Identification

Name
Ginkgo biloba
Accession Number
DB01381
Description

Ginkgo biloba extract contains a group of terpene lactones (notably, ginkgolides and diterpenes) and ginkgo flavone glycosides (notably, ginkgetin, bilobetin, and sciadopitysin) that have antioxidant and vasoactive properties.3 Most of the studies that investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba use the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) 761 (EGb761), which was developed by a German pharmaceutical company in 1964.6 EGb761 contains 6% terpene lactones and 24% flavonoid glycosides.2 Flavonoids include quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. Lactones include ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, bilobalide, and ginkgotoxin, a lactone that is structurally related to pyridoxine.10 Ginkgo biloba is an herbal plant that is now cultivated worldwide. It is originally native to China, and ginkgo biloba extract has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.3

After its nootropic properties were discovered, ginkgo biloba has gained attention as a therapeutic ingredient for memory and concentration enhancement in cognitive impairment and neurogenerative diseases, such as dementia.7 Ginkgo biloba was investigated in preliminary studies for a variety of therapeutic purposes such as improving cardiovascular health, sexual dysfunction, psychiatric disorders, skin disorders, and glaucoma. Ginkgo biloba is found in a number of homeopathic and over-the-counter herbal products and dietary supplements, but it has no approved therapeutic indications by regulatory bodies, such as the FDA, EMA, and Health Canada.2 Ginkgo folium, the leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba, is considered an anti-dementia drug by the World Health Organization.3

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Synonyms
  • Common ginkgo leaf
  • Ginkgo
  • Ginkgo biloba extract
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf dry extract
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf tincture
  • Ginkgo extract
  • Ginkgo folium
  • Ginkgo leaf
  • Ginkgo macrophylla leaf
  • Maidenhair extract
  • Maidenhair tree leaf
  • Pterophyllus salisburiensis leaf
  • Salisburia adiantifolia leaf
  • Salisburia biloba leaf
  • Salisburia ginkgo leaf
  • Salisburia macrophylla leaf
  • Tanakan
  • Yinxingye
External IDs
  • B1260
  • EGB 761
  • EGB-761

Pharmacology

Pharmacology
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Indication

Ginkgo biloba does not currently have any approved therapeutic indications, and there is insufficient evidence to support its unapproved use.2 It is available in over-the-counter herbal products mostly for oral use, to improve memory and cognitive problems.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Ginkgo biloba is a herbal ingredient with demonstrated antioxidant, vasoactive, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and fibrinolytic properties.3,5 Ginkgo biloba has been investigated for use in a variety of medical conditions, but the most extensively studied area is in the context of cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. Ginkgo biloba was examined as a potential nootropic agent or cognitive enhancer but research findings supporting the therapeutic efficacy of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) in dementia remain controversial. Some clinical studies of dementia that were up to one year long showed that EGb improves the cognitive performance and social functioning of patients. However, other studies did not support its clinical benefit for patients with cognitive impairment and dementia. Numerous meta-analysis studies showed insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of EGb in reducing both all-cause dementia incidence and Alzheimer's disease-associated dementia incidence in elderly patients with normal cognition or with mild cognitive impairment. Additionally, there is no up-to-date evidence that demonstrates the benefit of the long-term use of standardized EGb in reducing the risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease. A 2012 meta-analysis did not support the use of EGb in enhancing cognitive function in healthy adults.2

In the context of cardiovascular diseases, a limited number of studies showed that EGb improved mortality or neurological recovery in the post-stroke period, reduced cognitive and neurological impairment after acute ischemic stroke, and improved blood flow in the coronary artery in patients with coronary artery disease. However, a systemic review found no statistical or clinically significant benefit of EGb for patients with peripheral arterial disease or hypertension. Overall, there is a lack of strong evidence in the use of EGb for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.2

In a small trial, the use of EGb as an adjunctive treatment with citalopram improved depressive symptoms and cognitive function in patients with depression.2 Ginkgo biloba was also investigated as a potential treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction.1 Another study showed EGb improving the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. There is insufficient evidence to prove the effectiveness of EGb in these psychiatric disorders. Limited studies have investigated the role of ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo, tinnitus, vitiligo, macular degeneration, and glaucoma, as well as the prevention of acute mountain sickness. As results are either preliminary or controversial, more quality research is warranted.2

