Identification

Name
Dopamine
Accession Number
DB00988
Description

One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (receptors, dopamine) mediate its action.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 153.1784
Monoisotopic: 153.078978601
Chemical Formula
C8H11NO2
Synonyms
  • 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
  • 3-Hydroxytyramine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
  • 4-(2-aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
  • 4-(2-aminoethyl)catechol
  • 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
  • Dopamina
  • Dopamine
  • Dopaminum
  • Oxytyramine
External IDs
  • NSC-173182

Pharmacology

Indication

For the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Dopamine is a natural catecholamine formed by the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). It is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system, especially in the nigrostriatal tract, and in a few peripheral sympathetic nerves. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings.

Mechanism of action

Dopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings. In the brain, dopamine actas as an agonist to the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D!, D2, D3, D4, D5).

TargetActionsOrganism
ADopamine D2 receptor
agonist
Humans
ADopamine D1 receptor
agonist
Humans
ADopamine D5 receptor
agonist
Humans
ADopamine D3 receptor
agonist
Humans
ADopamine D4 receptor
agonist
Humans
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inducer
Humans
ADopamine beta-hydroxylase
ligand
Humans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
binder
Humans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7
binder
Humans
UD(1) dopamine receptor
agonist
Humans
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Humans
USodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Humans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3ANot AvailableHumans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3BNot AvailableHumans
USuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]Not AvailableHumans
USynaptic vesicular amine transporterNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

Dopamine is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

No information currently available on protein binding.

Metabolism

Biotransformation of dopamine proceeds rapidly to yield the principal excretion products, 3-4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid (homovanillic acid, HVA).

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

It has been reported that about 80% of the drug is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, primarily as HVA and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates and as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. A very small portion is excreted unchanged.

Half-life

2 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

LD50 oral mice = 1460 mg/kg, LD50 oral rats = 1780 mg/kg. Spasm or closing of eyelids, nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, involuntary movements of the body including the face, tongue, arms, hand, head, and upper body; hypotension, haemolytic anaemia, urinary retention, duodenal ulcer, sialorrhea, ataxia, abdominal pain, dry mouth, nightmares, tachypnoea, bruxism, confusion, and insomnia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Benzocaine Action PathwayDrug action
Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug action
Proparacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Codeine Action PathwayDrug action
Hydromorphone Action PathwayDrug action
Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug action
Sufentanil Action PathwayDrug action
Methadyl Acetate Action PathwayDrug action
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwayDrug action
Dihydromorphine Action PathwayDrug action
Ketobemidone Action PathwayDrug action
AlkaptonuriaDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Dopamine Activation of Neurological Reward SystemSignaling
Oxybuprocaine Action PathwayDrug action
Morphine Action PathwayDrug action
Hydrocodone Action PathwayDrug action
Oxymorphone Action PathwayDrug action
Remifentanil Action PathwayDrug action
Fluoxetine Action PathwayDrug action
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosinemia, Transient, of the NewbornDisease
Tyrosine Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Monoamine Oxidase-A Deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
Propoxyphene Action PathwayDrug action
Anileridine Action PathwayDrug action
3-Methylthiofentanyl Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirDopamine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbaloparatideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Abaloparatide.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumDopamine may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Dopamine hydrochloride7L3E358N9L62-31-7CTENFNNZBMHDDG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Intropin / Revimine
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dopamine HciInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-09-19Not applicableUS flag
Dopamine HciInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-23Not applicableUS flag
Dopamine Hci In 5% DextroseInjection, solution1.6 mg/1mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-12Not applicableUS flag
Dopamine HCl Inj 4%LiquidIntravenousInternational Medication Systems, Limited1980-12-311997-08-15Canada flag
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousRemedy Repack2015-01-232016-02-05US flag
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUS flag
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate80 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira2008-07-212008-07-21US flag
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution1.6 mg/1mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-10-19Not applicableUS flag
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.2015-09-18Not applicableUS flag
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-06-30Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
DopamineInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-04-012014-09-01US flag
Dopamine HClInjection, solution160 mg/1mLIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1990-09-302014-03-20US flag
Dopamine HClInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1990-09-302007-06-30US flag
Dopamine HClInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1990-09-302014-03-03US flag
Dopamine HClInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health1990-09-302014-09-30US flag
Dopamine HClInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousAMERICAN REGENT, INC.1990-09-302013-12-19US flag
Dopamine HClInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health1987-02-112011-04-30US flag
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection40 mg/1mLIntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2018-04-11Not applicableUS flag
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection80 mg/1mLIntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2018-04-11Not applicableUS flag
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-07-012013-12-01US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Dopamine HCl 0.8mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPDopamine hydrochloride (.8 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1992-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Dopamine HCl 1.6mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPDopamine hydrochloride (1.6 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Dopamine HCl 3.2mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPDopamine hydrochloride (3.2 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPDopamine hydrochloride (1.6 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1986-12-312018-11-30Canada flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPDopamine hydrochloride (3.2 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1991-12-312018-11-30Canada flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPDopamine hydrochloride (0.8 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1986-12-312018-11-30Canada flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (160 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01US flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (80 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01US flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (320 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01US flag
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (160 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
C01CA04 — Dopamine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenols
Sub Class
Benzenediols
Direct Parent
Catecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenethylamines / 2-arylethylamines / Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / 2-arylethylamine / Amine / Aralkylamine / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Catecholamine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
catecholamine (CHEBI:18243) / Biogenic amines, Tyramine derivatives, Dopamine (C03758)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
VTD58H1Z2X
CAS number
51-61-6
InChI Key
VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
IUPAC Name
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
SMILES
NCCC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1

