Identification

Name
Erlotinib
Accession Number
DB00530
Description

Erlotinib is an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase that is used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. It is typically marketed under the trade name Tarceva. Erlotinib binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase in a reversible fashion at the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site of the receptor. Recent studies demonstrate that erlotinib is also a potent inhibitor of JAK2V617F, which is a mutant form of tyrosine kinase JAK2 found in most patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and a substantial proportion of patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis or essential thrombocythemia. This finding introduces the potential use of erlotinib in the treatment of JAK2V617F-positive PV and other myeloproliferative disorders.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 393.4357
Monoisotopic: 393.168856239
Chemical Formula
C22H23N3O4
Synonyms
  • [6,7-Bis-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-quinazolin-4-yl]-(3-ethynyl-phenyl)-amine
  • Erlotinib
External IDs
  • CP-358,774
  • CP-358774
  • CP-35877401
  • CP358774
  • R-1415
  • RG-1415

Pharmacology

Indication

Erlotinib is indicated for:

  • The treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with tumors showing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutations Label.

  • In combination with first-line treatment for patients diagnosed with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer Label.

The safety and efficacy of erlotinib have not been established for patients with NSCLC whose tumors show other EGFR mutations. Additionally it is not recommended for use in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy. Label

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

The mechanism of clinical antitumor action of erlotinib is not fully characterized. Erlotinib inhibits the intracellular phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Specificity of inhibition with regard to other tyrosine kinase receptors has not been fully characterized. EGFR is expressed on the cell surface of normal cells and cancer cells.

TargetActionsOrganism
AEpidermal growth factor receptor
antagonist
Humans
ANuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Erlotinib is about 60% absorbed after oral administration and its bioavailability is substantially increased by food to almost 100%. Peak plasma levels occur 4 hours after dosing. The solubility of erlotinib is pH dependent. Solubility decreases pH increases. Smoking also decrease the exposure of erlotinib.

Volume of distribution

Apparent volume of distribution = 232 L

Protein binding

93% protein bound to albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG)

Metabolism

Metabolism occurs in the liver. In vitro assays of cytochrome P450 metabolism showed that erlotinib is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2, and the extrahepatic isoform CYP1A1.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Following a 100 mg oral dose, 91% of the dose was recovered in which 83% was in feces (1% of the dose as unchanged parent compound) and 8% in urine (0.3% of the dose as unchanged parent compound).

Half-life

Median half-life of 36.2 hours.

Clearance

Smokers have a 24% higher rate of erlotinib clearance.