Mechanism of action

Two key active ingredients in ginkgo biloba are terpene lactones (notably ginkgolides and diterpenes) and ginkgo flavone glycosides (notably ginkgetin, bilobetin, and sciadopitysin), which are present at varying concentrations. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 is the standardized extract of ginkgo biloba used in studies, which contains 6% terpenoids and 24% flavonoid glycosides. Animal studies have shown that ginkgo biloba works on several neurotransmitter pathways and brain structures. Flavones were shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation; inhibit the uptake of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine; and inhibit platelet aggregation.6 Terpene lactones may also act as potent antagonists of the platelet-activating factor and may possess anti-ischemic and fibrinolytic effects.2 They were also shown to downregulate adrenal peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and increase adrenocorticotropic hormone levels.6 Ginkgo biloba also reversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase A; and modestly inhibits anticholinesterase activity,2,3 leading to enhanced cholinergic transmission in the brain.4

Several studies suggest that ginkgo biloba exerts neuroprotective effects by reducing free radical production in the prefrontal cortex, which may explain its improvement on short-term memory. Ginkgo biloba extract acts as a free radical scavenger, protecting neurons from oxidative damage and apoptosis related to aging, cerebral ischemia, and neurodegenerative disorders.2 Ginkgo biloba also inhibits amyloid-β neurotoxicity and protects against hypoxic challenges and increased oxidative stress.3 One study showed that bilobalide, a terpene lactone, delays the onset of hypoxic glycolysis.6 Ginkgo biloba has the potential to regulate metabolism, stabilize the membrane, and promote vasodilation. In the arterial endothelium, EGb stimulated the release of endogenous relaxing factors, such as endothelium-derived relaxing factor and prostacyclin. In the inflammatory environment that causes tissue damage, EGb promoted nitric oxide production, leading to enhanced peripheral and cerebral blood flow.2

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Humans
UPhospholipase A2, membrane associated
inhibitor
Humans
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
antagonist
Humans
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
negative modulator
Humans
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
negative modulator
Humans
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
negative modulator
Humans
UAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
inhibitor
Humans
UNitric oxide synthase, inducible
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Studies assessed the pharmacokinetic parameters of terpene lactones, the main component of ginkgo biloba. Following oral administration of ginkgo biloba solution, the mean absolute bioavailability was 80% for ginkgolide A, 88% for ginkgolide B and 79% for biloalide.11 In an early rat study, about 60% of radiolabeled EGb 761 was absorbed with a Tmax of 1.5 hours. The highest amount of radioactivity was measured in the stomach and small intestine.8

In another study, after a single oral dose of 120 mg EGb 761 in healthy volunteers, Cmax was 22.22 ± 4.57 ng/mL for ginkgolide A, 8.27 ± 1.82 ng/mL for ginkgolide B, and 54.42 ± 13.62 ng/mL for biloalide. AUC0-∞ was 121.35 ± 22.92 ng × h/mL for ginkgolide A, 59.88 ± 11.39 ng × h/mL for ginkgolide B, and 217.24 ± 44.07 ng × h/mL for biloalide. Tmax ranged from 1.17 to 1.54 hours for those three compounds.11

Volume of distribution

No data available.

Protein binding

No data available.

Metabolism

In earlier studies, detectable urinary metabolites in healthy volunteers who ingested EGb were various benzoic acids, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid conjugate, 4-hydroxyhippuric acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyhippuric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hippuric acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid).10

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Route of elimination

At 72 hours following oral administration in rats, about 38% of the ginkgo biloba extract was excreted via expiration, 22% was excreted in urine, and 29% was excreted in feces. About 70% of ginkgolides A, 50% of ginkgolides B, and 30% of bilobalide were excreted unchanged in the urine.8

Half-life

Unpublished human data reports that after oral administration of 80 mg EGb 761, the half-life was four hours for ginkgolides A and six hours for ginkgolides B. The half-life of bilobalide was three hours after administration of 120 mg EGb 761 extract.8

Clearance

No data available.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 of standardized extract in mice is 7730 mg/kg, which corresponds to 2300 mg/kg of active ingredients, 1900 mg/kg of flavone glycosides, and 464 mg/kg of terpene lactones. Intravenous LD50 is 1100 mg/kg.8

No case of overdose has been reported so far.11 Cyanogenic glycosides found in raw ginkgo seeds are potentially toxic compounds; thus, contact or ingestion of ginkgo seeds can lead to serious reactions such as allergic skin reaction, including acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and convulsions. Ginkgo toxicity can manifest as bleeding, seizure, and serotonin syndrome. As there is no known antidote for ginkgo toxicity, treatment includes discontinuation of ginkgo and symptomatic and supportive care.2 Seizures may be attributed to ginkgotoxin, which can cause seizures at high doses.12

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbciximabGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
AbemaciclibThe metabolism of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Acalabrutinib can be decreased when combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AcebutololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetohexamideThe metabolism of Acetohexamide can be decreased when combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acetylcholine.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AclidiniumGinkgo biloba may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Aclidinium.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Ginkgo biloba.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. Food insignificantly decreases the rate of absorption.

