Identification

Name
Minocycline
Accession Number
DB01017
Description

Minocycline was first described in the literacture in 1966.1 It is a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that is active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.7 Like other semisynthetic tetracyclines, minocycline has modifications to carbons 7-9 on the D ring to generate higher efficacy than previous tetracyclines.7

Minocycline was granted FDA approval on 30 June 1971.9

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 457.4764
Monoisotopic: 457.184900233
Chemical Formula
C23H27N3O7
Synonyms
  • (4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
  • 7-Dimethylamino-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline
  • Minociclina
  • Minociclinum
  • Minocyclin
  • Minocycline
  • Minocyclinum
  • Minomycin

Pharmacology

Indication

Oral and topical minocycline are indicated to treat inflammatory lesions of acne vulgaris.10,11,16 Subgingival microspheres are indicated as an adjunct treatment in the reduction of pocket depth in adults with periodontitis.15 Oral and intravenous formulations are indicated to treat infections of susceptible microorganisms.12,13,14 These include rickettsiae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Borrelia recurrentis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter fetus, Brucella species, Bartonella bacilliformis, Klebsiella granulomatis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella species, Acinetobacter species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Kelbsiella species.13

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
Learn More
Pharmacodynamics

Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and interferes with protein synthesis. It is generally given 2-4 times daily, so the duration of action is short.12 Intravenous minocycline should not exceed 400mg in 24 hours.14 Patients should be counselled regarding the risks related to tooth and bone development, pseudomembranous colitis, central nervous system side effects, and pseudotumor cerebri.10

Mechanism of action

Tetracyclines enter bacterial cells through OmpF and OmpC porins by coordinating with cations like magnesium.8 This allows tetracyclines into the periplasm where they dissociate, allowing the lipophilic tetracycline to diffuse into the bacterial cytoplasm.8 Tetracyclines prevent aminoacyl-tRNA from binding to the 30S ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis.7,8,13,14

TargetActionsOrganism
A30S ribosomal protein S9
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
A30S ribosomal protein S4
inhibitor
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
U16S ribosomal RNA
inhibitor
Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
UInterleukin-1 beta
modulator
Humans
UArachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
inhibitor
Humans
UMatrix metalloproteinase-9
inhibitor
Humans
UVascular endothelial growth factor A
inhibitor
Humans
UCaspase-1
negative modulator
Humans
UCaspase-3
negative modulator
Humans
UCytochrome c
negative modulator
Humans
UMitogen-activated Protein Kinases
inhibitor
Humans
UNitric oxide synthase, inducible
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

100mg of oral minocycline reaches a Cmax of 1.6mg/L, with a Tmax of 1.9h, and an AUC of 31.6mg/L*h.5 200mg of oral minocycline reaches a Cmax of 3.1mg/L, with a Tmax of 2.5h, and an AUC of 48.3mg/L*h.5

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of minocycline has been reported as 67.5-115L.5

Protein binding

Minocycline is 76% protein bound in serum.6

Metabolism

Minocycline is primarily metabolized to 9-hydroxyminocycline.2 It is also metabolized to 2 different N-demethylated metabolites.2

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Minocycline is predominantly eliminated through the biliary route.3 4.5-9% of an intravenous minocycline dose is recovered in the urine.4,5 10-19.5% of an oral dose is recovered in the urine and 20-34% is recovered in the feces.5

Half-life

The half life of minocycline pellet filled capsules is 11.1-22.1 hours.13 Minocycline intravenous injections have a half live of 15-23 hours.4,14

Clearance

Intravenous minocycline has a clearance of 3.36-5.7L/h, while oral minocycline has a clearance of 3.42-4.4L/h.5

Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
Learn More
Toxicity

The oral LD50 in rats is 2380mg/kg and in mice is 3600mg/kg.17 The intraperitoneal LD50 in rats is 331mg/kg and in mice is 299mg/kg.17 The subcutaneous LD50 in rats is 1700mg/kg and in mice is 2290mg/kg.17

