Identification

Name
Clofarabine
Accession Number
DB00631
Description

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is marketed as Clolar in the U.S. and Canada, or Evoltra in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Clofarabine is used in paediatrics to treat a type of leukaemia called relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), only after at least two other types of treatment have failed. It is not known if the drug extends life expectancy. Its potential use in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) has been investigated.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 303.677
Monoisotopic: 303.053445155
Chemical Formula
C10H11ClFN5O3
Synonyms
  • (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol
  • 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine
  • 2-chloro-9-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine
  • CAFdA
  • Cl-F-Ara-A
  • Clofarabin
  • Clofarabina
  • Clofarabine
  • Clofarabinum
External IDs
  • C1-F-Ara-A
  • CAfdA

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia after at least two prior regimens. It is designated as an orphan drug by the FDA for this use.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite that differs from other puring nucleoside analogs by the presence of a chlorine in the purine ring and a flourine in the ribose moiety. Clofarabine seems to interfere with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. Since the growth of normal body cells may also be affected by clofarabine, other effects also occur. Clofarabine prevents cells from making DNA and RNA by interfering with the synthesis of nucleic acids, thus stopping the growth of cancer cells.

Mechanism of action

Clofarabine is metabolized intracellularly to the active 5'-monophosphate metabolite by deoxycytidine kinase and 5'-triphosphate metabolite by mono- and di-phospho-kinases. This metabolite inhibits DNA synthesis through an inhibitory action on ribonucleotide reductase, and by terminating DNA chain elongation and inhibiting repair through competitive inhibition of DNA polymerases. This leads to the depletion of the intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate pool and the self-potentiation of clofarabine triphosphate incorporation into DNA, thereby intensifying the effectiveness of DNA synthesis inhibition. The affinity of clofarabine triphosphate for these enzymes is similar to or greater than that of deoxyadenosine triphosphate. In preclinical models, clofarabine has demonstrated the ability to inhibit DNA repair by incorporation into the DNA chain during the repair process. Clofarabine 5'-triphosphate also disrupts the integrity of mitochondrial membrane, leading to the release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor, leading to programmed cell death.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit
inhibitor
Humans
ARibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
inhibitor
Humans
ADNA
other/unknown
Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
  • 172 L/m2
Protein binding

47% bound to plasma proteins, predominantly to albumin.

Metabolism

Clofarabine is sequentially metabolized intracellularly to the 5’-monophosphate metabolite by deoxycytidine kinase and mono- and di-phosphokinases to the active 5’-triphosphate metabolite. Clofarabine has high affinity for the activating phosphorylating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase, equal to or greater than that of the natural substrate, deoxycytidine.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

Based on 24-hour urine collections in the pediatric studies, 49 - 60% of the dose is excreted in the urine unchanged.

Half-life

The terminal half-life is estimated to be 5.2 hours.

Clearance
  • 28.8 L/h/m2 [Pediatric patients (2 - 19 years old) with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) receiving 52 mg/m2 dose]
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

There were no known overdoses of clofarabine. The highest daily dose administered to a human to date (on a mg/m2 basis) has been 70 mg/m2/day × 5 days (2 pediatric ALL patients). The toxicities included in these 2 patients included grade 4 hyperbilirubinemia, grade 2 and 3 vomiting, and grade 3 maculopapular rash.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirClofarabine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Clofarabine.
AbemaciclibAbemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Clofarabine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Clofarabine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Clofarabine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Clofarabine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acenocoumarol is combined with Clofarabine.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Clofarabine which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid echinacea. Echinacea should be used with caution, if at all, in patients receiving therapeutic immunosuppressants. Monitor for reduced efficacy of the immunosuppressant during concomitant use.

