Glycine betaine

Identification

Name
Glycine betaine
Accession Number
DB06756
Description

Betaine is a methyl group donor that functions in the normal metabolic cycle of methionine and reduces homocystinuria in patients with inborn errors of methionine metabolism. In the United States, betaine is distributed under the brand name Cystadane® by Rare Disease Therapeutics. Many reports have shown that betaine's therapeutic effectiveness is limited, and does not lower tHcy levels or prevent clinical symptoms [2].

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 117.1463
Monoisotopic: 117.078978601
Chemical Formula
C5H11NO2
Synonyms
  • 2-(Trimethylammonio)Acetate
  • 2-N,N,N-trimethylammonio acetate
  • 2-trimethylammonioacetate
  • abromine
  • acidol
  • betaína anhidra
  • Betaine
  • Betaine, anhydrous
  • Glycinebetaine
  • N,N,N-trimethylammonioacetate
  • N,N,N-Trimethylglycine
  • TMG
  • Trimethylaminoacetate
  • Trimethylammonioacetate
  • Trimethylglycine
  • trimethylglycocoll
External IDs
  • FEMA NO. 4223
  • NSC-166511

Pharmacology

Indication

Betaine is indicated for the treatment of homocystinuria to decrease elevated homocysteine blood levels. Included within the category of homocystinuria are deficiencies or defects in: 1. cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), 2. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), 3. cobalamin cofactor metabolism (cbl).

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Betaine acts as a methyl group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine in patients with homocystinuria.

TargetActionsOrganism
UApoptosis regulator Bcl-2Not AvailableHumans
Absorption

After a single oral dose of betaine (50 mg/kg), absorption was rapid (tmax = 0.9 ± 0.3 hours and a Cmax = 0.9 ± 0.2 mM).

Volume of distribution

V/F = 1.3 l/kg

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life

14 hours

Clearance

84 ml/h/kg

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

In an acute toxicology study in rats, death frequently occurred at doses equal to or greater than 10,000 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcebutololGlycine betaine may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glycine betaine is combined with Acetylcholine.
AclidiniumGlycine betaine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Aclidinium.
AmantadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amantadine can be decreased when used in combination with Glycine betaine.
AmifampridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glycine betaine is combined with Amifampridine.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amitriptyline can be decreased when used in combination with Glycine betaine.
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Amobarbital can be decreased when used in combination with Glycine betaine.
AmoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amoxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Glycine betaine.
Anisotropine methylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Anisotropine methylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Glycine betaine.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Aripiprazole can be decreased when used in combination with Glycine betaine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description
    Available for Purchase

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity
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    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level
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    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action
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    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Take with or without food. Oral betaine powder should be mixed with food or a beverage and then consumed.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Betaine citrate19JX795NXV17671-50-0YKXUOESQDCXGIW-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Betaine hydrochlorideJK8U8K4D6K590-46-5HOPSCVCBEOCPJZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CystadanePowder, for solution1 g/1gOralRecordati Rare Diseases1996-10-25Not applicableUS flag
CystadanePowder1 gOralOrphan Europe S.A.R.L.2007-02-15Not applicableEU flag
CystadanePowder, for solution1 g/1gOralOrphan Europe Sarl2018-01-08Not applicableUS flag
CystadanePowder, for solution6 g/1OralRare Disease Therapeutics, Inc.1996-10-25Not applicableUS flag
CystadanePowder, for solution1 gOralRecordati Rare Diseases Canada Inc1998-08-11Not applicableCanada flag
CystadanePowder, for solution1 g/1gOralRopack Inc.2017-04-13Not applicableUS flag
CystadanePowder, for solution180 g/1gOralJazz Pharmaceuticals2007-03-31Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ATONO2 Oxygen BabyLotion0.2 g/100gTopicalLaorganic Co., Ltd.2015-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Betaine HCl Tab 500mgTabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1991-12-312001-01-04Canada flag
Dr.g Pore Purifing TonerLiquid0.5 g/100mLTopicalGOWOONSESANG COSMETICS CO., LTD.2015-07-052018-01-09US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number
    Available for Purchase

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code
    Available for Purchase

