Identification

Summary

Zonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant used to treat partial seizures.

Brand Names
Zonegran, Zonisade
Generic Name
Zonisamide
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00909
Background

Zonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant used as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures.7,8 Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels, leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.7,8 Zonisamide represents an alternative for patients that remain refractory to established antiepileptic drugs. In 1989, it was approved for commercial use in Japan. The US and Europe approved it in 2000 and 2005, respectively.1,4

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Weight
Average: 212.226
Monoisotopic: 212.025562822
Chemical Formula
C8H8N2O3S
Synonyms
  • 1,2-Benzisoxazole-3-methanesulfonamide
  • 3-(Sulfamoylmethyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole
  • Benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl-methanesulfonamide
  • Zonisamida
  • Zonisamide
  • Zonisamidum
External IDs
  • AD-810
  • CI-912
  • PD-110843

Pharmacology

Indication

Zonisamide capsules are indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.7 Zonisamide oral suspension is indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults and pediatric patients 16 years of age and older.8

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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

By stopping the spread of seizure discharges, zonisamide prevents the extensor component of tonic convulsion, restricts the spread of focal seizures and prevents the propagation of seizures from the cortex to subcortical structures.4,5 In animal models, zonisamide was effective against tonic extension seizures but ineffective against clonic seizures. It also increased the threshold for generalized seizures and reduced the duration of cortical focal seizures.7 Aside from its antiepileptic effects, zonisamide is capable of activating neuroprotective mechanisms. It inhibits nitric oxide synthase and ​​reduces ischemia-induced memory impairment and lipid peroxidation.4

The use of zonisamide may lead to potentially fatal reactions. Severe reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, and aplastic anemia have been reported in patients treated with sulfonamides such as zonisamide. Zonisamide may also lead to the development of serious hematological events, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and multi-organ hypersensitivity, acute myopia and secondary angle closure glaucoma, as well as suicidal behaviour and ideation.7,8 Zonisamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which may lead to metabolic acidosis in patients treated with this drug. Its therapeutic effects due to this pharmacological action are unknown.7

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action by which zonisamide controls seizures has not been fully established. However, its antiepileptic properties may be due to its effects on sodium and calcium channels.7,8 Zonisamide blocks sodium channels and reduces voltage-dependent, transient inward currents, stabilizing neuronal membranes and suppressing neuronal hypersynchronization.7,8 It affects T-type calcium currents, but has no effect on L-type calcium currents.3,4,6

Zonisamide suppresses synaptically-driven electrical activity by altering the synthesis, release, and degradation of neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT), and acetylcholine.4,2 Furthermore, it binds to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor ionophore complex without producing changes in chloride flux.7,8 In vitro studies have suggested that zonisamide does not affect postsynaptic GABA or glutamate responses, nor the neuronal or glial uptake of [3H]-GABA.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel subunit beta-1
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel subunit beta-2
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel subunit beta-3
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel subunit beta-4
inhibitor
Humans
AVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
inhibitor
Humans
AVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H
inhibitor
Humans
AVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 1
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 2
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 3
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 4
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 6
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 7
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase-related protein
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 9
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 10
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 11
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 12
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 13
inhibitor
Humans
UCarbonic anhydrase 14
inhibitor
Humans
UAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
inhibitor
Humans
UAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
inhibitor
Humans
UGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Site
binder
Humans
Absorption

Between 200 and 400 mg, zonisamide follows a dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile.7,8 At concentrations higher than 800 mg, the Cmax and AUC increase in a disproportional manner, possibly due to zonisamide binding red blood cells. In healthy volunteers given 200 to 400 mg of zonisamide orally, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) range between 2 and 5 µg/mL and are reached within 2–6 hours (Tmax).7 In healthy volunteers given 100 mg of zonisamide oral suspension, the Tmax ranged from 0.5 to 5 hours.8 Zonisamide has a high oral bioavailability (95%).4 The Tmax of zonisamide was delayed by food intake (4-6 hours); however, food has no effect on its bioavailability. Steady state is achieved 14 days after a stable dose is reached.7,8

Volume of distribution

Following a 400 mg oral dose, zonisamide has an apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of 1.45 L/kg.7,8

Protein binding

At concentrations between 1.0 and 7.0 μg/mL, zonisamide is approximately 40% bound to human plasma proteins.7,8 The concentration of zonisamide is 8-fold higher in red blood cells than in plasma due to its ability to bind extensively to erythrocytes. The presence of therapeutic concentrations of phenytoin, phenobarbital, or carbamazepine does not affect zonisamide protein binding.7,8

Metabolism

Zonisamide metabolites are generated mainly by principally reductive and conjugative mechanisms. Oxidation reactions play a minor role in the metabolism of zonisamide.4 Zonisamide is metabolized by N-acetyl-transferases to form N-acetyl zonisamide and reduced to form the open ring metabolite, 2–sulfamoylacetylphenol (SMAP). The reduction of zonisamide to SMAP is mediated by CYP3A4.1,4,7,8 Zonisamide does not induce liver enzymes or its own metabolism.1

