Identification

Name
Granisetron
Accession Number
DB00889
Description

A serotonin receptor (5HT-3 selective) antagonist that has been used as an antiemetic and antinauseant for cancer chemotherapy patients.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 312.417
Monoisotopic: 312.195011409
Chemical Formula
C18H24N4O
Synonyms
  • Granisétron
  • Granisetrón
  • Granisetron
  • Granisetronum
External IDs
  • APF-530
  • APF530
  • BRL 43694
  • BRL-43694

Pharmacology

Indication

For the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy (including high dose cisplatin), postoperation, and radiation (including total body irradiation and daily fractionated abdominal radiation).

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Granisetron is a selective inhibitor of type 3 serotonergic (5-HT3) receptors. Granisetron has little or no affinity for other serotonin receptors, including 5-HT 1 , 5-HT 1A , 5-HT 1B/C , or 5-HT 2 ; for alpha 1 -, alpha 2 -, or beta-adrenoreceptors; for dopamine D 2 receptors; for histamine H 1 receptors; for benzodiazepine receptors; for picrotoxin receptors; or for opioid receptors. In most human studies, granisetron has had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or electrocardiogram (ECG). The drug is structurally and pharmacologically related to ondansetron, another selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors. The serontonin 5-HT3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery, and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. The temporal relationship between the emetogenic action of emetogenic drugs and the release of serotonin, as well as the efficacy of antiemetic agents suggest that chemotherapeutic agents release serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine by causing degenerative changes in the GI tract. The serotonin then stimulates the vagal and splanchnic nerve receptors that project to the medullary vomiting center, as well as the 5-HT3 receptors in the area postrema, thus initiating the vomiting reflex, causing nausea and vomiting.

Mechanism of action

Granisetron is a potent, selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors. The antiemetic activity of the drug is brought about through the inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors present both centrally (medullary chemoreceptor zone) and peripherally (GI tract). This inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in turn inhibits the visceral afferent stimulation of the vomiting center, likely indirectly at the level of the area postrema, as well as through direct inhibition of serotonin activity within the area postrema and the chemoreceptor trigger zone.

TargetActionsOrganism
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Absorption of is rapid and complete, though oral bioavailability is reduced to about 60% as a result of first pass metabolism.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

65%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic; undergoes N -demethylation and aromatic ring oxidation followed by conjugation. Animal studies suggest that some of the metabolites may have 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist activity.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

The remainder of the dose is excreted as metabolites, 48% in the urine and 38% in the feces.

Half-life

4-6 hours in healthy patients, 9-12 hours in cancer patients

Clearance
  • 0.52 L/h/kg [Cancer Patients with 1 mg bid for 7 days]
  • 0.41 L/h/kg [Healthy subject with a single 1 mg dose]
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

LD50>2000 mg/kg (rat, oral)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Granisetron can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Granisetron is combined with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Granisetron is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Granisetron.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Granisetron is combined with Acetophenazine.
AclidiniumGranisetron may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Aclidinium.
AcrivastineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Acrivastine is combined with Granisetron.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Adenosine is combined with Granisetron.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Granisetron is combined with Agomelatine.
AjmalineThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Ajmaline is combined with Granisetron.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
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    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Granisetron hydrochloride318F6L70J8107007-99-8QYZRTBKYBJRGJB-WQTKJZBYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Kevatril / Sancuso / Sustol
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Granisetron Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Granisetron Hydrochloride InjectionLiquidIntravenousOmega Laboratories Ltd2009-05-14Not applicableCanada flag
Granisetron Hydrochloride InjectionLiquidIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-02-202019-08-01Canada flag
Granisetron Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2012-12-192019-08-01Canada flag
KytrilSolution2 mg/10mLOralRoche Pharmaceuticals2006-05-152006-05-15US flag
KytrilInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.1993-12-292008-07-31US flag
KytrilTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.1995-03-162011-09-14US flag
KytrilInjection, solution1 mg/4mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.1993-12-292011-11-30US flag
KytrilInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.1993-12-292010-07-31US flag
Kytril 1mg/1mlLiquidIntravenousHoffmann La Roche1996-12-312012-01-06Canada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-granisetronTabletOralApotex Corporation2009-02-20Not applicableCanada flag
GranisetronInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-11-20Not applicableUS flag
GranisetronInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousSandoz Inc.2008-06-302020-05-19US flag
GranisetronInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-11-202016-05-31US flag
GranisetronInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousSandoz Inc.2008-06-302020-05-19US flag
GranisetronInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-11-20Not applicableUS flag
Granisetron HydrochlorideInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousAuroMedics Pharma LLC2016-07-06Not applicableUS flag
Granisetron HydrochlorideInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousMylan Institutional2018-03-21Not applicableUS flag
Granisetron HydrochlorideTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralNorth Star Rx Llc2008-04-29Not applicableUS flag
Granisetron HydrochlorideInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2008-01-022012-02-29US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
A04AA02 — Granisetron
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indazole-3-carboxamides. These are aromatic compounds containing an indazole ring system that is substituted at the 3-position with a carboxamide group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzopyrazoles
Sub Class
Indazoles
Direct Parent
Indazole-3-carboxamides
Alternative Parents
Pyrazole-5-carboxamides / 2-heteroaryl carboxamides / Piperidines / Benzenoids / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
2-heteroaryl carboxamide / Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Benzenoid / Carboxamide group / Carboxylic acid derivative / Heteroaromatic compound
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, monocarboxylic acid amide, indazoles (CHEBI:5537)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
WZG3J2MCOL
CAS number
109889-09-0
InChI Key
MFWNKCLOYSRHCJ-BTTYYORXSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H24N4O/c1-21-13-6-5-7-14(21)11-12(10-13)19-18(23)17-15-8-3-4-9-16(15)22(2)20-17/h3-4,8-9,12-14H,5-7,10-11H2,1-2H3,(H,19,23)/t12-,13+,14-
IUPAC Name
1-methyl-N-[(1R,3r,5S)-9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-yl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
SMILES
CN1N=C(C(=O)N[[email protected]@H]2C[[email protected]@H]3CCC[[email protected]](C2)N3C)C2=C1C=CC=C2

