SA DE CV2019-11-15Not applicableUS flag
ElcosysPatch99.97 mg/100mgTopicalDS TECH CO., LTD2019-07-21Not applicableUS flag
Fs12Lotion / shampoo0.23 g/230mLTopicalLCELLS SA DE CV2019-11-15Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acropass Trouble CureHyaluronic acid (0.53 mg/0.58mg) + Nicotinamide (0.03 mg/0.58mg)PatchTopicalRaphas Co.,ltd2016-11-012018-10-01US flag
bdr Bio cell maskHyaluronic acid (0.14 g/28g) + Honey (0.56 g/28g)PatchTopicalHanaim International Llc2016-11-21Not applicableUS flag
bdr Laser Effect Peptide Complex Face MaskHyaluronic acid (0.51 g/30g) + Tocopherol (0.105 g/30g)PatchTopicalHanaim International Llc2016-11-22Not applicableUS flag
bdr Stretch lift maskHyaluronic acid (0.14 1/28g) + Calendula officinalis whole (0.28 g/28g)PatchTopicalHanaim International Llc2016-11-21Not applicableUS flag
Clapiel Hyalon SerumSodium hyaluronate (10.5 mg/30mL) + Nicotinamide (0.6 mg/30mL)CreamTopicalAus Korea Co., Ltd.2015-05-01Not applicableUS flag
CottaSodium hyaluronate (.3 g/100g) + Garden snail mucin (.1 g/100g) + Morus alba root bark (.1 g/100g)Film, extended releaseTopicalEco Industry Co., Ltd2013-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Elcure AtoSodium hyaluronate (65 g/100mL) + Jojoba oil (5 g/100mL) + Morus alba root bark (10 g/100mL) + Platycodon grandiflorus leaf (7 g/100mL)LotionTopicalElcure Co., Ltd.2011-02-112017-04-20US flag
Eldeen Age Twenty One Micro Therapy ProgramSodium hyaluronate (0.4298 g/100mL) + Sodium hyaluronate (6.14 g/100mg)KitTopicalSmall Lab Co., Ltd.2020-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Eldeen Age Twenty One Micro Therapy ProgramSodium hyaluronate (0.4298 g/100mL) + Sodium hyaluronate (6.14 g/100mg)KitTopicalSmall Lab Co., Ltd.2020-01-01Not applicableUS flag
ELDEEN AGE TWENTY ONE MifitPatch and SerumSodium hyaluronate (0.4298 g/100g) + Sodium hyaluronate (6.14 g/100mg)KitTopicalSmall Lab Co., Ltd.2018-10-01Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AcnepatchSodium hyaluronate (0.4298 mg/100mg)PatchTopicalSmall Lab Co., Ltd.2020-04-28Not applicableUS flag
Acropass Trouble CureHyaluronic acid (0.53 mg/0.58mg) + Nicotinamide (0.03 mg/0.58mg)PatchTopicalRaphas Co.,ltd2016-11-012018-10-01US flag
Ascorbyl Palmitate 2% / Hyaluronic Acid Sodium Salt 0.2% / Niacinamide 5% / Tretinoin 0.025%Sodium hyaluronate (0.2 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (5 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.025 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-17Not applicableUS flag
bdr Bio cell maskHyaluronic acid (0.14 g/28g) + Honey (0.56 g/28g)PatchTopicalHanaim International Llc2016-11-21Not applicableUS flag
bdr Laser Effect Peptide Complex Face MaskHyaluronic acid (0.51 g/30g) + Tocopherol (0.105 g/30g)PatchTopicalHanaim International Llc2016-11-22Not applicableUS flag
bdr Stretch lift maskHyaluronic acid (0.14 1/28g) + Calendula officinalis whole (0.28 g/28g)PatchTopicalHanaim International Llc2016-11-21Not applicableUS flag
C-eye DayHyaluronic acid (0.00006 g/30mL)CreamTopicalLCELLS SA DE CV2019-11-15Not applicableUS flag
C-eye NightHyaluronic acid (0.000015 g/15mL)GelTopicalLCELLS SA DE CV2019-11-15Not applicableUS flag
Calcipotriene 0.005% / Diclofenac Sodium 3% / Hyaluronic Acid Sodium Salt 2% / Niacinamide 2%Sodium hyaluronate (2 g/100g) + Calcipotriol (0.005 g/100g) + Diclofenac sodium (3 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g)CreamTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-07Not applicableUS flag
Clapiel Hyalon SerumSodium hyaluronate (10.5 mg/30mL) + Nicotinamide (0.6 mg/30mL)CreamTopicalAus Korea Co., Ltd.2015-05-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01KA51 — Hyaluronic acid, combinationsS01KA01 — Hyaluronic acidD03AX05 — Hyaluronic acidM09AX01 — Hyaluronic acidR01AX09 — Hyaluronic acid
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acylaminosugars. These are organic compounds containing a sugar linked to a chain through N-acyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
Acylaminosugars
Alternative Parents
Oligosaccharides / Fatty acyl glycosides / N-acyl-alpha-hexosamines / O-glucuronides / O-glycosyl compounds / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Pyrans / Oxanes / Acetamides
show 13 more
Substituents
1-o-glucuronide / Acetal / Acetamide / Acylaminosugar / Alcohol / Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound / Beta-hydroxy acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxamide group / Carboxylic acid
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
S270N0TRQY
CAS number
9004-61-9