Patients experiencing an overdose may present with dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.13,14 In the event of an overdose, discontinue minocycline and treat patients with symptomatic and supportive measures.10,11,12,13,14

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Chlamydophila psittaci
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Yersinia pestis
  • Escherichia coli
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Acinetobacter
  • Klebsiella
  • Shigella
  • Clostridium
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Enterobacter aerogenes
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Minocycline Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetazolamideMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Acetophenazine.
AcipimoxThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Acipimox.
AcitretinThe risk or severity of pseudotumor cerebri and elevated intracranial pressure can be increased when Acitretin is combined with Minocycline.
AcyclovirThe excretion of Acyclovir can be decreased when combined with Minocycline.
Adefovir dipivoxilThe excretion of Adefovir dipivoxil can be decreased when combined with Minocycline.
AgomelatineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Agomelatine.
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Alendronic acid is combined with Minocycline.
AlfentanilMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Alfentanil.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid multivalent ions. Separate administration of aluminium, calcium, iron and magnesium containing products from medication by at least 2 hours.
  • Take with or without food.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Minocycline hydrochloride0020414E5U13614-98-7GLMUAFMGXXHGLU-VQAITOIOSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Aknemin / Apo-Minocycline / Klinomycin / Minoderm / Minopen / Minox / Minoz / Vectrin
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AmzeeqAerosol, foam40 mg/1gTopicalFoamix Pharmaceuticals Inc.2020-01-02Not applicableUS flag
ArestinPowder1 mg/1OralOraPharma, Inc.2011-03-21Not applicableUS flag
Arestin MicrospheresPowderOralOrapharma Inc2008-07-27Not applicableCanada flag
DynacinCapsule75 mg/1OralMEDICIS, The Dermatology Company2006-11-28Not applicableUS flag
DynacinCapsule50 mg/1OralMEDICIS, The Dermatology Company2006-11-28Not applicableUS flag
DynacinCapsule100 mg/1OralMEDICIS, The Dermatology Company2006-11-28Not applicableUS flag
Enca 100mgCapsuleOralPrempharm Inc2003-10-032009-08-05Canada flag
Enca 50mgCapsuleOralPrempharm Inc2003-10-032009-08-05Canada flag
MinocinCapsule, coated pellets50 mg/1OralBausch Health US, LLC1990-05-31Not applicableUS flag
MinocinCapsule, coated pellets75 mg/1OralOnset Dermatologics LLC1990-05-312014-11-03US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ava-minocyclineCapsuleOralAvanstra IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Dom-minocycline CapsulesCapsuleOralDominion Pharmacal2000-11-242018-10-10Canada flag
Dom-minocycline CapsulesCapsuleOralDominion Pharmacal2000-11-242018-10-10Canada flag
DynacinTablet50 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2011-06-20Not applicableUS flag
DynacinTablet100 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2011-06-20Not applicableUS flag
DynacinTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2003-05-012011-06-01US flag
DynacinTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2003-05-012011-06-01US flag
DynacinTablet75 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2011-06-20Not applicableUS flag
DynacinTablet, film coated75 mg/1OralMedicis Pharmaceutical Corporation2003-05-012011-06-01US flag
MinocyclineTablet100 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2015-05-08Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
J01AA08 — MinocyclineJ01AA20 — Combinations of tetracyclinesA01AB23 — Minocycline
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetracyclines. These are polyketides having an octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide skeleton, substituted with many hydroxy and other groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Tetracyclines
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Tetracyclines
Alternative Parents
Naphthacenes / Anthracenecarboxylic acids and derivatives / Tetralins / Aryl ketones / Dialkylarylamines / Cyclohexenones / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Aralkylamines / Vinylogous acids / Tertiary alcohols
show 8 more
Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Alcohol / Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / Anthracene carboxylic acid or derivatives / Aralkylamine / Aromatic homopolycyclic compound / Aryl ketone / Benzenoid / Carbonyl group
show 24 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tetracyclines, tetracenomycin (CHEBI:50694) / Linear tetracyclines (C07225) / Linear tetracyclines (LMPK07000002)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
FYY3R43WGO
CAS number
10118-90-8
InChI Key
DYKFCLLONBREIL-KVUCHLLUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H27N3O7/c1-25(2)12-5-6-13(27)15-10(12)7-9-8-11-17(26(3)4)19(29)16(22(24)32)21(31)23(11,33)20(30)14(9)18(15)28/h5-6,9,11,17,27,29-30,33H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H2,24,32)/t9-,11-,17-,23-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@]12CC3=C(C(O)=CC=C3N(C)C)C(=O)C1=C(O)[[email protected]]1(O)C(=O)C(C(N)=O)=C(O)[[email protected]@H](N(C)C)[[email protected]]1([H])C2