References

Synthesis Reference

Neal Ward, David Alan Jones, Victor Witold Jacewicz, "Process for the preparation of granisetron." U.S. Patent US6268498, issued April, 1986.

US6268498
General References
  1. Gan TJ: Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: are they all the same? CNS Drugs. 2005;19(3):225-38. [PubMed:15740177]
  2. Tan M: Granisetron: new insights into its use for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;4(9):1563-71. [PubMed:12943486]
  3. Feyer P, Seegenschmiedt MH, Steingraeber M: Granisetron in the control of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a comparison with other antiemetic therapies. Support Care Cancer. 2005 Sep;13(9):671-8. Epub 2005 Jul 26. [PubMed:16044252]
KEGG Drug
D04370
KEGG Compound
C07023
PubChem Compound
5284566
PubChem Substance
46505137
ChemSpider
10482033
BindingDB
50443668
RxNav
26237
ChEBI
5537
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1290003
ZINC
ZINC000100018854
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000295
PharmGKB
PA449809
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
CWB
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Granisetron
AHFS Codes
  • 56:22.20 — 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists
PDB Entries
2yme / 6np0
FDA label
Download (77.3 KB)
MSDS
Download (51.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionGallstone formation1
4CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-induced Acute or Delayed Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1
4CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
4CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome / Temporomandibular Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentNausea, Postoperative1
4CompletedTreatmentNausea / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedTreatmentProlonged QT Interval1
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4RecruitingSupportive CareChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Strakan international ltd
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bedford laboratories
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Ebewe pharma
  • Sagent strides llc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt usa inc
  • App pharmaceuticals
  • Hikma farmaceutica (portugal) sa
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Cypress pharmaceutical inc
  • Apotex inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Cipla ltd
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Natco pharma ltd
  • Orchid healthcare
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
Packagers
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amerigen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Ascend Laboratories LLC
  • Aveva Drug Delivery Systems Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Cipla Ltd.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Cura Pharmaceutical Co. Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • F Hoffmann La Roche Ltd.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hikma Pharmaceuticals
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Northstar Rx LLC
  • Orchid Healthcare
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prostrakan Inc.
  • Roxane Labs
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionParenteral1 MG/ML
Tablet, film coatedOral2 MG
InjectionIntravenous3 mg/3ml
SolutionIntravenous1 mg
Injection3 mg/3ml
Tablet, film coatedOral
Solution, concentrateParenteral1 MG/ML
SolutionParenteral1 MG/1ML
SolutionParenteral3 MG/3ML
Tablet, film coatedOral1 MG
Injection, solution1 MG/ML
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral1 MG/ML
SolutionParenteral1 MG/ML
InjectionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1.12 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/4mL
SolutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous4 mg/4mL
TabletOral1 mg/1
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionParenteral1 MG/1ML
Solution
Injection, solutionParenteral3 MG/3ML
Tablet, coatedOral1 MG
Tablet, coatedOral2 MG
SolutionOral2 mg/10mL
SolutionIntravenous1 mg/ml
Injection, solutionIntramuscular3 MG/1ML
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous3 MG/5ML
Injection, solutionIntravenous3 MG/3ML
SolutionOral0.2 MG/ML
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg/1
Injection, solutionParenteral3 mg
TabletOral1 MG
TabletOral
SolutionParenteral3 mg
SolutionIntravenous3 mg/3ml
SolutionParenteral
PatchTransdermal3.1 MG
PatchTransdermal3.1 mg/24hr
PatchTransdermal3.1 mg/24h
InjectionIntravenous1 mg/ml
InjectionSubcutaneous10 mg/0.4mL
Injection
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Sancuso 3.1 mg/24 hr patch372.0USD patch
Kytril 2 1 mg tablet Box131.98USD box
Kytril 1 mg tablet62.94USD tablet
Granisetron hcl 1 mg tablet60.19USD tablet
Granisetron hcl 4 mg/4 ml vial24.0USD ml
Kytril 1 mg Tablet20.27USD tablet
Apo-Granisetron 1 mg Tablet14.14USD tablet
Kytril 0.1 mg/ml vial11.54USD ml
Granisetron hcl 0.1 mg/ml vial7.2USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2158354No2004-07-132014-03-15Canada flag
CA2100777No2003-08-192012-01-16Canada flag
US7608282No2009-10-272024-10-22US flag
US5952340No1999-09-142016-09-14US flag
US6613355No2003-09-022021-06-28US flag
US6790458No2004-09-142021-05-11US flag
US8715710No2014-05-062024-09-28US flag
US8252304No2012-08-282024-09-28US flag
US8252305No2012-08-282024-09-28US flag
US9913910No2018-03-132024-09-28US flag
US10357570No2019-07-232024-09-28US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On
    Available for Purchase

