Meclizine is a histamine H1 antagonist used to treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness.

Brand Names
Antivert, Bonine, Diphen, Dramamine, Travel-ease
Generic Name
DrugBank Accession Number

Meclizine is a histamine H1 antagonist with antiemetic and antivertigo properties. It is used in the symptomatic treatment of motion sickness and control of vertigo associated with vestibular system diseases. It also exhibits anticholinergic, central nervous system depressant, and local anesthetic effects.4 Commonly marketed under the brand name Antivert in the U.S., meclizine is available as oral tablets.

Small Molecule
Average: 390.948
Monoisotopic: 390.186276581
Chemical Formula
  • Meclizine
  • Meclozina
  • Meclozine
External IDs
  • U.C.B. 5062
  • UCB 170
  • UCB 5062



Indicated for the symptomatic treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness,6 and management of vertigo due to various causes, including radiation sickness, Meniere’s syndrome, labyrinthitis and other vestibular disturbances.5

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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Meclizine works on the higher centres of the brain to reduce nausea, vomiting, or vertigo. It is effective against nausea and vomiting arising from many causes, including motion sickness and disorders affecting the vestibular system. The onset of action of meclizine is about 1 hour, with effects lasting between 8 to 24 hours.4 Meclizine is reported to cause drowsiness due to its anticholinergic actions.5

Mechanism of action

Vomiting is a centrally regulated reflex mechanism that initiates from the vomiting center and the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) located in the medulla. Motion sickness is also regulated by CTZ. The blood-brain barrier near the CTZ is relatively permeable to circulating mediators and CTZ can transmit impulses to vomiting center located in the brainstem. Different receptors responding to different factors, including histamine, 5-HT, enkephalins, substance P, and dopamine, are expressed along the brainstem to activate respective pathways and contribute to the control of vomiting. Histamine H1 receptors are expressed on the vestibular nuclei and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) that are activated by motion sickness and stimuli from the pharynx and stomach. When activated, H1 receptor signaling from these nuclei is transmitted to the CTZ and vomiting centre.3

Through its antagonistic action on the H1 receptors, meclizine primarily works by inhibiting signaling pathway transduction through histaminergic neurotransmission from the vestibular nuclei and NTS to the CTZ and medullary vomiting center.1 Meclizine may also decrease the labyrinth excitability and vestibular stimulation.4

AHistamine H1 receptor
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3
inverse agonist

Most histamine H1 antagonists are reported to be readily absorbed following oral administration.4 Upon oral administration, the time to reach peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of meclizine is about 3 hours post-dose, with the value ranging from 1.5 to 6 hours.6

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of meclizine in humans has not been fully studied. It is proposed that meclizine may be excreted into breast milk.4

Protein binding

There is limited data on the protein binding profile of meclizine.


There is limited human data on meclizine metabolism. According to the findings of in vitro studies, meclizine may undergo aromatic hydroxylation or benzylic oxidation mediated by the hepatic CYP2D6 enzyme.2

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Route of elimination

Meclizine is excreted in the urine as metabolites and in the feces as unchanged drug.4


Meclizine has a plasma elimination half-life of about 5-6 hours in humans.6


There is limited data on the clearance of meclizine.

Adverse Effects
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The oral and intraperitoneal LD50 in mouse are 1600 mg/kg and 625 mg/kg, respectively. The lowest published toxic dose (TDLo) in rats via the oral route is 800 mg/kg.MSDS

Symptoms of overdose mainly involve CNS depression with drowsiness, coma, and convulsions. Hypotension may also occur, particularly in the elderly. In children, anticholinergic effects and CNS stimulation, characterized by hallucinations, seizures, trouble sleeping, are more likely to occur. In case of overdose, symptomatic and supportive treatment is recommended. In case of recent ingestion, induction of emesis or gastric lavage should be initiated to limit further drug absorption. Although there is no known antidote to meclizine, physostigmine may be useful to counteract the CNS anticholinergic effects of meclizine.5

Meclizine H1-Antihistamine ActionDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Meclizine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Meclizine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe metabolism of Meclizine can be decreased when combined with Acebutolol.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Meclizine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Acetophenazine.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Aclidinium.
AdagrasibThe metabolism of Meclizine can be decreased when combined with Adagrasib.
AdalimumabThe metabolism of Meclizine can be increased when combined with Adalimumab.
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol. Alcohol may cause additive CNS depressant effects.