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acididyn TabBetaine hydrochloride (178.2 mg) + Ammonium chloride (32.4 mg)TabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-22Canada flag
Alka-pan TabletsBetaine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Bromelains (50 mg) + Ox bile extract (35 mg) + Pancrelipase (135 mg) + Papaya (125 mg)TabletOralMorter HealthsystemNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Bemosin TabBetaine hydrochloride (130 mg) + Ammonium chloride (97.2 mg) + Pepsin (130 mg)TabletOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1988-12-312003-07-16Canada flag
BetacolBetaine hydrochloride (61 mg) + Calcium glycerophosphate (50 mg) + Choline bitartrate (2.5 mg) + Potassium bicarbonate (41 mg)CapsuleOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1989-12-151996-09-09Canada flag
Betaine HCl and PepsinBetaine hydrochloride (324 mg) + Pepsin (135 mg)TabletOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1985-12-312007-07-26Canada flag
Betasin TabBetaine hydrochloride (130 mg) + Ammonium chloride (97.2 mg) + Pepsin (130 mg)TabletOralBio Vita1987-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
DygestBetaine hydrochloride (90 mg) + Ox bile extract (75 mg) + Pancrelipase (200 mg) + Papain (100 mg) + Peppermint (50 mg) + Pepsin (125 mg)TabletOralCreative Nutrition Canada Corp.1987-12-312007-07-11Canada flag
Enzyme TabletsBetaine hydrochloride (65 mg) + Ox bile extract (8.125 mg) + Pancrelipase (100 mg) + Pancrelipase amylase (130 mg) + Papain (65 mg) + Pepsin (65 mg)TabletOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2001-10-202007-08-01Canada flag
Face It Hd Perfect Bb Spf30 Pa 01Glycine betaine (2 mL/100mL) + Octinoxate (6 mL/100mL) + Talc (0.684 mL/100mL) + Titanium dioxide (6.36 mL/100mL) + Zinc oxide (2.88 mL/100mL)CreamTopicalThefaceshop Co., Ltd.2011-08-23Not applicableUS flag
Face It Hd Perfect Bb Spf30 Pa 02Glycine betaine (2 mL/100mL) + Octinoxate (6 mL/100mL) + Talc (0.684 mL/100mL) + Titanium dioxide (6.36 mL/100mL) + Zinc oxide (2.88 mL/100mL)CreamTopicalThefaceshop Co., Ltd.2011-08-23Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ATONO2 Oxygen BabyGlycine betaine (0.2 g/100g)LotionTopicalLaorganic Co., Ltd.2015-09-01Not applicableUS flag
CystadaneGlycine betaine (1 g/1g)Powder, for solutionOralOrphan Europe Sarl2018-01-08Not applicableUS flag
Dr.g Pore Purifing TonerGlycine betaine (0.5 g/100mL)LiquidTopicalGOWOONSESANG COSMETICS CO., LTD.2015-07-052018-01-09US flag
EnBrace HRGlycine betaine (500 ug/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium L-threonate (1 mg/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (5.23 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Phosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + Pyridoxal phosphate (25 ug/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)Capsule, delayed release pelletsOralJaymac Pharmaceuticals, Llc2011-08-12Not applicableUS flag
EnLyteGlycine betaine (500 ug/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Citric acid monohydrate (1.83 mg/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium L-threonate (1 mg/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (7 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Phosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + Pyridoxal phosphate (25 ug/1) + Sodium citrate (3.67 mg/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)Capsule, delayed release pelletsOralJaymac Pharmaceuticals Llc2011-08-12Not applicableUS flag
HWASAMONG Dr.All Scalp HealingShampooGlycine betaine (0.5 g/100mL) + Panthenol (0.3 g/100mL)ShampooTopicalEolracellbio Co., Ltd.2020-05-03Not applicableUS flag
Wizyoung Diamond Collagen Essence Mask PackGlycine betaine (0.75 g/25g) + Scutellaria baicalensis root (0.0025 g/25g)PatchTopicalWizyoung Co., Ltd2016-11-28Not applicableUS flag
Wizyoung Vitamin Collagen Essence Mask PackGlycine betaine (0.75 g/25g) + Scutellaria baicalensis root (0.0025 g/25g)PatchTopicalWizyoung Co., Ltd2016-11-28Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A16AA06 — BetaineA09AB02 — Betaine hydrochloride
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Tetraalkylammonium salts / Carboxylic acid salts / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds / Amines
Substituents
Aliphatic acyclic compound / Alpha-amino acid / Amine / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid salt / Hydrocarbon derivative / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycine derivative, amino-acid betaine (CHEBI:17750) / a methylated methyl acceptor (BETAINE)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
3SCV180C9W
CAS number
107-43-7
InChI Key
KWIUHFFTVRNATP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H11NO2/c1-6(2,3)4-5(7)8/h4H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
2-(trimethylazaniumyl)acetate
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CC([O-])=O