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include diarrhea, rash, and liver transaminase elevation. The most common adverse reactions (>50%) in NSCLC are rash, diarrhea, anorexia and fatigue. The most common adverse reactions (>50%) in pancreatic cancer are fatigue, rash, nausea and anorexia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Erlotinib Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Epidermal growth factor receptorG719A/C(T;T) / (G;T) / (A;A) / (A;G) / (C;C) / (C;G)G > A or C or TEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in EGFR is associated with a higher response rate to erlotinib.Details
Epidermal growth factor receptorL861Q(A;A) / (A;T) / (G;G) / (G;T)T > A or GEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in EGFR is associated with a higher response rate to erlotinib.Details
Epidermal growth factor receptorL858R(G;G) / (G;T)T > GEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in EGFR is associated with a higher response rate to erlotinib.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirThe metabolism of Abacavir can be decreased when combined with Erlotinib.
AbaloparatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Abaloparatide can be decreased when used in combination with Erlotinib.
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Erlotinib can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbemaciclibErlotinib may decrease the excretion rate of Abemaciclib which could result in a higher serum level.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Erlotinib can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcebutololThe metabolism of Erlotinib can be decreased when combined with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe serum concentration of Acenocoumarol can be increased when it is combined with Erlotinib.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Exercise caution with grapefruit products. Grapefruit inhibits CYP3A4 metabolism, which may increase the serum concentration of erlotinib.
  • Exercise caution with St. John's Wort. This herb induces CYP3A4 metabolism, which may reduce the serum concentration of erlotinib.
  • Take on an empty stomach. Food increases erlotinib bioavailability, therefore administer at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Erlotinib hydrochlorideDA87705X9K183319-69-9GTTBEUCJPZQMDZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
TarcevaTablet, film coated25 mgOralRoche Registration Gmb H2005-09-19Not applicableEU flag
TarcevaTablet25 mgOralHoffmann La Roche2007-01-05Not applicableCanada flag
TarcevaTablet100 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.2005-04-30Not applicableUS flag
TarcevaTablet100 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-11-21Not applicableUS flag
TarcevaTablet, film coated150 mgOralRoche Registration Gmb H2005-09-19Not applicableEU flag
TarcevaTablet150 mgOralHoffmann La Roche2005-07-19Not applicableCanada flag
TarcevaTablet100 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-04-012017-05-24US flag
TarcevaTablet25 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.2005-04-30Not applicableUS flag
TarcevaTablet, film coated100 mgOralRoche Registration Gmb H2005-09-19Not applicableEU flag
TarcevaTablet100 mgOralHoffmann La Roche2005-07-19Not applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Apo-erlotinibTabletOralApotex Corporation2017-08-22Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-erlotinibTabletOralApotex Corporation2017-08-22Not applicableCanada flag
Apo-erlotinibTabletOralApotex Corporation2017-08-22Not applicableCanada flag
ErlotinibTablet, film coated25 mg/1OralAreva Pharmaceuticals2020-05-01Not applicableUS flag
ErlotinibTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.2019-05-09Not applicableUS flag
ErlotinibTablet, film coated150 mg/1OralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2019-11-05Not applicableUS flag
ErlotinibTablet100 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2020-04-30Not applicableUS flag
ErlotinibTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralCadila Healthcare Limited2020-04-30Not applicableUS flag
ErlotinibTablet, film coated150 mg/1OralArmas Pharmaceuticals Inc.2019-11-06Not applicableUS flag
ErlotinibTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2019-11-05Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L01XE03 — Erlotinib
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinazolinamines. These are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing a quianazoline moiety substituted by one or more amine groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazanaphthalenes
Sub Class
Benzodiazines
Direct Parent
Quinazolinamines
Alternative Parents
Aniline and substituted anilines / Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Alkyl aryl ethers / Imidolactams / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary amines / Dialkyl ethers / Azacyclic compounds / Acetylides / Organopnictogen compounds
show 1 more
Substituents
Acetylide / Alkyl aryl ether / Amine / Aminopyrimidine / Aniline or substituted anilines / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Dialkyl ether / Ether
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
terminal acetylenic compound, quinazolines (CHEBI:114785)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
J4T82NDH7E
CAS number
183321-74-6
InChI Key
AAKJLRGGTJKAMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H23N3O4/c1-4-16-6-5-7-17(12-16)25-22-18-13-20(28-10-8-26-2)21(29-11-9-27-3)14-19(18)23-15-24-22/h1,5-7,12-15H,8-11H2,2-3H3,(H,23,24,25)
IUPAC Name
N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazolin-4-amine
SMILES
COCCOC1=CC2=C(C=C1OCCOC)C(NC1=CC(=CC=C1)C#C)=NC=N2