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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Meclizine hydrochlorideHDP7W44CIO31884-77-2BAAVORPTHSKWGJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Chiclida / Meclicot / Navicalm / Nevidoxine / Postafen / Sea-Legs
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AntivertTablet50 mg/1OralRoerig1997-04-112012-03-31US flag
AntivertTablet, chewable25 mg/1OralCasper Pharma Llc2020-01-15Not applicableUS flag
AntivertTablet12.5 mg/1OralCasper Pharma Llc2020-01-15Not applicableUS flag
AntivertTablet25 mg/1OralRoerig1997-04-112010-10-31US flag
AntivertTablet50 mg/1OralCasper Pharma Llc2020-01-15Not applicableUS flag
AntivertTablet25 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1997-04-112012-06-30US flag
AntivertTablet12.5 mg/1OralRoerig1997-04-112009-09-30US flag
AntivertTablet25 mg/1OralCasper Pharma Llc2020-01-15Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralWatson Pharmaceuticals2006-03-28Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet12.5 mg/1OralWatson Pharmaceuticals2006-03-28Not applicableUS flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MeclizineTablet12.5 mg/1OralDirect Rx2016-04-28Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralRedPharm Drug, Inc.2010-06-04Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralDenton Pharma, Inc. Dba Northwind Pharmaceuticals2019-01-092025-01-31US flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet12.5 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2010-06-04Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet50 mg/1OralNortic Pharma, LLC2020-10-15Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1982-01-01Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.2014-12-082020-01-31US flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralJubilant Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-06-04Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2010-02-12Not applicableUS flag
Meclizine HydrochlorideTablet25 mg/1OralClinical Solutions Wholsesale2010-06-042017-06-15US flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BonamineTablet, multilayer, extended release25 mgOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Bonamine Tab 25mg ChewableTablet, chewable25 mgOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson Inc1954-12-312011-08-04Canada flag
BonineTablet, chewable25 mg/1OralWellSpring Pharmaceutical Corporation2014-12-15Not applicableUS flag
BonineTablet, chewable25 mg/1OralWellSpring Pharmaceutical Corporation2023-02-15Not applicableUS flag
BonineTablet, chewable25 mg/1OralInsight Pharmaceuticals2009-06-08Not applicableUS flag
CVS Motion Sickness Fast MeltingTablet, orally disintegrating25 mg/1OralCVS Pharmacy, Inc.2015-08-27Not applicableUS flag
CVS Motion Sickness StripsFilm, soluble25 mg/1OralCVS PHARMACY2019-02-20Not applicableUS flag
DramamineTablet, chewable25 mg/1OralMedtech Products Inc.2019-02-15Not applicableUS flag
Dramamine - NTablet25 mg/1OralMedtech Products Inc.2018-01-15Not applicableUS flag
Dramamine Less DrowsyTablet25 mg/1OralMedtech Products Inc.2011-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Antivert TabMeclizine hydrochloride (12.5 mg) + Niacin (50 mg)TabletOralPfizer Canada Ulc1956-12-312000-01-24Canada flag
DiphenMeclizine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (500 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [USP'U]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1g) + Benzocaine (200 mg/1g) + Bismuth subsalicylate (262 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (27 mg/1) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate (15 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Guaifenesin (200 mg/1) + Hydrocortisone acetate (10 mg/1g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1g) + Loratadine (10 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (20 mg/1) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [USP'U]/1g) + Potassium chloride (80 mg/1)Cream; Kit; Liquid; Ointment; Tablet; Tablet, chewable; Tablet, film coatedOral; TopicalRemedy Pack LLC2022-05-10Not applicableUS flag
NovominsyrupMeclizine hydrochloride (25 mg/6mL) + Caffeine (20 mg/6mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg/6mL)LiquidOralLydia Co., Ltd.2023-01-23Not applicableUS flag
Welly Travel Medicine KitMeclizine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Dimethicone (125 mg/1) + Doxylamine succinate (25 mg/1) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Loperamide hydrochloride (2 mg/1)KitOralWelly Health PBC2020-04-06Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
NovominsyrupMeclizine hydrochloride (25 mg/6mL) + Caffeine (20 mg/6mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg/6mL)LiquidOralLydia Co., Ltd.2023-01-23Not applicableUS flag


ATC Codes
R06AE55 — Meclozine, combinationsR06AE05 — Meclozine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Phenylmethylamines / Benzylamines / Toluenes / N-alkylpiperazines / Chlorobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Aryl chlorides / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 2 more
1,4-diazinane / Amine / Aralkylamine / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Azacycle / Benzylamine / Chlorobenzene / Diphenylmethane
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
diarylmethane (CHEBI:6709)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

CAS number
InChI Key


Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 2,709,169.