References

General References
  1. Diekman EF, de Koning TJ, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Rovers MM, van Hasselt PM: Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Feb;71(2):188-94. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.4915. [PubMed:24323041]
  2. Yokoi K, Ito T, Ohkubo Y, Sumi S, Ueta A, Sugiyama N, Togari H: Long follow up of betaine therapy in two Japanese siblings with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Pediatr Int. 2008 Oct;50(5):694-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2008.02717.x. [PubMed:19261122]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000043
KEGG Drug
D07523
KEGG Compound
C00719
PubChem Compound
247
PubChem Substance
310264879
ChemSpider
242
BindingDB
50103520
RxNav
1512
ChEBI
17750
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1182
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Trimethylglycine
AHFS Codes
  • 56:16.00 — Digestants
  • 92:92.00 — Other Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
FDA label
Download (35.7 KB)
MSDS
Download (47.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionArsenic Metabolites Measured in Urine1
4CompletedTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
4WithdrawnTreatmentMenstrual Related Mood Disorder / Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder / Premenstrual Syndrome / Premenstrual tension with edema1
3CompletedTreatmentPeroxisome Biogenesis Disorder (PBD)1
2CompletedTreatmentHomocystinuria1
2CompletedTreatmentHyperoxaluria1
2CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2Unknown StatusOtherBMI >30 kg/m2 / Dysglycaemia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical0.2 g/100g
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
PowderOral1 g
Powder, for solutionOral1 g/1g
Powder, for solutionOral180 g/1g
Powder, for solutionOral6 g/1
Powder, for solutionOral1 g
LiquidTopical0.5 g/100mL
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
TabletOral100 mg
CreamTopical
ShampooTopical
KitOral
TabletOral
TabletOral40 mcg
PatchTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.86 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.26ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity52.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4l-9000000000-f32989f795eeceb8b692
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-feacc600820771d2a77b
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e5bbda9fb66994576062
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-c382759eab7d0a87ac27
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-a7beb42e6944181ae5d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-77fbc4a2b76030d53644
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9100000000-2941e4997f202293bf71
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9b9e3cecb77ed4b40b7c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-27bbb5f9642306216a0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-82a41cbb0f697910b577
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aor-9500000000-9a0f1853188052d798c6
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066r-5900000000-a6291f86046f32ad3c81
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9200000000-709208d6782f1b588501
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-a7beb42e6944181ae5d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-77fbc4a2b76030d53644
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9100000000-2941e4997f202293bf71
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a2560fc2add75f79eadb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-27bbb5f9642306216a0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-b45353825d98488d752a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aor-9500000000-3fdd9d17a169db5c58dd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-82a41cbb0f697910b577
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aor-9500000000-9a0f1853188052d798c6
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-fe34051d8d2d4fed6de5
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Results in downregulation of the target.
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Suppresses apoptosis in a variety of cell systems including factor-dependent lymphohematopoietic and neural cells. Regulates cell death by controlling the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Appea...
Gene Name
BCL2
Uniprot ID
P10415
Uniprot Name
Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
Molecular Weight
26265.66 Da
References
  1. Kennedy RK, Naik PR, Veena V, Lakshmi BS, Lakshmi P, Krishna R, Sakthivel N: 5-Methyl phenazine-1-carboxylic acid: a novel bioactive metabolite by a rhizosphere soil bacterium that exhibits potent antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Chem Biol Interact. 2015 Apr 25;231:71-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2015.03.002. Epub 2015 Mar 9. [PubMed:25765238]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Zhukovskii IuG, Kuznetsova LP, Sochilina EE, Dmitrieva EN, Gololobov IuG, Bykovskaia EIu: [Inhibition of cholinesterases of varying origin by ordinary and betaine vinylphosphates]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1978). 1996 Sep-Oct;68(5):15-20. [PubMed:9229847]
  2. Lisa TA, Garrido MN, Domenech CE: Induction of acid phosphatase and cholinesterase activities in Ps. aeruginosa and their in-vitro control by choline, acetylcholine and betaine. Mol Cell Biochem. 1983;50(2):149-55. [PubMed:6406829]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name
PRODH
Uniprot ID
O43272
Uniprot Name
Proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
68001.405 Da
References
  1. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Sankar B, Kishorekumar A, Panneerselvam R: Calcium chloride effects on salinity-induced oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation in Catharanthus roseus. C R Biol. 2007 Sep;330(9):674-83. Epub 2007 Aug 10. [PubMed:17720584]
  2. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Sankar B, Kishorekumar A, Gopi R, Somasundaram R, Panneerselvam R: Water deficit stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Catharanthus roseus: effects on oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007 Oct 15;60(1):110-6. Epub 2007 Jun 14. [PubMed:17643271]
  3. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Lakshmanan GM, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R: NaCl as a physiological modulator of proline metabolism and antioxidant potential in Phyllanthus amarus. C R Biol. 2007 Nov;330(11):806-13. Epub 2007 Sep 25. [PubMed:17923374]
  4. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Kishorekumar A, Sankar B, Gopi R, Somasundaram R, Panneerselvam R: Alterations in osmoregulation, antioxidant enzymes and indole alkaloid levels in Catharanthus roseus exposed to water deficit. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007 Oct 1;59(2):150-7. Epub 2007 May 6. [PubMed:17560094]

Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on November 30, 2020 13:38

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