References

Synthesis Reference

Zita Mendes, Jose Rafael Antunes, Susana Marto, William Heggie, "Crystalline Minocycline Base and Processes for its Preparation." U.S. Patent US20100286417, issued November 11, 2010.

US20100286417
General References
  1. Redin GS: Antibacterial activity in mice of minocycline, a new tetracycline. Antimicrob Agents Chemother (Bethesda). 1966;6:371-6. [PubMed:5985260]
  2. Nelis HJ, De Leenheer AP: Metabolism of minocycline in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1982 Mar-Apr;10(2):142-6. [PubMed:6124399]
  3. Welling PG, Shaw WR, Uman SJ, Tse FL, Craig WA: Pharmacokinetics of minocycline in renal failure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Nov;8(5):532-7. doi: 10.1128/aac.8.5.532. [PubMed:1211910]
  4. Simon C, Malerczyk V, Preuss I, Schmidt K, Grahmann H: [Activity in vitro and pharmacokinetics of minocycline (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976 Apr;26(4):556-60. [PubMed:782466]
  5. Saivin S, Houin G: Clinical pharmacokinetics of doxycycline and minocycline. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1988 Dec;15(6):355-66. doi: 10.2165/00003088-198815060-00001. [PubMed:3072140]
  6. Zhou J, Tran BT, Tam VH: The complexity of minocycline serum protein binding. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jun 1;72(6):1632-1634. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx039. [PubMed:28333250]
  7. Garrido-Mesa N, Zarzuelo A, Galvez J: Minocycline: far beyond an antibiotic. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 May;169(2):337-52. doi: 10.1111/bph.12139. [PubMed:23441623]
  8. Chopra I, Roberts M: Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001 Jun;65(2):232-60 ; second page, table of contents. [PubMed:11381101]
  9. FDA Approved Drug Products: Minocin Minocycline Oral Capsules (Discontinued) [Link]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Ximino Minocycline Oral Extended Release Capsules [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Solodyn Minocycline Oral Extended Release Tablets [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Minocycline Oral Capsules [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Minocin Minocycline Oral Pellet-Filled Capsules [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: Minocin Minocycline Powder for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Arestin Minocycline Subgingival Microspheres [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: Amzeeq Minocycline Topical Foam [Link]
  17. Cayman Chemical: Minocycline MSDS [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015152
KEGG Drug
D05045
KEGG Compound
C07225
PubChem Compound
54675783
PubChem Substance
46504772
ChemSpider
16735907
BindingDB
50103599
RxNav
6980
ChEBI
50694
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1434
ZINC
ZINC000014879992
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000405
PharmGKB
PA450519
PDBe Ligand
MIY
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Minocycline
AHFS Codes
  • 52:04.04 — Antibacterials
  • 08:12.24 — Tetracyclines
PDB Entries
2drd / 2wq5 / 2xpv / 3aod / 3v3n / 4a99 / 4ac0 / 4dx5 / 4u8v / 4u8y
show 5 more
FDA label
Download (3.02 MB)
MSDS
Download (73.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAntibiotic Resistant Bacteria1
4CompletedOtherSchizophrenia / Tobacco Use1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedPreventionESRD1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne2
4CompletedTreatmentAntidepressive Agents / Depressive Disorder, Treatment Resistant / Depressive Disorders / Moods Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile / Minocycline / Regressive Autism1
4CompletedTreatmentBacterial blepharitis1
4CompletedTreatmentBacterial Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Medicis pharmaceutical corp
  • Triax pharmaceuticals llc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • Orapharma inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Matrix laboratories ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation
Packagers
  • AAIPharma Inc.
  • Actavis Group
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Global Pharmaceuticals
  • Impax Laboratories Inc.
  • Johnson & Johnson Healthcare
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medicis Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ohm Laboratories Inc.
  • OraPharma
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Professional Co.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Triax Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • USV Ltd.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wellspring Pharmaceutical
  • Wyeth Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Aerosol, foamTopical40 mg/1g
CapsuleOral
PowderOral1 mg/1
PowderOral
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral75 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral75 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral75 mg/1
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/1
KitOral; Topical100 mg/1
KitOral; Topical50 mg/1
Syrup30 ML
Syrup50 MG/5ML
Tablet200 MG
Capsule, coated pelletsOral100 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 MG
CapsuleOral100 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral105 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral135 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral55 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral80 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral75 mg/1
TabletOral105 mg/1
TabletOral135 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral105 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral115 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral135 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral55 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral65 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral80 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral135 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral45 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral90 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Minocin PAC 100 mg Kit Box695.5USD box
Minocin kit 100 mg combo668.17USD kit
Minocin kit 50 mg combo334.78USD kit
Minocin 100 mg vial59.64USD vial
Arestin 1 mg microsphere30.0USD each
Solodyn 135 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn 45 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn 65 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn 90 mg 24 Hour tablet24.89USD tablet
Solodyn er 115 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 135 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 45 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 65 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Solodyn er 90 mg tablet23.93USD tablet