InChI Key
KIUKXJAPPMFGSW-MNSSHETKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C28H44N2O23/c1-5(33)29-9-18(11(35)7(3-31)47-25(9)46)49-28-17(41)15(39)20(22(53-28)24(44)45)51-26-10(30-6(2)34)19(12(36)8(4-32)48-26)50-27-16(40)13(37)14(38)21(52-27)23(42)43/h7-22,25-28,31-32,35-41,46H,3-4H2,1-2H3,(H,29,33)(H,30,34)(H,42,43)(H,44,45)/t7-,8-,9-,10-,11-,12-,13+,14+,15-,16-,17-,18?,19?,20+,21+,22+,25-,26+,27-,28-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3S,4R,5R,6R)-3-{[(2S,3R,5S,6R)-4-{[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6S)-6-carboxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-{[(2R,3R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-2,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES

References

Synthesis Reference

Susan Hockfield, Diane M. Jaworski, "DNA encoding BEHAB, a brain hyaluronan-binding protein, and recombinant expression systems for production of BEHAB polypeptides." U.S. Patent US5635370, issued June 03, 1997.

US5635370
General References
Not Available
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0010366
KEGG Drug
D08043
KEGG Compound
C00518
PubChem Compound
24759
PubChem Substance
310264899
ChemSpider
23145
RxNav
5463
PharmGKB
PA165958431
Wikipedia
Sodium_hyaluronate
MSDS
Download (19.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceOsteoarthritis of the Knee1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDry Eye Syndromes / Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmediate Dental Implant1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Shoulder Pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Knee1
4CompletedNot AvailableDry Eyes1
4CompletedBasic ScienceActinic Keratosis (AK)1
4CompletedOtherOsteoarthritis of the Knee1
4CompletedPreventionRecurrent Cystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAntiseptic Gel / Bacterial Growth / Bioadhesive Gel / Chistosan / Clorhexidine Gel Bacteria / Clorhexidine-chitosan / Surgery, Oral / Suture Bacteria / Third Molar Surgery / Wisdom Teeth1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchTopical0.4298 mg/100mg
GelTopical
PatchTopical
SolutionIntraocular16 mg
CreamTopical0.00006 g/30mL
GelTopical0.000015 g/15mL
CreamTopical
LiquidTopical20 mg/500mL
Aerosol, foam0.2 %
Cream0.2 %
Gel0.2 %
Ointment10 G
SprayCutaneous200 MG/100ML
Film, extended releaseTopical
PatchTopical99.97 mg/100mg
PatchTopical94.39 mg/100mg
PatchTopical6.1 g/100mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.15 %
LotionTopical
KitTopical
SuspensionOphthalmic4 mg
GelTopical2.5 g
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.15 g/100ml
Lotion / shampooTopical0.05 g/50mL
Lotion / shampooTopical0.23 g/230mL
GranuleOral
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic4 mg
SolutionOphthalmic4 mg
SolutionOphthalmic1 mg
SolutionIntra-articular20 mg
Injection
Injection, solutionParenteral20 mg
CreamTopical0.15 g/50mL
InjectionIntraepidermal2.5 g/1
Injection, solutionIntra-articular
GelTopical3.5 mg/1mL
PatchTopical1.14 g/41
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.2 %
GelTopical0.25 g/10g
GelTopical2.5 g/100g
LotionTopical1 mg/1mL
PatchTopical99.97 g/100g
EmulsionTopical
SolutionOphthalmic1.8 mg
PatchTopical67.9 mg/70mg
GelTopical0.005 g/100g
CreamTopical0.0014 g/28g
SolutionTopical0.01 g/100mL
SolutionTopical0.01 mL/100mL
SolutionOphthalmic1.11 mg/mL
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic2 mg
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic5 mg
InjectionIntra-articular20 mg
PatchTopical6.14 g/100g
GelTopical1000 g/20mL
LiquidTopical100 g/100mL
SolutionOphthalmic1.5 mg
LiquidTopical6 g/100mL
PatchTopical0.056 g/100mL
PatchTopical99 g/100g
GelTopical0.1 mg/1mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityEasily soluble in cold water. Insoluble in organic solvents.Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility46.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-8.2ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count23ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count14ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area399.71 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity155.1 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability70.56 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Hyalurononglucosaminidase activity
Specific Function
Receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA). Mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through its affinity for HA, and possibly also through its affinity for other ligands such as osteopontin, collage...