References

Synthesis Reference

Klaus Schoellkopf, Rudolf Albrecht, Manfred Lehmann, Gertrud Schroeder, "Novel dopamine derivatives, processes for their preparation, and their use as medicinal agents." U.S. Patent US4958026, issued February, 1972.

US4958026
General References
  1. Barron AB, Maleszka R, Vander Meer RK, Robinson GE: Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 30;104(5):1703-7. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [PubMed:17237217]
  2. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and male sexual function. Eur Urol. 2001 Dec;40(6):601-8. [PubMed:11805404]
  3. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and sexual function. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Aug;13 Suppl 3:S18-28. [PubMed:11477488]
  4. Berridge KC, Robinson TE: What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 Dec;28(3):309-69. [PubMed:9858756]
  5. Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9395-402. [PubMed:14561867]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000073
KEGG Drug
D07870
KEGG Compound
C03758
PubChem Compound
681
PubChem Substance
46506043
ChemSpider
661
BindingDB
55121
RxNav
3628
ChEBI
18243
ChEMBL
CHEMBL59
ZINC
ZINC000000033882
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000212
PharmGKB
PA449396
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
LDP
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Dopamine
AHFS Codes
  • 12:12.08.08 — Selective Beta 1-adrenergic Agonists
PDB Entries
2a3r / 2qmz / 2vq5 / 3nk2 / 4a7v / 4dtz / 4du2 / 4dub / 4xp1 / 5log
show 3 more
MSDS
Download (72.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedPreventionDelirium1
4CompletedTreatmentAcromegaly1
4CompletedTreatmentEkbom Syndrome / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) / Willis-Ekbom Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentESRD / Transplantation, Kidney1
4CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Diastolic1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChildren AKI Patients1
4RecruitingTreatmentProlactin-Producing Pituitary Tumor / Prolactinoma1
4RecruitingTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • International medication system
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • B braun medical inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous200 mg/5ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Solution200 mg/5ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous40 mg/ml
SolutionIntravenous200 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral40 MG/ML
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral200 MG/5ML
SolutionIntravenous200 mg/5ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous160 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous80 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous40 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous80 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous40 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous40 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous50 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous80 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous160 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous320 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous80 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1.6 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous3.2 mg/1mL
Tablet10 mg
SolutionParenteral10 mg/ml
SolutionParenteral200 mg
SolutionParenteral250 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous25 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous800 mcg/ml
InjectionIntravenous
Injection
Injection, solution, concentrate10 mg/mL
Solution50 mg/5ml
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Dopamine 40 mg/ml vial0.15USD ml
Dopamine 800 mg-d5w 500 ml0.05USD ml
Dopamine 400 mg-d5w 250 ml0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)128 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)227 °C at 2.30E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility600 g/LNot Available
logP-0.98HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-5.03ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.93PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.43 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP0.03ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9547
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8414
Caco-2 permeable-0.5479
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5431
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9739
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9357
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7115
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8462
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6383
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6905
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9459
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9422
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9477
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9001
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8648
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8642
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7449
Rat acute toxicity2.1415 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7712
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5715
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513da
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513da
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00e9-8900000000-88acdc978fe4a64e0fc5
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxu-4900000000-ff51177ebcb89b8c956c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9200000000-a554eb700a06cecb8292
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-db9813e1025f237a549b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-27e0d71db6d14d79759c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0900000000-f1cf97c0d0dd509e229e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-aa09a2411e287abe74ed
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-97c42b109cab2005373d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-9700000000-974bd18febffcceea2d6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-099173d4201beca9e548
