Identification

Name
Ginkgo biloba
Accession Number
DB01381
Description

The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically for hundreds of years. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. Ginkgo extract seems to have three effects on the human body: it improves blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs; it protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals; and it blocks many of the effects of PAF (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders.

Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Synonyms
  • Common ginkgo leaf
  • Ginkgo
  • Ginkgo biloba extract
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf dry extract
  • Ginkgo biloba leaf tincture
  • Ginkgo extract
  • Ginkgo folium
  • Ginkgo leaf
  • Ginkgo macrophylla leaf
  • Maidenhair extract
  • Maidenhair tree leaf
  • Pterophyllus salisburiensis leaf
  • Salisburia adiantifolia leaf
  • Salisburia biloba leaf
  • Salisburia ginkgo leaf
  • Salisburia macrophylla leaf
  • Tanakan
  • Yinxingye
External IDs
  • B1260
  • EGB 761
  • EGB-761

Pharmacology

Indication

Appears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged people; improving symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia; improving damage to the visual field in patients with normal tension glaucoma; decreasing the number of painful attacks in patients with Raynaud's syndrome; and may improve symptoms of vertigo and dizziness in some patients.

Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

The mechanism by which ginkgo biloba is thought to be effective for these conditions appears to be in part through active "ginkgolides" terpenoids and flavinoids that appear to inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil degranulation, and the induction of oxygen-free radical production

Mechanism of action

The compounds found in ginkgo may have a protective role in different stages of the decline of intellectual function via several mechanisms of action: vasoregulating activity of arteries, capillaries, and veins (increased blood flow); platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonism; homeostasis of inflammation and oxidative stress; and prevention of cell membrane damage causedby free radicals; and neurotransmission modulation. The most important substances are flavonoids (ginkgo flavone glycosides) and terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalide).The compounds inginkgo act to varying degrees as scavengers for free radicals.

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Humans
UPhospholipase A2, membrane associated
inhibitor
Humans
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
antagonist
Humans
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
negative modulator
Humans
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
negative modulator
Humans
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
negative modulator
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

Fresh seeds are toxic and may cause death. Roasted seed and crude ginkgo plant should not be used orally. Consumption of greater than 10 roasted seeds may cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts have been used safely in trials lasting several weeks to six years; however, cases of spontaneous hemorrhages have been reported with the conventional use of the standardized extract. As with all medications, individual risk factors must be considered in the assessment of safety of this medication. This medication is well-tolerated at standard oral doses. Ginkgo biloba may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, lack of muscle tone and weakness.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbciximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Abciximab can be increased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
AcebutololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acenocoumarol can be increased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
AcetohexamideThe metabolism of Acetohexamide can be decreased when combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acetylcholine.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
AclidiniumGinkgo biloba may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Aclidinium.
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Ginkgo biloba.
AlteplaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Alteplase can be increased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
AmantadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amantadine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dr Circu OneTablet24 g/100gOralHLscience Co Ltd2015-09-232018-02-12US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
EdgeGinkgo biloba (.124 mg/1g) + Eleuthero (.124 mg/1g) + Epimedium grandiflorum top (.012 mg/1g) + Erythroxylum catuaba bark (.025 mg/1g) + Gambir (2 mg/1g) + Mucuna pruriens seed (.025 mg/1g) + Panax notoginseng root (.018 mg/1g) + Tribulus terrestris fruit (.124 mg/1g) + Turnera diffusa leaf (.124 mg/1g)GelTopicalAloe Vera Industries Pty Ltd2015-04-01Not applicableUS flag
EdgeGinkgo biloba (.124 mg/1g) + Eleuthero (.124 mg/1g) + Epimedium grandiflorum top (.012 mg/1g) + Erythroxylum catuaba bark (.025 mg/1g) + Gambir (2 mg/1g) + Mucuna pruriens seed (.025 mg/1g) + Panax notoginseng root (.018 mg/1g) + Tribulus terrestris fruit (.124 mg/1g) + Turnera diffusa leaf (.124 mg/1g)GelTopicalSensuous Pty Ltd2015-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Elas gelGinkgo biloba (70 mg/50g) + Troxerutin (1500 mg/50g)LotionTopicalCho-A Pharm.Co.,Ltd.2019-03-23Not applicableUS flag
Elas gelGinkgo biloba (140 mg/100g) + Troxerutin (3000 mg/100g)LotionTopicalCho-A Pharm.Co.,Ltd.2017-02-28Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin BeautyGinkgo biloba (150 mg/2000mg) + Hyaluronic acid (60 mg/2000mg) + N-Acetylglucosamine (200 mg/2000mg) + Panax ginseng whole (150 mg/2000mg)GranuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin EnergyGinkgo biloba (160 mg/20g) + Ascorbic acid (1000 mg/20g) + Creatine (10000 mg/20g) + Panax ginseng whole (200 mg/20g) + Taurine (1000 mg/20g)LiquidOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin Health ginsamin healthGinkgo biloba (90 mg/300mg) + Panax ginseng whole (75 mg/300mg)CapsuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin MemoryGinkgo biloba (100.2 mg/1) + Panax ginseng whole (75 mg/1)CapsuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-06Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin PowerGinkgo biloba (80.4 mg/1) + Octacosanol (3 mg/1) + Panax ginseng whole (118.2 mg/1) + Zinc (5.4 mg/1)TabletOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dr Circu OneGinkgo biloba (24 g/100g)TabletOralHLscience Co Ltd2015-09-232018-02-12US flag
EdgeGinkgo biloba (.124 mg/1g) + Eleuthero (.124 mg/1g) + Epimedium grandiflorum top (.012 mg/1g) + Erythroxylum catuaba bark (.025 mg/1g) + Gambir (2 mg/1g) + Mucuna pruriens seed (.025 mg/1g) + Panax notoginseng root (.018 mg/1g) + Tribulus terrestris fruit (.124 mg/1g) + Turnera diffusa leaf (.124 mg/1g)GelTopicalAloe Vera Industries Pty Ltd2015-04-01Not applicableUS flag
EdgeGinkgo biloba (.124 mg/1g) + Eleuthero (.124 mg/1g) + Epimedium grandiflorum top (.012 mg/1g) + Erythroxylum catuaba bark (.025 mg/1g) + Gambir (2 mg/1g) + Mucuna pruriens seed (.025 mg/1g) + Panax notoginseng root (.018 mg/1g) + Tribulus terrestris fruit (.124 mg/1g) + Turnera diffusa leaf (.124 mg/1g)GelTopicalSensuous Pty Ltd2015-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Elas gelGinkgo biloba (140 mg/100g) + Troxerutin (3000 mg/100g)LotionTopicalCho-A Pharm.Co.,Ltd.2017-02-28Not applicableUS flag
Elas gelGinkgo biloba (70 mg/50g) + Troxerutin (1500 mg/50g)LotionTopicalCho-A Pharm.Co.,Ltd.2019-03-23Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin BeautyGinkgo biloba (150 mg/2000mg) + Hyaluronic acid (60 mg/2000mg) + N-Acetylglucosamine (200 mg/2000mg) + Panax ginseng whole (150 mg/2000mg)GranuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin EnergyGinkgo biloba (160 mg/20g) + Ascorbic acid (1000 mg/20g) + Creatine (10000 mg/20g) + Panax ginseng whole (200 mg/20g) + Taurine (1000 mg/20g)LiquidOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin Health ginsamin healthGinkgo biloba (90 mg/300mg) + Panax ginseng whole (75 mg/300mg)CapsuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin MemoryGinkgo biloba (100.2 mg/1) + Panax ginseng whole (75 mg/1)CapsuleOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-06Not applicableUS flag
Ginsamin PowerGinkgo biloba (80.4 mg/1) + Octacosanol (3 mg/1) + Panax ginseng whole (118.2 mg/1) + Zinc (5.4 mg/1)TabletOralBiogrand Co., Ltd2010-03-07Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N06DX02 — Ginkgo foliumN06DA53 — Donepezil, memantine and ginkgo folium
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
19FUJ2C58T
CAS number
90045-36-6