References

Synthesis Reference
US5747498
General References
  1. Raymond E, Faivre S, Armand JP: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase as a target for anticancer therapy. Drugs. 2000;60 Suppl 1:15-23; discussion 41-2. [PubMed:11129168]
  2. Li Z, Xu M, Xing S, Ho WT, Ishii T, Li Q, Fu X, Zhao ZJ: Erlotinib effectively inhibits JAK2V617F activity and polycythemia vera cell growth. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):3428-32. Epub 2006 Dec 18. [PubMed:17178722]
  3. Dudek AZ, Kmak KL, Koopmeiners J, Keshtgarpour M: Skin rash and bronchoalveolar histology correlates with clinical benefit in patients treated with gefitinib as a therapy for previously treated advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006 Jan;51(1):89-96. Epub 2005 Nov 14. [PubMed:16290256]
  4. Jones HE, Goddard L, Gee JM, Hiscox S, Rubini M, Barrow D, Knowlden JM, Williams S, Wakeling AE, Nicholson RI: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signalling and acquired resistance to gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa) in human breast and prostate cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004 Dec;11(4):793-814. [PubMed:15613453]
  5. Blum G, Gazit A, Levitzki A: Substrate competitive inhibitors of IGF-1 receptor kinase. Biochemistry. 2000 Dec 26;39(51):15705-12. [PubMed:11123895]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014671
KEGG Drug
D07907
PubChem Compound
176870
PubChem Substance
46508021
ChemSpider
154044
BindingDB
5446
RxNav
337525
ChEBI
114785
ChEMBL
CHEMBL553
ZINC
ZINC000001546066
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001010
PharmGKB
PA134687924
PDBe Ligand
AQ4
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Erlotinib
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
PDB Entries
1m17 / 4hjo / 6dwn
FDA label
Download (470 KB)
MSDS
Download (107 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedOtherLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Stroma Tumors / Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma / Renal-cell Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentNon-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC)5
4CompletedTreatmentNon-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) / Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentNon-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Lung1
4RecruitingTreatmentNon-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC)1
4SuspendedTreatmentMetastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
4TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
4TerminatedTreatmentNon-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Osi pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Genentech Inc.
  • OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral150 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral150 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coated100 mg
Tablet, film coated150 mg
Tablet, film coated25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral150 mg
TabletOral
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral150 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral25 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral150 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg
Tablet, coated100 mg
Tablet, coated150 mg
Tablet, coated25 mg
Tablet
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tarceva 150 mg tablet163.98USD tablet
Tarceva 100 mg tablet144.98USD tablet
Tarceva 25 mg tablet52.78USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2514977No2010-06-222024-02-11Canada flag
CA2216796No2003-09-022015-06-06Canada flag
US7087613Yes2006-08-082021-05-09US flag
US5747498Yes1998-05-052019-05-08US flag
US6900221Yes2005-05-312021-05-09US flag
USRE41065Yes2009-12-292019-05-08US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityVery slightly soluble (hydrochloride salt - maximal solubility of approximately 0.4 mg/mL occurs at a pH of approximately 2)Not Available
logP2.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00891 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.13ALOGPS
logP3.2ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.62ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.73 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity107.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability43.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9359
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9376
Caco-2 permeable+0.5737
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5982
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5958
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6169
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7171
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7942
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7611
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5886
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7826
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5739
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6329
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.598
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7194
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7911
Ames testAMES toxic0.5195
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9551
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9907
Rat acute toxicity2.3958 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8158
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6776
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses. Known ligands include EGF, TG...
Gene Name
EGFR
Uniprot ID
P00533
Uniprot Name
Epidermal growth factor receptor
Molecular Weight
134276.185 Da
References
  1. Kim TE, Murren JR: Erlotinib OSI/Roche/Genentech. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Sep;3(9):1385-95. [PubMed:12498017]
  2. Laird AD, Cherrington JM: Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors: clinical development of anticancer agents. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Jan;12(1):51-64. [PubMed:12517254]
  3. Delbaldo C, Faivre S, Raymond E: [Epidermal growth factor inhibitors]. Rev Med Interne. 2003 Jun;24(6):372-83. [PubMed:12814826]
  4. Bulgaru AM, Mani S, Goel S, Perez-Soler R: Erlotinib (Tarceva): a promising drug targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003 Jun;3(3):269-79. [PubMed:12820772]
  5. Akita RW, Sliwkowski MX: Preclinical studies with Erlotinib (Tarceva). Semin Oncol. 2003 Jun;30(3 Suppl 7):15-24. [PubMed:12840797]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Harmsen S, Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Nuclear receptor mediated induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 by anticancer drugs: a key role for the pregnane X receptor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;64(1):35-43. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0842-3. Epub 2008 Oct 7. [PubMed:18839173]
  2. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]