Products

Products
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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dr Circu OneTablet24 g/100gOralHLscience Co Ltd2015-09-232018-02-12US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
DOMINGO 10/10/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 30 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (10 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (10 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 10/10/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 90 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (10 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (10 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 10/20/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 30 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (10 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (20 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 10/20/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 90 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (10 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (20 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 5/10/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 30 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (5 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (10 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 5/10/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 90 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (5 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (10 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 5/20/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 30 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (5 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (20 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 5/20/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 90 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (5 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (20 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 5/5/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 30 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (5 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (5 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
DOMINGO 5/5/80 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 90 ADETGinkgo biloba (80 mg) + Donepezil hydrochloride (5 mg) + Memantine hydrochloride (5 mg)Tablet, effervescentNEUTEC İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dr Circu OneGinkgo biloba (24 g/100g)TabletOralHLscience Co Ltd2015-09-232018-02-12US flag
EdgeGinkgo biloba (.124 mg/1g) + Eleuthero (.124 mg/1g) + Epimedium grandiflorum top (.012 mg/1g) + Erythroxylum catuaba bark (.025 mg/1g) + Gambir (2 mg/1g) + Mucuna pruriens seed (.025 mg/1g) + Panax notoginseng root (.018 mg/1g) + Tribulus terrestris fruit (.124 mg/1g) + Turnera diffusa leaf (.124 mg/1g)GelTopicalAloe Vera Industries Pty Ltd2015-04-01Not applicableUS flag
EdgeGinkgo biloba (.124 mg/1g) + Eleuthero (.124 mg/1g) + Epimedium grandiflorum top (.012 mg/1g) + Erythroxylum catuaba bark (.025 mg/1g) + Gambir (2 mg/1g) + Mucuna pruriens seed (.025 mg/1g) + Panax notoginseng root (.018 mg/1g) + Tribulus terrestris fruit (.124 mg/1g) + Turnera diffusa leaf (.124 mg/1g)GelTopicalSensuous Pty Ltd2015-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Elas gelGinkgo biloba (70 mg/50g) + Troxerutin (1500 mg/50g)LotionTopicalCho-A Pharm.Co.,Ltd.2019-03-23Not applicableUS flag
Elas gelGinkgo biloba (140 mg/100g) + Troxerutin (3000 mg/100g)LotionTopicalCho-A Pharm.Co.,Ltd.2017-02-28Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin BeautyGinkgo biloba (150 mg/2000mg) + Hyaluronic acid (60 mg/2000mg) + N-Acetylglucosamine (200 mg/2000mg) + Panax ginseng whole (150 mg/2000mg)GranuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin EnergyGinkgo biloba (160 mg/20g) + Ascorbic acid (1000 mg/20g) + Creatine (10000 mg/20g) + Panax ginseng whole (200 mg/20g) + Taurine (1000 mg/20g)LiquidOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin Health ginsamin healthGinkgo biloba (90 mg/300mg) + Panax ginseng whole (75 mg/300mg)CapsuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin MemoryGinkgo biloba (100.2 mg/1) + Panax ginseng whole (75 mg/1)CapsuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-06Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin PowerGinkgo biloba (80.4 mg/1) + Octacosanol (3 mg/1) + Panax ginseng whole (118.2 mg/1) + Zinc (5.4 mg/1)TabletOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N06DX02 — Ginkgo foliumN06DA53 — Donepezil, memantine and ginkgo folium
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
19FUJ2C58T
CAS number
90045-36-6

References

Synthesis Reference

Klaus-Peter Schwabe, "Method of preparation of an extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves and pharmaceuticals containing the extract." U.S. Patent US5322688, issued July, 1989.

