Ferric pyrophosphate

Identification

Name
Ferric pyrophosphate
Accession Number
DB09147
Description

Ferric pyrophosphate is an iron replacement product. Free iron presents several side effects as it can catalyze free radical formation and lipid peroxidation as well as the presence of interactions of iron in plasma. The ferric ion is strongly complexed by pyrophosphate.1 It presents an increasing interest as this insoluble form can be milder in the gastrointestinal tract and present higher bioavailability.10

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 745.21
Monoisotopic: 745.475544666
Chemical Formula
Fe4O21P6
Synonyms
  • Iron pyrophosphate
  • Iron(III) pyrophosphate

Pharmacology

Indication

Ferric pyrophosphate is intended to be indicated for the treatment of iron loss or iron deficiency as a formulation with a milder gastrointestinal effect.9,10

Iron deficiency appears when the dietary intake does not meet the body's requirement or when there is chronic external blood loss. During acute blood loss, body iron stores are sufficient for accelerated erythropoiesis and restoration of iron homeostasis. But when the altered homeostasis remains for weeks to months then some supplement is needed. Some causes of iron deficiency include ectoparasitism, endoparasitism, hematuria, epistaxis, hemorrhagic skin, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathia and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.2

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Iron supplementation typically results in increases in serum iron, transferrin-bound iron, and iron-stored in the form of ferritin in hepatocytes and macrophages. The available iron is usually used in bone marrow for the synthesis of hemoglobin.9

Mechanism of action

The usage of ferric pyrophosphate is based on the strong complex formation between these two species. Besides, the capacity of pyrophosphate to trigger iron removal from transferrin, enhance iron transfer from transferrin to ferritin and promote iron exchange between transferrin molecules. These properties make it a very suitable compound for parenteral administration, iron delivery into circulation and incorporation into hemoglobin.1

TargetActionsOrganism
AFerritin light chain
binder
Humans
AHemoglobin subunit alpha
binder
Humans
AHemoglobin subunit beta
binder
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
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Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AlmasilateAlmasilate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AluminiumAluminium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminium phosphateAluminium phosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium acetateCalcium acetate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium chlorideCalcium chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium citrateCalcium citrate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium glucoheptonateCalcium glucoheptonate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium gluconateCalcium gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Ferric cationionic91O4LML61120074-52-6VTLYFUHAOXGGBS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Escavite LqFerric pyrophosphate (5 mg/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Cyanocobalamin (0.9 ug/1mL) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (7.5 [iU]/1mL) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (1 mg/1mL) + Niacin (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Riboflavin (0.6 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)LiquidOralGM Pharmaceuticals, INC2013-08-202018-10-03US flag
Tricare Prenatal 2-part Daily Prenatal Vitamin SystemFerric pyrophosphate (4.5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg/1) + Biotin (.150 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Chromium Cr-51 chloride (.060 mg/1) + Copper gluconate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.125 mg/1) + Doconexent (150 1/1) + Icosapent (37.5 1/1) + Levomefolic acid (1 mg/1) + Manganese citrate decahydrate (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (75 1/1) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (.85 mg/1) + Sodium selenite (.0325 mg/1) + Sodium molybdate (.0375 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.25 mg/1) + Zinc (7 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (15 [iU]/1)KitOralMedecor Pharma, Llc2016-05-10Not applicableUS flag

Categories

Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal pyrophosphates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is pyrophosphate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Transition metal pyrophosphates
Direct Parent
Transition metal pyrophosphates
Alternative Parents
Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt / Transition metal pyrophosphate
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
QK8899250F
CAS number
10058-44-3
InChI Key
CADNYOZXMIKYPR-UHFFFAOYSA-B
InChI
InChI=1S/4Fe.3H4O7P2/c;;;;3*1-8(2,3)7-9(4,5)6/h;;;;3*(H2,1,2,3)(H2,4,5,6)/q4*+3;;;/p-12
IUPAC Name
tetrairon(3+) ion tri(phosphonatooxy)phosphonate
SMILES
[Fe+3].[Fe+3].[Fe+3].[Fe+3].[O-]P([O-])(=O)OP([O-])([O-])=O.[O-]P([O-])(=O)OP([O-])([O-])=O.[O-]P([O-])(=O)OP([O-])([O-])=O

References

General References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]
  2. Naigamwalla DZ, Webb JA, Giger U: Iron deficiency anemia. Can Vet J. 2012 Mar;53(3):250-6. [PubMed:22942439]
  3. Fidler MC, Walczyk T, Davidsson L, Zeder C, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Hurrell RF: A micronised, dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with high relative bioavailability in man. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jan;91(1):107-12. [PubMed:14748943]
  4. Pratt RD, Swinkels DW, Ikizler TA, Gupta A: Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate, a Novel Iron Salt, Administered Intravenously to Healthy Volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Mar;57(3):312-320. doi: 10.1002/jcph.819. Epub 2016 Oct 3. [PubMed:27557937]
  5. Underwood E. (1977). Trace elements in human and animal nutrition (4th ed.). Academic press.
  6. Pubchem [Link]
  7. Nippon [Link]
  8. KEGG [Link]
  9. FDA Reports [Link]
  10. Sunactive [Link]
PubChem Compound
24877
PubChem Substance
310265060
ChemSpider
23258
RxNav
1607976
ChEBI
132767
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Iron(III)_pyrophosphate
MSDS
Download (47 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnemia / Bowel Diseases, Inflammatory1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Failure Chronic Requiring Hemodialysis2
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
2CompletedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
1CompletedPreventionBacterial Infection Due to Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) / Healthy Volunteers / Non-anemic Children1
1CompletedTreatmentKidney Failure, Chronic Therapy; Hemodialysis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceIron Deficiency1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOral
KitOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US6779468No2004-08-242016-12-31US flag
US7816404No2010-10-192029-04-17US flag
US6689275No2004-02-102016-12-31US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)Decomposes'MSDS'
water solubilitySoluble after treatment with citric acid and sodium hydroxydeGupta, et al. (1999). Kidney International. Vol. 55
logP3.4'MSDS'
pKa22.2Gupta, et al. (1999). Kidney International. Vol. 55
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area135.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity21.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.03 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after oxidation. Also plays a ro...
Gene Name
FTL
Uniprot ID
P02792
Uniprot Name
Ferritin light chain
Molecular Weight
20019.49 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an...
Gene Name
HBB
Uniprot ID
P68871
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit beta
Molecular Weight
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]

Drug created on October 01, 2015 10:55 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:52

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