Minocycline hcl powder21.0USD g
Minocycline HCl 135 mg 24 Hour tablet19.21USD tablet
Minocycline HCl 45 mg 24 Hour tablet19.21USD tablet
Dynacin 100 mg tablet13.37USD tablet
Dynacin 75 mg tablet13.12USD tablet
Minocin 100 mg capsule12.05USD capsule
Minocin 100 mg pelletized cap11.11USD pellet
Dynacin 50 mg tablet8.76USD tablet
Dynacin 75 mg capsule7.15USD capsule
Minocycline hcl 100 mg tablet6.15USD tablet
Minocin 50 mg pelletized cap5.56USD pellet
Minocin 50 mg capsule5.24USD capsule
Minocycline hcl 75 mg tablet5.14USD tablet
Dynacin 50 mg capsule3.85USD capsule
Minocycline HCl 100 mg capsule3.53USD capsule
Minocycline hcl 50 mg tablet3.5USD tablet
Minocycline HCl 75 mg capsule2.06USD capsule
Minocycline 75 mg capsule1.98USD capsule
Minocycline HCl 50 mg capsule1.77USD capsule
Minocin 100 mg Capsule1.34USD capsule
Apo-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Mylan-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Novo-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Pms-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Ratio-Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Sandoz Minocycline 100 mg Capsule1.08USD capsule
Minocin 50 mg Capsule0.69USD capsule
Apo-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Mylan-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Novo-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Pms-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Ratio-Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
Sandoz Minocycline 50 mg Capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA1330533No1994-07-052011-07-05Canada flag
US5908838No1999-06-012018-02-19US flag
US7790705No2010-09-072025-06-24US flag
US7919483No2011-04-052027-03-07US flag
US8252776No2012-08-282025-06-24US flag
US8268804No2012-09-182025-06-24US flag
US8722650No2014-05-132025-06-24US flag
US9192615No2015-11-242031-11-17US flag
US7541347No2009-06-022027-04-02US flag
US7544373No2009-06-092027-04-02US flag
US9278105No2016-03-082031-05-12US flag
US9084802No2015-07-212031-05-12US flag
US7699609No2010-04-202022-03-29US flag
US6682348No2004-01-272022-03-29US flag
US10137200No2018-11-272030-10-01US flag
US8865139No2014-10-212030-10-01US flag
US10398641No2019-09-032037-09-08US flag
US9675700No2017-06-132030-10-01US flag
US8992896No2015-03-312030-10-01US flag
US10086080No2018-10-022030-10-01US flag
US10213512No2019-02-262030-10-01US flag
US10265404No2019-04-232030-10-01US flag
US8945516No2015-02-032030-10-01US flag
US10517882No2019-12-312030-10-01US flag
US10322186No2010-10-012030-10-01US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)753.2ChemSpider
water solubility5.2E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.05SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.07 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.03ALOGPS
logP-3.3ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area164.63 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity122.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability45.9 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7469
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9783
Caco-2 permeable+0.5711
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7366
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7968
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7036
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9536
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8145
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9036
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6805
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9088
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9232
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9081
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9058
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7561
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8909
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9091
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.4354 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9954
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6783
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0001900000-6e678a7f126753a02d03
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0139100000-ff75a26ae387147257db
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0293000000-c2ff616578522f961ba6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0390000000-d52131f98ad1d88e178c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fki-1690000000-e5a98a7122d0379c17ce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-1980000000-8e1add1bcba675eab919
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2940000000-5fb719a03faa19bc3ece
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-6920000000-fb4c9cde9587edd4015e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9300000000-6299955440e9be195128
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-6f7513e3aaa9e86725ec
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0011900000-ed3a433871dc9cea2d9f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0559300000-4e1a4ba6692c21980cae
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-0696000000-f57972687a1b0ffe9411
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1491000000-1847e0c78206ea2f84c3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-0000900000-ae91ec031bca8b95216e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0001900000-0bc6e4a0b16f4acd3d1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uei-1149100000-2ea03125f37fabe56999
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-1192000000-476045d8accb26d18bb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-015i-1390000000-f6a75360809f9018052a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-015i-1890000000-25e6cc490ffec05c4a72
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1910000000-792e383cfc54a9b8ebd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ue9-1900000000-661b85ea2afa687f93a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udr-4900000000-098a637ebcf57aa77319
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-be1710159c584212b699
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-0000900000-bd4b9a1921d45f27be9d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0001900000-96106fbade202303433e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udl-0219400000-07d734cb9f459b083f55
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f8i-1159000000-8e48b5ce1c715cfd049f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000900000-1d9e5a4995f9165bd72f