Products

International/Other Brands
Clofazic (Raffo)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClolarInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenoussanofi-aventis U.S. LLC2013-04-01Not applicableUS flag
ClolarSolutionIntravenousSanofi Aventis2010-02-10Not applicableCanada flag
ClolarInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousGenzyme Corporation2004-12-282013-03-31US flag
ClolarInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenoussanofi-aventis U.S. LLC2017-07-012019-03-31US flag
EvoltraInjection, solution, concentrate1 mg/mlIntravenousGenzyme Europe Bv2006-05-29Not applicableEU flag
EvoltraInjection, solution, concentrate1 mg/mlIntravenousGenzyme Europe Bv2006-05-29Not applicableEU flag
EvoltraInjection, solution, concentrate1 mg/mlIntravenousGenzyme Europe Bv2006-05-29Not applicableEU flag
EvoltraInjection, solution, concentrate1 mg/mlIntravenousGenzyme Europe Bv2006-05-29Not applicableEU flag
EvoltraInjection, solution, concentrate1 mg/mlIntravenousGenzyme Europe Bv2006-05-29Not applicableEU flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2018-11-14Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousCadila Healthcare Limited2017-05-10Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousWinthrop U.S.2017-05-11Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousApotex Corp.2018-01-01Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousDr.Reddy's Laboratories Inc2017-11-08Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2017-05-10Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousFosun Pharma USA Inc.2019-08-19Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousAmneal Pharmaceuticals LLC2017-11-06Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2018-09-27Not applicableUS flag
ClofarabineInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2017-11-06Not applicableUS flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L01BB06 — Clofarabine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. These are compounds consisting of a purine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Class
Purine nucleosides
Sub Class
Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Direct Parent
Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Alternative Parents
6-aminopurines / 2-halopyrimidines / Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Aryl chlorides / Imidolactams / N-substituted imidazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Tetrahydrofurans / Secondary alcohols / Fluorohydrins
show 9 more
Substituents
2-halopyrimidine / 6-aminopurine / Alcohol / Alkyl fluoride / Alkyl halide / Amine / Aminopyrimidine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide
show 28 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, adenosines (CHEBI:681569)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
762RDY0Y2H
CAS number
123318-82-1
InChI Key
WDDPHFBMKLOVOX-AYQXTPAHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H11ClFN5O3/c11-10-15-7(13)5-8(16-10)17(2-14-5)9-4(12)6(19)3(1-18)20-9/h2-4,6,9,18-19H,1H2,(H2,13,15,16)/t3-,4+,6-,9-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-chloro-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol
SMILES
[H][[email protected]]1(F)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]@H](CO)O[[email protected]]1N1C=NC2=C(N)N=C(Cl)N=C12

References

General References
  1. Pession A, Masetti R, Kleinschmidt K, Martoni A: Use of clofarabine for acute childhood leukemia. Biologics. 2010 Jun 24;4:111-8. [PubMed:20631817]
  2. Harned TM, Gaynon PS: Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36. [PubMed:18728851]
  3. Lech-Maranda E, Korycka A, Robak T: Clofarabine as a novel nucleoside analogue approved to treat patients with haematological malignancies: mechanism of action and clinical activity. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009 Jun;9(7):805-12. [PubMed:19519505]
  4. Larson ML, Venugopal P: Clofarabine: a new treatment option for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Jun;10(8):1353-7. doi: 10.1517/14656560902997990. [PubMed:19463072]
  5. Zhenchuk A, Lotfi K, Juliusson G, Albertioni F: Mechanisms of anti-cancer action and pharmacology of clofarabine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Dec 1;78(11):1351-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.094. Epub 2009 Jul 1. [PubMed:19576186]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014769
PubChem Compound
119182
PubChem Substance
46504968
ChemSpider
106472
RxNav
44151
ChEBI
681569
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1750
ZINC
ZINC000003798247
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000849
PharmGKB
PA164754863
PDBe Ligand
CFB
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Clofarabine
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
PDB Entries
2a7q
FDA label
Download (281 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7) / Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0) / Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a) / Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4) / Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a) / Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b) / Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Secondary AML, sAML) / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Central Nervous System Leukemia / Ph-Like Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Testicular Leukemia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDisorder Related to Bone Marrow Transplantation / Leukemias / Transplantation Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)2
3RecruitingTreatmentB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Central Nervous System Leukemia / Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy / Neurotoxicity Syndrome / Osteonecrosis / Pain / Testicular Leukemia / Therapy-Related Toxicity / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLangerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Genzyme corp
Packagers
  • AAIPharma Inc.
  • Genzyme Inc.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral1 MG/ML
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous20 mg
InjectionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous1 mg/ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mg/20mL
Injection, solution
Injection, solution, concentrate20 mg/20ml
SolutionIntravenous1 mg/1ml
Solution, concentrateIntravenous1 mg
Solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Clolar 20 mg/20 ml vial135.0USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2102782No2003-09-162012-05-07Canada flag
US5661136Yes1997-08-262018-07-14US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.89 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.32ALOGPS
logP-0.29ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.71ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area119.31 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity67 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9827
Caco-2 permeable-0.7369
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8001
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9382
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8279
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9144
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9031
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8291
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5681
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.817
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8462
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8849
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8391
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8499
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9002
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7338
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7723
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.2651 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9643
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8304
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1903000000-294bd193e470f829e963