General References
  1. Amini A, Heidari K, Kariman H, Taghizadeh M, Hatamabadi H, Shahrami A, Derakhshanfar H, Asadollahi S: Histamine Antagonists for Treatment of Peripheral Vertigo: A Meta-Analysis. J Int Adv Otol. 2015 Aug;11(2):138-42. doi: 10.5152/iao.2015.1169. [Article]
  2. Wang Z, Lee B, Pearce D, Qian S, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Chow MS: Meclizine metabolism and pharmacokinetics: formulation on its absorption. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Sep;52(9):1343-9. doi: 10.1177/0091270011414575. Epub 2011 Sep 8. [Article]
  3. 29. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 365-367). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. [ISBN:978-0-7020-3471-8]
  4. Antivert (meclizine hydrochloride) - Drug Summary - [Link]
  5. BONAMINE® (Meclizine Hydrochloride Tablets 25 mg, USP) - Product Monograph [Link]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: ANTIVERT (meclizine) oral tablets [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
Download (25 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
4Unknown StatusOtherDrug Reaction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMeclizine / Sea Sickness1
3CompletedTreatmentVertigo, Peripheral1
2CompletedTreatmentSmoking, Cessation1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Subjects (HS)1
1RecruitingTreatmentHepatocellular Carcinoma1
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionVomiting1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBenign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)1


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Dosage Forms
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral25 mg
Tablet, chewableOral25 mg
Film, solubleOral25 mg/1
Cream; kit; liquid; ointment; tablet; tablet, chewable; tablet, film coatedOral; Topical
TabletOral12.5 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral25 mg/251
Tablet, film coatedOral12.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral25 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25 mg/1
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Meclizine HCl 100 25 mg tablet Box89.97USD box
Antivert 50 mg tablet2.12USD tablet
Antivert 25 mg tablet1.23USD tablet
Meclizine hcl powder1.04USD g
Vertin-32 tablet0.9USD tablet
Antivert 12.5 mg tablet0.82USD tablet
Meclizine HCl 25 mg tablet0.67USD tablet
Meclizine 12.5 mg tablet0.62USD tablet
Sm motion sicknes 25 mg tablet0.5USD tablet
Meclizine HCl 12.5 mg tablet0.43USD tablet
Dramamine less drowsy tablet0.42USD tablet
Bonamine 25 mg Chewable Tablet0.33USD tablet
Dramamine 50 mg tablet0.28USD tablet
Meclizine 25 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Medi-meclizine 25 mg tablet0.06USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)217-224U.S. Patent 2,709,169.
water solubility0.1g/100mLBONAMINE® Product Monograph - McNeil Consumer Healthcare, division of Johnson & Johnson Inc.
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00103 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.71Chemaxon
Physiological Charge1Chemaxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2Chemaxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0Chemaxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2Chemaxon
Rotatable Bond Count5Chemaxon
Refractivity119.39 m3·mol-1Chemaxon
Polarizability44.87 Å3Chemaxon
Number of Rings4Chemaxon
Rule of FiveNoChemaxon
Ghose FilterNoChemaxon
Veber's RuleYesChemaxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemaxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9318
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9656
Caco-2 permeable+0.6369
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7422
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8149
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8042
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7859
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8416
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5134
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6059
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.806
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9698
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.9521
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5209
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8896
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7063
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8536
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.3803 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.6113
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8104
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-052r-1920000000-da1d25573308648315fa
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0ap0-1910000000-a39cf62803f22b3df281
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-66c42b235873c2a66976
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-02a85fbc5761853f587f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-0590000000-4633d1c1f89a98d9a694
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0940000000-38b1d47fb87eb43db9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0910000000-0787c462628db9403567
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-9b3d5063cf1e4fd0ecda
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0390000000-10b11855a2539537e5af


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Pharmacological action
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
  1. Oishi R, Shishido S, Yamori M, Saeki K: Comparison of the effects of eleven histamine H1-receptor antagonists on monoamine turnover in the mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1994 Feb;349(2):140-4. [Article]
  2. Martins MA, Pasquale CP, e Silva PM, Pires AL, Ruffie C, Rihoux JP, Cordeiro RS, Vargaftig BB: Interference of cetirizine with the late eosinophil accumulation induced by either PAF or compound 48/80. Br J Pharmacol. 1992 Jan;105(1):176-80. [Article]
  3. Pasquale CP, e Silva PM, Lima MC, Diaz BL, Rihoux JP, Vargaftig BB, Cordeiro RS, Martins MA: Suppression by cetirizine of pleurisy triggered by antigen in actively sensitized rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 13;223(1):9-14. [Article]
  4. Taniguchi K, Masuda Y, Takanaka K: Inhibitory effects of histamine H1 receptor blocking drugs on metabolic activations of neutrophils. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1991 Feb;14(2):87-93. [Article]
Pharmacological action
Inverse agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital re...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3
Molecular Weight
39942.145 Da
  1. Huang W, Zhang J, Wei P, Schrader WT, Moore DD: Meclizine is an agonist ligand for mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and an inverse agonist for human CAR. Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Oct;18(10):2402-8. Epub 2004 Jul 22. [Article]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da


Pharmacological action
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
  1. Ariga GG, Naik PN, Nandibewoor ST, Chimatadar SA: Quenching of fluorescence by meclizine, a probe study for structural and conformational changes in human serum albumin. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2017 Nov;35(14):3161-3175. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2016.1245159. Epub 2016 Nov 10. [Article]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at March 24, 2023 20:20