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
The C-terminal tail plays a role in the affinity of the 30S P site for different tRNAs. Mutations that decrease this affinity are suppressed in the 70S ribosome.
Gene Name
rpsI
Uniprot ID
P0A7X3
Uniprot Name
30S ribosomal protein S9
Molecular Weight
14856.105 Da
References
  1. Zhanel GG, Homenuik K, Nichol K, Noreddin A, Vercaigne L, Embil J, Gin A, Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ: The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs. 2004;64(1):63-88. [PubMed:14723559]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Translation repressor activity, nucleic acid binding
Specific Function
One of two assembly initiator proteins for the 30S subunit, it binds directly to 16S rRNA where it nucleates assembly of the body of the 30S subunit.With S5 and S12 plays an important role in trans...
Gene Name
rpsD
Uniprot ID
P0A7V8
Uniprot Name
30S ribosomal protein S4
Molecular Weight
23468.915 Da
References
  1. Zhanel GG, Homenuik K, Nichol K, Noreddin A, Vercaigne L, Embil J, Gin A, Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ: The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs. 2004;64(1):63-88. [PubMed:14723559]
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
In prokaryotes, the 16S rRNA is essential for recognizing the 5' end of mRNA and hence positioning it correctly on the ribosome. The 16S rRNA has a characteristic secondary structure in which half of the nucleotides are base-paired. The 16S rRNA sequence has been highly conserved and is often used for evolutionary and species comparative analysis.
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Zhanel GG, Homenuik K, Nichol K, Noreddin A, Vercaigne L, Embil J, Gin A, Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ: The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines. Drugs. 2004;64(1):63-88. [PubMed:14723559]
  4. Chukwudi CU: rRNA Binding Sites and the Molecular Mechanism of Action of the Tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jul 22;60(8):4433-41. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00594-16. Print 2016 Aug. [PubMed:27246781]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Protein domain specific binding
Specific Function
Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, ...
Gene Name
IL1B
Uniprot ID
P01584
Uniprot Name
Interleukin-1 beta
Molecular Weight
30747.7 Da
References
  1. Sadowski T, Steinmeyer J: Minocycline inhibits the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase in articular chondrocytes. J Rheumatol. 2001 Feb;28(2):336-40. [PubMed:11246672]
  2. Oringer RJ, Al-Shammari KF, Aldredge WA, Iacono VJ, Eber RM, Wang HL, Berwald B, Nejat R, Giannobile WV: Effect of locally delivered minocycline microspheres on markers of bone resorption. J Periodontol. 2002 Aug;73(8):835-42. [PubMed:12211491]
  3. Amin AR, Attur MG, Thakker GD, Patel PD, Vyas PR, Patel RN, Patel IR, Abramson SB: A novel mechanism of action of tetracyclines: effects on nitric oxide synthases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 26;93(24):14014-9. [PubMed:8943052]
  4. Steinmeyer J, Daufeldt S, Taiwo YO: Pharmacological effect of tetracyclines on proteoglycanases from interleukin-1-treated articular cartilage. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Jan 1;55(1):93-100. [PubMed:9413935]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Song Y, Wei EQ, Zhang WP, Zhang L, Liu JR, Chen Z: Minocycline protects PC12 cells from ischemic-like injury and inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activation. Neuroreport. 2004 Oct 5;15(14):2181-4. [PubMed:15371729]
  2. Song Y, Wei EQ, Zhang WP, Ge QF, Liu JR, Wang ML, Huang XJ, Hu X, Chen Z: Minocycline protects PC12 cells against NMDA-induced injury via inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activation. Brain Res. 2006 Apr 26;1085(1):57-67. Epub 2006 Mar 30. [PubMed:16574083]