References

Synthesis Reference

Klaus-Peter Schwabe, "Method of preparation of an extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves and pharmaceuticals containing the extract." U.S. Patent US5322688, issued July, 1989.

US5322688
General References
  1. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B: Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. [PubMed:9611693]
PubChem Substance
46508832
RxNav
236809
PharmGKB
PA449758
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ginkgo_biloba
MSDS
Download (72.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Cognition Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Insufficiency / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentHerbal Medicine Allergy / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentMemory Disorders, Age-Related / Retention Disorders, Cognitive1
4CompletedTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStable Angina Pectoris Associated With Depression1
4RecruitingTreatmentGinkgo Biloba Extract / Randomized Controlled Trials1
4RecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Sudden hearing loss1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease (CAD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Chain Drug
  • General Nutrition Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Mericon
  • Pharmavite
  • Rite Aid Corp.
  • Sunmark
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution / drops20 ml
Solution / drops50 ml
TabletOral80 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral120 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral240 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral40 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral80 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg/1
Tablet, effervescent10 mg
Tablet, effervescent5 mg
TabletOral24 g/100g
GelTopical
LotionTopical
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, film coated80 mg
CapsuleOral120 MG
CapsuleOral40 MG
Capsule40 mg
TabletOral40 mg
Capsule120 mg
SolutionOral40 MG
Capsule14 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral10 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral5 mg
GranuleOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
SolutionOral80 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral20 mg
Tablet, coatedOral120 mg
SolutionOral
Tablet, coatedOral40 mg
TabletOral120 mg
Tablet, film coated40 mg
Solution / drops40 mg/ml
Tablet120 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.24USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Sm ginkgo biloba 60 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Ginkgo 60 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Ra ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.11USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 60 mg capsule0.1USD capsule
Ginkgo biloba 50 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 30 mg capsule0.04USD capsule
Pv ginkgo biloba capsule0.03USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.02.012. Epub 2009 Mar 21. [PubMed:19427589]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-ph...
Gene Name
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID
P14555
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
Molecular Weight
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Kim HK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by ginkgetin, a biflavone from ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med. 1999 Jun;65(5):465-7. [PubMed:10418340]
  2. Weichel O, Hilgert M, Chatterjee SS, Lehr M, Klein J: Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;360(6):609-15. [PubMed:10619176]
  3. Lim H, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Effects of anti-inflammatory biflavonoid, ginkgetin, on chronic skin inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):1046-9. [PubMed:16651744]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heads JA, Hawthorne RL, Lynagh T, Lynch JW: Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(4):1418-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05244.x. Epub 2008 Jan 21. [PubMed:18221374]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Yale SH, Glurich I: Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):433-9. [PubMed:15992226]
  2. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Luo Y, Perloff ES, Horan KA, Bruce A, Reynolds RC, Harmatz JS, Avula B, Khan IA, Goldman P: Ginkgo biloba does not alter clearance of flurbiprofen, a cytochrome P450-2C9 substrate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):214-21. [PubMed:16432273]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. EMA assessment, gingko biloba [Link]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:33 / Updated on June 12, 2020 11:41

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