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function
Plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication. During the S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA polymerase alpha complex (composed of a catalytic subunit POLA1/p180, a regulatory subuni...
Gene Name
POLA1
Uniprot ID
P09884
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
165911.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Pession A, Masetti R, Kleinschmidt K, Martoni A: Use of clofarabine for acute childhood leukemia. Biologics. 2010 Jun 24;4:111-8. [PubMed:20631817]
  4. Authors unspecified: Clofarabine. Drugs R D. 2004;5(4):213-7. [PubMed:15230627]
  5. Musto P, Ferrara F: Clofarabine: in search of combinations for the treatment of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer. 2008 Oct 15;113(8):1995-8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23804. [PubMed:18780321]
  6. Harned TM, Gaynon PS: Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36. [PubMed:18728851]
  7. Kantarjian HM, Jeha S, Gandhi V, Wess M, Faderl S: Clofarabine: past, present, and future. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007 Oct;48(10):1922-30. [PubMed:17852710]
  8. Lech-Maranda E, Korycka A, Robak T: Clofarabine as a novel nucleoside analogue approved to treat patients with haematological malignancies: mechanism of action and clinical activity. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009 Jun;9(7):805-12. [PubMed:19519505]
  9. Zhenchuk A, Lotfi K, Juliusson G, Albertioni F: Mechanisms of anti-cancer action and pharmacology of clofarabine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Dec 1;78(11):1351-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.094. Epub 2009 Jul 1. [PubMed:19576186]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor
Specific Function
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.
Gene Name
RRM1
Uniprot ID
P23921
Uniprot Name
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
Molecular Weight
90069.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Pession A, Masetti R, Kleinschmidt K, Martoni A: Use of clofarabine for acute childhood leukemia. Biologics. 2010 Jun 24;4:111-8. [PubMed:20631817]
  4. Authors unspecified: Clofarabine. Drugs R D. 2004;5(4):213-7. [PubMed:15230627]
  5. Musto P, Ferrara F: Clofarabine: in search of combinations for the treatment of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer. 2008 Oct 15;113(8):1995-8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23804. [PubMed:18780321]
  6. Harned TM, Gaynon PS: Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36. [PubMed:18728851]
  7. Kantarjian HM, Jeha S, Gandhi V, Wess M, Faderl S: Clofarabine: past, present, and future. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007 Oct;48(10):1922-30. [PubMed:17852710]
  8. Lech-Maranda E, Korycka A, Robak T: Clofarabine as a novel nucleoside analogue approved to treat patients with haematological malignancies: mechanism of action and clinical activity. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009 Jun;9(7):805-12. [PubMed:19519505]
  9. Zhenchuk A, Lotfi K, Juliusson G, Albertioni F: Mechanisms of anti-cancer action and pharmacology of clofarabine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Dec 1;78(11):1351-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.094. Epub 2009 Jul 1. [PubMed:19576186]
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Other/unknown
DNA is the molecule of heredity, as it is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits. It is a polynucleic acid that carries genetic information on cell growth, division, and function. DNA consists of two long strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and held together by hydrogen bonds. The sequence of nucleotides determines hereditary characteristics. Each strand serves as the template for subsequent DNA replication and as a template for mRNA production, leading to protein synthesis via ribosomes.
References
  1. Pession A, Masetti R, Kleinschmidt K, Martoni A: Use of clofarabine for acute childhood leukemia. Biologics. 2010 Jun 24;4:111-8. [PubMed:20631817]
  2. Harned TM, Gaynon PS: Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36. [PubMed:18728851]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Required for the phosphorylation of the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine (dC), deoxyguanosine (dG) and deoxyadenosine (dA). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based...
Gene Name
DCK
Uniprot ID
P27707
Uniprot Name
Deoxycytidine kinase
Molecular Weight
30518.315 Da
References
  1. Pession A, Masetti R, Kleinschmidt K, Martoni A: Use of clofarabine for acute childhood leukemia. Biologics. 2010 Jun 24;4:111-8. [PubMed:20631817]
  2. Zhenchuk A, Lotfi K, Juliusson G, Albertioni F: Mechanisms of anti-cancer action and pharmacology of clofarabine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Dec 1;78(11):1351-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.094. Epub 2009 Jul 1. [PubMed:19576186]
  3. Kantarjian HM, Jeha S, Gandhi V, Wess M, Faderl S: Clofarabine: past, present, and future. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007 Oct;48(10):1922-30. [PubMed:17852710]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. de Wolf C, Jansen R, Yamaguchi H, de Haas M, van de Wetering K, Wijnholds J, Beijnen J, Borst P: Contribution of the drug transporter ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) to resistance against anticancer nucleosides. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Sep;7(9):3092-102. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0427. Epub 2008 Sep 2. [PubMed:18765824]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 25, 2020 09:16

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