  3. Chu LS, Fang SH, Zhou Y, Yu GL, Wang ML, Zhang WP, Wei EQ: Minocycline inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activation and brain inflammation after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007 Jun;28(6):763-72. [PubMed:17506934]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves...
Gene Name
MMP9
Uniprot ID
P14780
Uniprot Name
Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Molecular Weight
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Brundula V, Rewcastle NB, Metz LM, Bernard CC, Yong VW: Targeting leukocyte MMPs and transmigration: minocycline as a potential therapy for multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2002 Jun;125(Pt 6):1297-308. [PubMed:12023318]
  2. Sutton TA, Kelly KJ, Mang HE, Plotkin Z, Sandoval RM, Dagher PC: Minocycline reduces renal microvascular leakage in a rat model of ischemic renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Jan;288(1):F91-7. Epub 2004 Sep 7. [PubMed:15353401]
  3. Koistinaho M, Malm TM, Kettunen MI, Goldsteins G, Starckx S, Kauppinen RA, Opdenakker G, Koistinaho J: Minocycline protects against permanent cerebral ischemia in wild type but not in matrix metalloprotease-9-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Apr;25(4):460-7. [PubMed:15674236]
  4. Lee CZ, Yao JS, Huang Y, Zhai W, Liu W, Guglielmo BJ, Lin E, Yang GY, Young WL: Dose-response effect of tetracyclines on cerebral matrix metalloproteinase-9 after vascular endothelial growth factor hyperstimulation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Sep;26(9):1157-64. Epub 2006 Jan 4. [PubMed:16395286]
  5. Machado LS, Kozak A, Ergul A, Hess DC, Borlongan CV, Fagan SC: Delayed minocycline inhibits ischemia-activated matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 after experimental stroke. BMC Neurosci. 2006 Jul 17;7:56. [PubMed:16846501]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding
Specific Function
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of...
Gene Name
VEGFA
Uniprot ID
P15692
Uniprot Name
Vascular endothelial growth factor A
Molecular Weight
27042.205 Da
References
  1. Sasamura H, Takahashi A, Miyao N, Yanase M, Masumori N, Kitamura H, Itoh N, Tsukamoto T: Inhibitory effect on expression of angiogenic factors by antiangiogenic agents in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2002 Mar 4;86(5):768-73. [PubMed:11875741]
  2. Yao JS, Chen Y, Zhai W, Xu K, Young WL, Yang GY: Minocycline exerts multiple inhibitory effects on vascular endothelial growth factor-induced smooth muscle cell migration: the role of ERK1/2, PI3K, and matrix metalloproteinases. Circ Res. 2004 Aug 20;95(4):364-71. Epub 2004 Jul 15. [PubMed:15256478]
  3. Rocchetti R, Talevi S, Margiotta C, Calza R, Corallini A, Possati L: Antiangiogenic drugs for chemotherapy of bladder tumours. Chemotherapy. 2005 Oct;51(6):291-9. Epub 2005 Oct 13. [PubMed:16224178]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Thiol protease that cleaves IL-1 beta between an Asp and an Ala, releasing the mature cytokine which is involved in a variety of inflammatory processes. Important for defense against pathogens. Cle...
Gene Name
CASP1
Uniprot ID
P29466
Uniprot Name
Caspase-1
Molecular Weight
45158.215 Da
References
  1. Chen M, Ona VO, Li M, Ferrante RJ, Fink KB, Zhu S, Bian J, Guo L, Farrell LA, Hersch SM, Hobbs W, Vonsattel JP, Cha JH, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits caspase-1 and caspase-3 expression and delays mortality in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Nat Med. 2000 Jul;6(7):797-801. [PubMed:10888929]
  2. Sanchez Mejia RO, Ona VO, Li M, Friedlander RM: Minocycline reduces traumatic brain injury-mediated caspase-1 activation, tissue damage, and neurological dysfunction. Neurosurgery. 2001 Jun;48(6):1393-9; discussion 1399-401. [PubMed:11383749]
  3. Vincent JA, Mohr S: Inhibition of caspase-1/interleukin-1beta signaling prevents degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes and galactosemia. Diabetes. 2007 Jan;56(1):224-30. [PubMed:17192486]