Enzymes

Details
1. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Johnson JR, Cohen M, Sridhara R, Chen YF, Williams GM, Duan J, Gobburu J, Booth B, Benson K, Leighton J, Hsieh LS, Chidambaram N, Zimmerman P, Pazdur R: Approval summary for erlotinib for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6414-21. [PubMed:16166415]
  3. Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD: Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3731-7. [PubMed:17575239]
  4. Hamilton M, Wolf JL, Rusk J, Beard SE, Clark GM, Witt K, Cagnoni PJ: Effects of smoking on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2166-71. [PubMed:16609030]
  5. Filppula AM, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: In vitro assessment of time-dependent inhibitory effects on CYP2C8 and CYP3A activity by fourteen protein kinase inhibitors. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Jul;42(7):1202-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.114.057695. Epub 2014 Apr 8. [PubMed:24713129]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD: Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3731-7. [PubMed:17575239]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Lu JF, Eppler SM, Wolf J, Hamilton M, Rakhit A, Bruno R, Lum BL: Clinical pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in patients with solid tumors and exposure-safety relationship in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Aug;80(2):136-45. [PubMed:16890575]
  3. Johnson JR, Cohen M, Sridhara R, Chen YF, Williams GM, Duan J, Gobburu J, Booth B, Benson K, Leighton J, Hsieh LS, Chidambaram N, Zimmerman P, Pazdur R: Approval summary for erlotinib for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6414-21. [PubMed:16166415]
  4. Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD: Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3731-7. [PubMed:17575239]
  5. Hamilton M, Wolf JL, Rusk J, Beard SE, Clark GM, Witt K, Cagnoni PJ: Effects of smoking on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2166-71. [PubMed:16609030]
  6. Erlotinib FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Johnson JR, Cohen M, Sridhara R, Chen YF, Williams GM, Duan J, Gobburu J, Booth B, Benson K, Leighton J, Hsieh LS, Chidambaram N, Zimmerman P, Pazdur R: Approval summary for erlotinib for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6414-21. [PubMed:16166415]
  3. Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD: Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3731-7. [PubMed:17575239]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD: Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3731-7. [PubMed:17575239]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Hamilton M, Wolf JL, Rusk J, Beard SE, Clark GM, Witt K, Cagnoni PJ: Effects of smoking on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2166-71. [PubMed:16609030]
  3. Backman JT, Filppula AM, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ: Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Jan;68(1):168-241. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.011411. [PubMed:26721703]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 Dec;35(8):692-706. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 5. [PubMed:19733976]
  2. Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD: Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3731-7. [PubMed:17575239]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Liu Y, Ramirez J, House L, Ratain MJ: The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism correlates with erlotinib's effect on SN-38 glucuronidation. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Jul;46(11):2097-103. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2010.04.022. Epub 2010 May 23. [PubMed:20580994]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
ORM1
Uniprot ID
P02763
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Noguchi K, Kawahara H, Kaji A, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Substrate-dependent bidirectional modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance by erlotinib. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1701-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 12. [PubMed:19493273]
Details
2. P-glycoprotein 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Marchetti S, de Vries NA, Buckle T, Bolijn MJ, van Eijndhoven MA, Beijnen JH, Mazzanti R, van Tellingen O, Schellens JH: Effect of the ATP-binding cassette drug transporters ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC2 on erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva) disposition in in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies employing Bcrp1-/-/Mdr1a/1b-/- (triple-knockout) and wild-type mice. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Aug;7(8):2280-7. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-2250. [PubMed:18723475]
  2. de Vries NA, Buckle T, Zhao J, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH, van Tellingen O: Restricted brain penetration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib due to the drug transporters P-gp and BCRP. Invest New Drugs. 2012 Apr;30(2):443-9. doi: 10.1007/s10637-010-9569-1. Epub 2010 Oct 21. [PubMed:20963470]
  3. Noguchi K, Kawahara H, Kaji A, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Substrate-dependent bidirectional modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance by erlotinib. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1701-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 12. [PubMed:19493273]
  4. Lainey E, Sebert M, Thepot S, Scoazec M, Bouteloup C, Leroy C, De Botton S, Galluzzi L, Fenaux P, Kroemer G: Erlotinib antagonizes ABC transporters in acute myeloid leukemia. Cell Cycle. 2012 Nov 1;11(21):4079-92. doi: 10.4161/cc.22382. Epub 2012 Oct 24. [PubMed:23095522]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [PubMed:22541068]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 22, 2020 02:10

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