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)219 °C (HCl salt)Not Available
logP2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.434 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.64ALOGPS
logP1.88ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity101.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9947
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9515
Caco-2 permeable+0.5231
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5473
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6287
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7243
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5895
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6978
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8546
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9019
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8841
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9073
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8355
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6016
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5878
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8464
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9868
Rat acute toxicity2.3943 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9083
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5458
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Hillsley K, Grundy D: Plasticity in the mesenteric afferent response to cisplatin following vagotomy in the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1999 May 28;76(2-3):93-8. [PubMed:10412832]
  2. Turvill JL, Connor P, Farthing MJ: The inhibition of cholera toxin-induced 5-HT release by the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, granisetron, in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;130(5):1031-6. [PubMed:10882387]
  3. Cappelli A, Anzini M, Vomero S, Mennuni L, Makovec F, Doucet E, Hamon M, Menziani MC, De Benedetti PG, Giorgi G, Ghelardini C, Collina S: Novel potent 5-HT(3) receptor ligands based on the pyrrolidone structure: synthesis, biological evaluation, and computational rationalization of the ligand-receptor interaction modalities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Mar;10(3):779-801. [PubMed:11814868]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  5. Gan TJ: Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: are they all the same? CNS Drugs. 2005;19(3):225-38. [PubMed:15740177]
  6. Tan M: Granisetron: new insights into its use for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;4(9):1563-71. [PubMed:12943486]
  7. Ho KY, Gan TJ: Pharmacology, pharmacogenetics, and clinical efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006 Dec;19(6):606-11. [PubMed:17093363]
  8. Abdelsayed GG: Management of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Exp Hematol. 2007 Apr;35(4 Suppl 1):34-6. [PubMed:17379085]
  9. Feyer P, Seegenschmiedt MH, Steingraeber M: Granisetron in the control of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a comparison with other antiemetic therapies. Support Care Cancer. 2005 Sep;13(9):671-8. Epub 2005 Jul 26. [PubMed:16044252]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Tan M: Granisetron: new insights into its use for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;4(9):1563-71. [PubMed:12943486]
  2. Janicki PK: Cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Oct;11(10):RA322-8. Epub 2005 Sep 26. [PubMed:16192915]
  3. Nakamura H, Ariyoshi N, Okada K, Nakasa H, Nakazawa K, Kitada M: CYP1A1 is a major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of granisetron in human liver microsomes. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Oct;6(5):469-80. [PubMed:16248838]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Nakamura H, Ariyoshi N, Okada K, Nakasa H, Nakazawa K, Kitada M: CYP1A1 is a major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of granisetron in human liver microsomes. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Oct;6(5):469-80. [PubMed:16248838]
  2. Bustos ML, Zhao Y, Chen H, Caritis SN, Venkataramanan R: Polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 Genes Contribute to the Variability in Granisetron Clearance and Exposure in Pregnant Women with Nausea and Vomiting. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Dec;36(12):1238-1244. doi: 10.1002/phar.1860. Epub 2016 Dec 5. [PubMed:27809336]
  3. Lang D, Radtke M, Bairlein M: Highly Variable Expression of CYP1A1 in Human Liver and Impact on Pharmacokinetics of Riociguat and Granisetron in Humans. Chem Res Toxicol. 2019 Jun 17;32(6):1115-1122. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00413. Epub 2019 Apr 16. [PubMed:30950278]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 29, 2020 19:26

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