US5322688
General References
  1. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B: Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. [PubMed:9611693]
  2. Nguyen T, Alzahrani T: Ginkgo Biloba . [PubMed:31082068]
  3. Brondino N, De Silvestri A, Re S, Lanati N, Thiemann P, Verna A, Emanuele E, Politi P: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:915691. doi: 10.1155/2013/915691. Epub 2013 May 28. [PubMed:23781271]
  4. Silberstein RB, Pipingas A, Song J, Camfield DA, Nathan PJ, Stough C: Examining brain-cognition effects of ginkgo biloba extract: brain activation in the left temporal and left prefrontal cortex in an object working memory task. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:164139. doi: 10.1155/2011/164139. Epub 2011 Aug 18. [PubMed:21941584]
  5. Diamond BJ, Bailey MR: Ginkgo biloba: indications, mechanisms, and safety. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;36(1):73-83. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2012.12.006. [PubMed:23538078]
  6. Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Feiwel N, Matheis RJ, Noskin O, Richards JA, Schoenberger NE: Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 May;81(5):668-78. doi: 10.1016/s0003-9993(00)90052-2. [PubMed:10807109]
  7. Field BH, Vadnal R: Ginkgo biloba and Memory: An Overview. Nutr Neurosci. 1998;1(4):255-67. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.1998.11747236. [PubMed:27414695]
  8. National Toxicology Program: Ginkgo Biloba Extract Nomination Background [Link]
  9. European Medicines Agency: Ginkgo biloba L., folium Monograph [Link]
  10. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Ginkgo biloba Monograph [Link]
  11. European Medicines Agency: Assessment report on Ginkgo biloba L., folium [Link]
  12. Natural Medicines: Ginkgo [Link]
PubChem Substance
46508832
RxNav
236809
PharmGKB
PA449758
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ginkgo_biloba
MSDS
Download (72.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Cognition Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Insufficiency / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentHerbal Medicine Allergy / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentMemory Disorders, Age-Related / Retention Disorders, Cognitive1
4CompletedTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStable Angina Pectoris Associated With Depression1
4RecruitingTreatmentGinkgo Biloba Extract / Randomized Controlled Trials1
4RecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Sudden hearing loss1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease (CAD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Chain Drug
  • General Nutrition Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Mericon
  • Pharmavite
  • Rite Aid Corp.
  • Sunmark
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution / drops
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, effervescent
TabletOral24 g/100g
GelTopical
LotionTopical
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Capsule, coatedOral
CapsuleOral40 mg
CapsuleOral120 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral
GranuleOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
SolutionOral
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral120 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral120 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.24USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Sm ginkgo biloba 60 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Ginkgo 60 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Ra ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.11USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 60 mg capsule0.1USD capsule
Ginkgo biloba 50 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 30 mg capsule0.04USD capsule
Pv ginkgo biloba capsule0.03USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.02.012. Epub 2009 Mar 21. [PubMed:19427589]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-ph...
Gene Name
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID
P14555
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
Molecular Weight
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Kim HK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by ginkgetin, a biflavone from ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med. 1999 Jun;65(5):465-7. [PubMed:10418340]
  2. Weichel O, Hilgert M, Chatterjee SS, Lehr M, Klein J: Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;360(6):609-15. [PubMed:10619176]
  3. Lim H, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Effects of anti-inflammatory biflavonoid, ginkgetin, on chronic skin inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):1046-9. [PubMed:16651744]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heads JA, Hawthorne RL, Lynagh T, Lynch JW: Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(4):1418-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05244.x. Epub 2008 Jan 21. [PubMed:18221374]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Brondino N, De Silvestri A, Re S, Lanati N, Thiemann P, Verna A, Emanuele E, Politi P: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:915691. doi: 10.1155/2013/915691. Epub 2013 May 28. [PubMed:23781271]
  2. Nguyen T, Alzahrani T: Ginkgo Biloba . [PubMed:31082068]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
References
  1. Cheung F, Siow YL, Chen WZ, O K: Inhibitory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 15;58(10):1665-73. doi: 10.1016/s0006-2952(99)00255-5. [PubMed:10535759]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
The effect of Ginkgo on CYP2C9 is unclear and some in vitro studies do not appear to be clinically relevant.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Yale SH, Glurich I: Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):433-9. [PubMed:15992226]
  2. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Luo Y, Perloff ES, Horan KA, Bruce A, Reynolds RC, Harmatz JS, Avula B, Khan IA, Goldman P: Ginkgo biloba does not alter clearance of flurbiprofen, a cytochrome P450-2C9 substrate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):214-21. [PubMed:16432273]
  3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Ginkgo biloba Monograph [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
Curator comments
The effect of Ginkgo on CYP3A4 is unclear and some in vitro studies do not appear to be clinically relevant.
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. European Medicines Agency: Assessment report on Ginkgo biloba L., folium [Link]
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Ginkgo biloba Monograph [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Flavonol aglycones, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 in vitro.
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. European Medicines Agency: Assessment report on Ginkgo biloba L., folium [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Flavonol aglycones, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 in vitro.
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. European Medicines Agency: Assessment report on Ginkgo biloba L., folium [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Flavonol aglycones, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 in vitro.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. European Medicines Agency: Assessment report on Ginkgo biloba L., folium [Link]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 20:33 / Updated on April 03, 2021 08:04