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-9dc09f2661247c9d84b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-8b85fa9aac1ffb4c2873
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-9ea16d2057010279d433
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-32ca2db8fe2b4729ab94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-ff587935c79b4592ffcf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-8a35d8a2241bc18d6c50
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-356a4b8f268863c7893e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a88c1004f357858fbc6c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-271874005dcb90288512
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-cfa7e1cb9f02ffb4447d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-46710e11fd65e4eff57b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fk9-0900000000-9dd18d949c0827d3f09e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-7bc01b4577dd65504b1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-92056f2762508fb506f1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-bd67f5e0746a2ca0a324
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-27e0d71db6d14d79759c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0900000000-f1cf97c0d0dd509e229e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-501c6004e6d496b38d4f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-97c42b109cab2005373d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-9700000000-974bd18febffcceea2d6
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-c7eee50eadc1157e3f4e
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-0975ff8173d3c9ccddd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-0a7d58ac6a4039fe88e3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-b6a88ada58ee095efb64
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-6a41764b2a237d93a762
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ko-6900000000-572c1a8f1e8c0f7114ce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-148262aeb883ad1a8508
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-bbb50786787764c3e72b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-4769b29a6d00fe5d4db7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-0827bb8aa6cc224fce1e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-3a862057cf8a009ef9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fdcbbd6eae324ae068b8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-76762d9949198fa094f7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-099173d4201beca9e548
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-9dc09f2661247c9d84b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-8b85fa9aac1ffb4c2873
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-9ea16d2057010279d433
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-32ca2db8fe2b4729ab94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-ff587935c79b4592ffcf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-8a35d8a2241bc18d6c50
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-356a4b8f268863c7893e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a88c1004f357858fbc6c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-271874005dcb90288512
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-ad06f0bcaccfb6ab447a
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-0bc64319c91c17ded449
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-8c08ab2bbc658f751898
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Details
1. Dopamine D2 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. Dopamine D1 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
  2. Dolzan V, Plesnicar BK, Serretti A, Mandelli L, Zalar B, Koprivsek J, Breskvar K: Polymorphisms in dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 genes and psychopathological and extrapyramidal symptoms in patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Sep 5;144B(6):809-15. [PubMed:17455212]
  3. Hoenicka J, Aragues M, Ponce G, Rodriguez-Jimenez R, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Palomo T: From dopaminergic genes to psychiatric disorders. Neurotox Res. 2007 Jan;11(1):61-72. [PubMed:17449449]
  4. da Silva Lobo DS, Vallada HP, Knight J, Martins SS, Tavares H, Gentil V, Kennedy JL: Dopamine genes and pathological gambling in discordant sib-pairs. J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):421-33. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [PubMed:17394052]
  5. Fu W, Shen J, Luo X, Zhu W, Cheng J, Yu K, Briggs JM, Jin G, Chen K, Jiang H: Dopamine D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist effects of the natural product (-)-stepholidine: molecular modeling and dynamics simulations. Biophys J. 2007 Sep 1;93(5):1431-41. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17468175]
Details
3. Dopamine D5 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Details
4. Dopamine D3 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Details
5. Dopamine D4 receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17258889]
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. [PubMed:17561816]
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. [PubMed:17625104]
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17287146]
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17433386]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Weber JT, Hayataka K, O'Connor MF, Parker KK: Rabbit cerebral cortex 5HT1a receptors. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1997 May;117(1):19-24. [PubMed:9185324]
  2. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [PubMed:9686407]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor ...
Gene Name
HTR7
Uniprot ID
P34969
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7
Molecular Weight
53554.43 Da
References
  1. Lovenberg TW, Baron BM, de Lecea L, Miller JD, Prosser RA, Rea MA, Foye PE, Racke M, Slone AL, Siegel BW, et al.: A novel adenylyl cyclase-activating serotonin receptor (5-HT7) implicated in the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms. Neuron. 1993 Sep;11(3):449-58. [PubMed:8398139]
  2. Shen Y, Monsma FJ Jr, Metcalf MA, Jose PA, Hamblin MW, Sibley DR: Molecular cloning and expression of a 5-hydroxytryptamine7 serotonin receptor subtype. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25;268(24):18200-4. [PubMed:8394362]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.