  4. Kim HS, Suh YH: Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):168-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.040. Epub 2008 Oct 11. [PubMed:18977395]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Phospholipase a2 activator activity
Specific Function
Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. At the onset of apoptosis it proteolytically cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at a '216-Asp-|-Gly-217' ...
Gene Name
CASP3
Uniprot ID
P42574
Uniprot Name
Caspase-3
Molecular Weight
31607.58 Da
References
  1. Chen M, Ona VO, Li M, Ferrante RJ, Fink KB, Zhu S, Bian J, Guo L, Farrell LA, Hersch SM, Hobbs W, Vonsattel JP, Cha JH, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits caspase-1 and caspase-3 expression and delays mortality in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Nat Med. 2000 Jul;6(7):797-801. [PubMed:10888929]
  2. Arvin KL, Han BH, Du Y, Lin SZ, Paul SM, Holtzman DM: Minocycline markedly protects the neonatal brain against hypoxic-ischemic injury. Ann Neurol. 2002 Jul;52(1):54-61. [PubMed:12112047]
  3. Dommergues MA, Plaisant F, Verney C, Gressens P: Early microglial activation following neonatal excitotoxic brain damage in mice: a potential target for neuroprotection. Neuroscience. 2003;121(3):619-28. [PubMed:14568022]
  4. Lee SM, Yune TY, Kim SJ, Park DW, Lee YK, Kim YC, Oh YJ, Markelonis GJ, Oh TH: Minocycline reduces cell death and improves functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 2003 Oct;20(10):1017-27. [PubMed:14588118]
  5. Baptiste DC, Hartwick AT, Jollimore CA, Baldridge WH, Seigel GM, Kelly ME: An investigation of the neuroprotective effects of tetracycline derivatives in experimental models of retinal cell death. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Nov;66(5):1113-22. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [PubMed:15304547]
  6. Kim HS, Suh YH: Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):168-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.040. Epub 2008 Oct 11. [PubMed:18977395]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfe...
Gene Name
CYCS
Uniprot ID
P99999
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome c
Molecular Weight
11748.69 Da
References
  1. Zhu S, Stavrovskaya IG, Drozda M, Kim BY, Ona V, Li M, Sarang S, Liu AS, Hartley DM, Wu DC, Gullans S, Ferrante RJ, Przedborski S, Kristal BS, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits cytochrome c release and delays progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice. Nature. 2002 May 2;417(6884):74-8. [PubMed:11986668]
  2. Matsuki S, Iuchi Y, Ikeda Y, Sasagawa I, Tomita Y, Fujii J: Suppression of cytochrome c release and apoptosis in testes with heat stress by minocycline. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Dec 19;312(3):843-9. [PubMed:14680842]
  3. Chu HC, Lin YL, Sytwu HK, Lin SH, Liao CL, Chao YC: Effects of minocycline on Fas-mediated fulminant hepatitis in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;144(2):275-82. [PubMed:15665864]
  4. Heo K, Cho YJ, Cho KJ, Kim HW, Kim HJ, Shin HY, Lee BI, Kim GW: Minocycline inhibits caspase-dependent and -independent cell death pathways and is neuroprotective against hippocampal damage after treatment with kainic acid in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006 May 8;398(3):195-200. Epub 2006 Feb 15. [PubMed:16469440]
  5. Mansson R, Hansson MJ, Morota S, Uchino H, Ekdahl CT, Elmer E: Re-evaluation of mitochondrial permeability transition as a primary neuroprotective target of minocycline. Neurobiol Dis. 2007 Jan;25(1):198-205. Epub 2006 Oct 24. [PubMed:17067803]
  6. Kim HS, Suh YH: Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):168-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.040. Epub 2008 Oct 11. [PubMed:18977395]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rna polymerase ii carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity
Specific Function
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK ca...