Gene Name
CD44
Uniprot ID
P16070
Uniprot Name
CD44 antigen
Molecular Weight
81537.025 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
ICAM proteins are ligands for the leukocyte adhesion protein LFA-1 (integrin alpha-L/beta-2). During leukocyte trans-endothelial migration, ICAM1 engagement promotes the assembly of endothelial api...
Gene Name
ICAM1
Uniprot ID
P05362
Uniprot Name
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1
Molecular Weight
57824.785 Da
References
  1. Comper, Wayne D. (1996). Extracellular Matrix (2nd ed.). CRC Press LLC. [ISBN:3718658437]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
Involved in cell motility. When hyaluronan binds to HMMR, the phosphorylation of a number of proteins, including PTK2/FAK1 occurs. May also be involved in cellular transformation and metastasis for...
Gene Name
HMMR
Uniprot ID
O75330
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronan mediated motility receptor
Molecular Weight
84099.845 Da
References
  1. Turley EA: Purification of a hyaluronate-binding protein fraction that modifies cell social behavior. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1982 Oct 15;108(3):1016-24. [PubMed:6185115]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
May modulate neuronal adhesion and neurite growth during development by binding to neural cell adhesion molecules (NG-CAM and N-CAM). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan; binds to hyaluronic acid.
Gene Name
NCAN
Uniprot ID
O14594
Uniprot Name
Neurocan core protein
Molecular Weight
143092.14 Da
References
  1. Prange CK, Pennacchio LA, Lieuallen K, Fan W, Lennon GG: Characterization of the human neurocan gene, CSPG3. Gene. 1998 Oct 23;221(2):199-205. [PubMed:9795216]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
May play a role in intercellular signaling and in connecting cells with the extracellular matrix. May take part in the regulation of cell motility, growth and differentiation. Binds hyaluronic acid.
Gene Name
VCAN
Uniprot ID
P13611
Uniprot Name
Versican core protein
Molecular Weight
372816.875 Da
References
  1. Perides G, Lane WS, Andrews D, Dahl D, Bignami A: Isolation and partial characterization of a glial hyaluronate-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1989 Apr 5;264(10):5981-7. [PubMed:2466833]
  2. Bignami A, Lane WS, Andrews D, Dahl D: Structural similarity of hyaluronate binding proteins in brain and cartilage. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Jan;22(1):67-70. [PubMed:2469524]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Is believed to be a multifunctional and multicompartmental protein involved in inflammation and infection processes, ribosome biogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, transcriptional regulation and pre...
Gene Name
C1QBP
Uniprot ID
Q07021
Uniprot Name
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
31361.935 Da
References
  1. Yadav G, Prasad RL, Jha BK, Rai V, Bhakuni V, Datta K: Evidence for inhibitory interaction of hyaluronan-binding protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR) with Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronidase. J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb 6;284(6):3897-905. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M804246200. Epub 2008 Nov 11. [PubMed:19004836]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
Stabilizes the aggregates of proteoglycan monomers with hyaluronic acid in the extracellular cartilage matrix.
Gene Name
HAPLN1
Uniprot ID
P10915
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1
Molecular Weight
40165.215 Da
References
  1. Spicer AP, Joo A, Bowling RA Jr: A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein genes: the missing links. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):21083-91. Epub 2003 Mar 27. [PubMed:12663660]
  2. Arming S, Strobl B, Wechselberger C, Kreil G: In vitro mutagenesis of PH-20 hyaluronidase from human sperm. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Aug 1;247(3):810-4. [PubMed:9288901]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
May function in hyaluronic acid binding.
Gene Name
HAPLN3
Uniprot ID
Q96S86
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 3
Molecular Weight
40893.995 Da
References
  1. Spicer AP, Joo A, Bowling RA Jr: A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein genes: the missing links. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):21083-91. Epub 2003 Mar 27. [PubMed:12663660]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
Binds to hyaluronic acid and may be involved in formation of the extracellular matrix.
Gene Name
HAPLN4
Uniprot ID
Q86UW8
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 4
Molecular Weight
42801.105 Da
References
  1. Spicer AP, Joo A, Bowling RA Jr: A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein genes: the missing links. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):21083-91. Epub 2003 Mar 27. [PubMed:12663660]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Cleaves the alpha-chain at multiple sites and the beta-chain between 'Lys-53' and 'Lys-54' but not the gamma-chain of fibrinogen and therefore does not initiate the formation of the fibrin clot and...