Components:
References
  1. Hubner H, Haubmann C, Utz W, Gmeiner P: Conjugated enynes as nonaromatic catechol bioisosteres: synthesis, binding experiments, and computational studies of novel dopamine receptor agonists recognizing preferentially the D(3) subtype. J Med Chem. 2000 Feb 24;43(4):756-62. [PubMed:10691700]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS: Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001 Jan;39(1):32-41. [PubMed:11071707]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS: Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001 Jan;39(1):32-41. [PubMed:11071707]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Rusch D, Musset B, Wulf H, Schuster A, Raines DE: Subunit-dependent modulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor open-close equilibrium by n-alcohols. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1069-74. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17360702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3B
Uniprot ID
O95264
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3B
Molecular Weight
50291.3 Da
References
  1. Rusch D, Musset B, Wulf H, Schuster A, Raines DE: Subunit-dependent modulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor open-close equilibrium by n-alcohols. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1069-74. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17360702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Wright GS, Antonyuk SV, Kershaw NM, Strange RW, Samar Hasnain S: Ligand binding and aggregation of pathogenic SOD1. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1758. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2750. [PubMed:23612299]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles...
Gene Name
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID
Q05940
Uniprot Name
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter
Molecular Weight
55712.075 Da
References
  1. Gonzalez AM, Walther D, Pazos A, Uhl GR: Synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter expression: distribution and pharmacologic profile. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994 Mar;22(1-4):219-26. [PubMed:7912402]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.06.002. Epub 2008 Jul 4. [PubMed:18652859]
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.010. Epub 2010 Sep 24. [PubMed:20869994]
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. [PubMed:15817751]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.06.002. Epub 2008 Jul 4. [PubMed:18652859]
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.010. Epub 2010 Sep 24. [PubMed:20869994]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOP...
Gene Name
COMT
Uniprot ID
P21964
Uniprot Name
Catechol O-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
30036.77 Da
References
  1. Ittiwut R, Listman JB, Ittiwut C, Cubells JF, Weiss RD, Brady K, Oslin D, Farrer LA, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J: Association between polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and cocaine-induced paranoia in European-American and African-American populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Sep;156B(6):651-60. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31205. Epub 2011 Jun 8. [PubMed:21656904]
  2. Boot E, Booij J, Abeling N, Meijer J, da Silva Alves F, Zinkstok J, Baas F, Linszen D, van Amelsvoort T: Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val(1)(0)(8)/(1)(5)(8)Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul;25(7):888-95. doi: 10.1177/0269881111400644. Epub 2011 Mar 29. [PubMed:21447540]
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. [PubMed:15817751]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17258889]
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. [PubMed:17561816]
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. [PubMed:17625104]
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17287146]
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17433386]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759]
  4. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [PubMed:9687576]
  5. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. [PubMed:9812985]
  6. Verhaagh S, Schweifer N, Barlow DP, Zwart R: Cloning of the mouse and human solute carrier 22a3 (Slc22a3/SLC22A3) identifies a conserved cluster of three organic cation transporters on mouse chromosome 17 and human 6q26-q27. Genomics. 1999 Jan 15;55(2):209-18. [PubMed:9933568]
  7. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [PubMed:10385678]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759]
  4. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [PubMed:8898084]
  5. Breidert T, Spitzenberger F, Grundemann D, Schomig E: Catecholamine transport by the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1). Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Sep;125(1):218-24. [PubMed:9776363]
  6. Boxberger KH, Hagenbuch B, Lampe JN: Common drugs inhibit human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1)-mediated neurotransmitter uptake. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Jun;42(6):990-5. doi: 10.1124/dmd.113.055095. Epub 2014 Mar 31. [PubMed:24688079]
  7. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [PubMed:10385678]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Transcription factor that binds to the octamer motif (5'-ATTTGCAT-3'). Forms a trimeric complex with SOX2 on DNA and controls the expression of a number of genes involved in embryonic development s...
Gene Name
POU5F1
Uniprot ID
Q01860
Uniprot Name
POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1
Molecular Weight
38570.415 Da
References
  1. Zhu HJ, Appel DI, Grundemann D, Markowitz JS: Interaction of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and amphetamine. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(1):142-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06738.x. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20402963]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 27, 2020 11:13

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