Components:
References
  1. Zhu S, Stavrovskaya IG, Drozda M, Kim BY, Ona V, Li M, Sarang S, Liu AS, Hartley DM, Wu DC, Gullans S, Ferrante RJ, Przedborski S, Kristal BS, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits cytochrome c release and delays progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice. Nature. 2002 May 2;417(6884):74-8. [PubMed:11986668]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity ...
Gene Name
NOS2
Uniprot ID
P35228
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible
Molecular Weight
131116.3 Da
References
  1. Zhu S, Stavrovskaya IG, Drozda M, Kim BY, Ona V, Li M, Sarang S, Liu AS, Hartley DM, Wu DC, Gullans S, Ferrante RJ, Przedborski S, Kristal BS, Friedlander RM: Minocycline inhibits cytochrome c release and delays progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice. Nature. 2002 May 2;417(6884):74-8. [PubMed:11986668]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Porin activity
Specific Function
Forms pores that allow passive diffusion of small molecules across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2.
Gene Name
ompF
Uniprot ID
P02931
Uniprot Name
Outer membrane protein F
Molecular Weight
39333.105 Da
References
  1. Chopra I, Roberts M: Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001 Jun;65(2):232-60 ; second page, table of contents. [PubMed:11381101]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Forms pores that allow passive diffusion of small molecules across the outer membrane.
Specific Function
Metal ion binding
Gene Name
ompC
Uniprot ID
P06996
Uniprot Name
Outer membrane porin C
Molecular Weight
40367.94 Da
References
  1. Chopra I, Roberts M: Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001 Jun;65(2):232-60 ; second page, table of contents. [PubMed:11381101]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters mediate the transport of tetracycline. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;88(1):69-76. [PubMed:11855680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID
Q9Y694
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters mediate the transport of tetracycline. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;88(1):69-76. [PubMed:11855680]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 25, 2020 15:13

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