Gene Name
HABP2
Uniprot ID
Q14520
Uniprot Name
Hyaluronan-binding protein 2
Molecular Weight
62671.255 Da
References
  1. Choi-Miura NH, Tobe T, Sumiya J, Nakano Y, Sano Y, Mazda T, Tomita M: Purification and characterization of a novel hyaluronan-binding protein (PHBP) from human plasma: it has three EGF, a kringle and a serine protease domain, similar to hepatocyte growth factor activator. J Biochem. 1996 Jun;119(6):1157-65. [PubMed:8827452]
  2. Choi-Miura NH, Yoda M, Saito K, Takahashi K, Tomita M: Identification of the substrates for plasma hyaluronan binding protein. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Feb;24(2):140-3. [PubMed:11217080]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
Receptor for hyaluronate.
Gene Name
LAYN
Uniprot ID
Q6UX15
Uniprot Name
Layilin
Molecular Weight
43108.055 Da
References
  1. Bono P, Rubin K, Higgins JM, Hynes RO: Layilin, a novel integral membrane protein, is a hyaluronan receptor. Mol Biol Cell. 2001 Apr;12(4):891-900. [PubMed:11294894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Scavenger receptor activity
Specific Function
Phosphatidylserine receptor that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells. Hyaluronan receptor that binds to and mediates endocytosis of hyaluronic acid (HA). Acts also, in different species, as ...
Gene Name
STAB2
Uniprot ID
Q8WWQ8
Uniprot Name
Stabilin-2
Molecular Weight
276985.63 Da
References
  1. Politz O, Gratchev A, McCourt PA, Schledzewski K, Guillot P, Johansson S, Svineng G, Franke P, Kannicht C, Kzhyshkowska J, Longati P, Velten FW, Johansson S, Goerdt S: Stabilin-1 and -2 constitute a novel family of fasciclin-like hyaluronan receptor homologues. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 15;362(Pt 1):155-64. [PubMed:11829752]
  2. Zhou B, McGary CT, Weigel JA, Saxena A, Weigel PH: Purification and molecular identification of the human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis. Glycobiology. 2003 May;13(5):339-49. Epub 2002 Dec 17. [PubMed:12626425]
  3. Harris EN, Kyosseva SV, Weigel JA, Weigel PH: Expression, processing, and glycosaminoglycan binding activity of the recombinant human 315-kDa hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE). J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 2;282(5):2785-97. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [PubMed:17145755]
  4. Harris EN, Weigel JA, Weigel PH: The human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE/Stabilin-2) is a systemic clearance receptor for heparin. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 20;283(25):17341-50. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M710360200. Epub 2008 Apr 22. [PubMed:18434317]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
Possibly involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during inflammation and tumorigenesis.
Gene Name
TNFAIP6
Uniprot ID
P98066
Uniprot Name
Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein
Molecular Weight
31203.09 Da
References
  1. Wisniewski HG, Burgess WH, Oppenheim JD, Vilcek J: TSG-6, an arthritis-associated hyaluronan binding protein, forms a stable complex with the serum protein inter-alpha-inhibitor. Biochemistry. 1994 Jun 14;33(23):7423-9. [PubMed:7516184]
  2. Lee TH, Wisniewski HG, Vilcek J: A novel secretory tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein (TSG-6) is a member of the family of hyaluronate binding proteins, closely related to the adhesion receptor CD44. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jan;116(2):545-57. [PubMed:1730767]
  3. Kohda D, Morton CJ, Parkar AA, Hatanaka H, Inagaki FM, Campbell ID, Day AJ: Solution structure of the link module: a hyaluronan-binding domain involved in extracellular matrix stability and cell migration. Cell. 1996 Sep 6;86(5):767-75. [PubMed:8797823]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function
Chondroitin sulfate- and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan involved in the organization of interphotoreceptor matrix; may participate in the maturation and maintenance of the light-sensitive photorec...
Gene Name
IMPG2
Uniprot ID
Q9BZV3
Uniprot Name
Interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2
Molecular Weight
138619.39 Da
References
  1. Acharya S, Foletta VC, Lee JW, Rayborn ME, Rodriguez IR, Young WS 3rd, Hollyfield JG: SPACRCAN, a novel human interphotoreceptor matrix hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan synthesized by photoreceptors and pinealocytes. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 10;275(10):6945-55. [PubMed:10702256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
May be involved in nuclear functions such as the remodeling of chromatin and the regulation of transcription.
Gene Name
HABP4
Uniprot ID
Q5JVS0
Uniprot Name
Intracellular hyaluronan-binding protein 4
Molecular Weight
45785.09 Da
References
  1. Huang L, Grammatikakis N, Yoneda M, Banerjee SD, Toole BP: Molecular characterization of a novel intracellular hyaluronan-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 22;275(38):29829-39. [PubMed:10887182]

Drug created on February 23, 2012 11:15 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:52

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