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Route of elimination

Zonisamide is mainly excreted as the parent drug and the glucuronide of a metabolite. Urine is the main route of zonisamide excretion, and only a small portion of this drug is excreted in feces.1 Following multiple doses of radiolabeled zonisamide, 62% of the dose was recovered in the urine, and 3% in feces by day 10. Of the excreted dose of zonisamide, 35% was recovered unchanged, 15% as N-acetyl zonisamide, and 50% as the glucuronide of 2–sulfamoylacetylphenol (SMAP).7,8

Half-life

In plasma, the elimination half-life of zonisamide is approximately 63 hours. In red blood cells, it is approximately 105 hours.7,8

Clearance

In patients not taking enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs), the plasma clearance of oral zonisamide is approximately 0.30-0.35 mL/min/kg. In patients treated with AEDs, this value increases to 0.5 mL/min/kg.7,8 Renal clearance is approximately 3.5 mL/min after a single-dose of zonisamide.7,8 In red blood cells, the clearance of an oral dose of zonisamide is 2 mL/min.7

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Information on daily doses over 800 mg/day of zonisamide is limited. During clinical development, three patients ingested unknown amounts of zonisamide as suicide attempts, and all of them were hospitalized with central nervous system symptoms. One patient became comatose and developed bradycardia, hypotension, and respiratory depression; 31 hours after zonisamide ingestion, plasma level was 100.1 µg/mL. Zonisamide plasma levels fell with a half-life of 57 hours, and the patient became alert five days later.7,8 There are no specific antidotes for zonisamide overdosage. In case of a suspected recent overdose, emesis should be induced or gastric lavage performed with the usual precautions to protect the airway. General supportive care is indicated, including frequent monitoring of vital signs and close observation.7,8 Due to its long half-life and low protein binding, renal dialysis may be effective in treating zonisamide overdose; however, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been formally studied.8

In vivo studies found no evidence of carcinogenicity at zonisamide doses equivalent to or higher than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). In an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in CHL cells, zonisamide displayed mutagenicity. Signs of reproductive toxicity were also detected in rats treated with a dose 0.5 times the MRHD.7,8

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AbacavirZonisamide may increase the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbemaciclibThe serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Zonisamide.
AbrocitinibThe metabolism of Abrocitinib can be decreased when combined with Zonisamide.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Zonisamide.
AcebutololZonisamide may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacZonisamide may increase the excretion rate of Aceclofenac which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol. Ingesting alcohol may increase drowsiness and dizziness.
  • Take with or without food.

Products

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Product Images
International/Other Brands
Exceglan / Excegram
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating100 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-202020-02-07EU flag
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
ZonegranCapsule25 mg/1OralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUS flag
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating50 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-202020-02-07EU flag
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralAmdipharm Limited2016-09-20Not applicableEU flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralWockhardt2006-07-27Not applicableUS flag
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUS flag
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralALPHAPHARM PARTY LTD2010-01-012013-01-01US flag
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralProficient Rx LP2006-01-30Not applicableUS flag
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralCadila Healthcare Limited2017-11-22Not applicableUS flag
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralApotex Corp.2005-12-222012-03-31US flag
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAurobindo Pharma Limited2020-08-17Not applicableUS flag
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralTeva2010-11-182010-11-18US flag
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2006-03-17Not applicableUS flag
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralWockhardt2006-07-27Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N03AX15 — ZonisamideG01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamides
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzisoxazoles. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an isoxazole ring. Isoxazole is five-membered ring with three carbon atoms, and an oxygen atom next to a nitrogen atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzisoxazoles
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Benzisoxazoles
Alternative Parents
Organosulfonamides / Organic sulfonamides / Benzenoids / Isoxazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Oxacyclic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
Aminosulfonyl compound / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Benzenoid / Benzisoxazole / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Isoxazole / Organic nitrogen compound
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, 1,2-benzoxazoles (CHEBI:10127)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
459384H98V
CAS number
68291-97-4
InChI Key
UBQNRHZMVUUOMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H8N2O3S/c9-14(11,12)5-7-6-3-1-2-4-8(6)13-10-7/h1-4H,5H2,(H2,9,11,12)
IUPAC Name
(1,2-benzoxazol-3-yl)methanesulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)CC1=NOC2=CC=CC=C12

References

Synthesis Reference

Nidam, T. et al. Novel sulfonation method for zonisamide intermediate in zonisamide synthesis and their novel crystal forms. (2003) U.S. Patent US 2003/0144527 A1. Available at: https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/25/24/0f/19d95f38252d52/US20030144527A1.pdf

US20030114682
General References
  1. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  2. Ueda Y, Doi T, Tokumaru J, Willmore LJ: Effect of zonisamide on molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins during epileptogenesis in rats with hippocampal seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Aug 19;116(1-2):1-6. [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  5. Peters DH, Sorkin EM: Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Drugs. 1993 May;45(5):760-87. [Article]
  6. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONEGRAN (zonisamide) capsules for oral use [Link]
  8. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONISADE (zonisamide) suspension for oral use [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015045
KEGG Drug
D00538
KEGG Compound
C07504
PubChem Compound
5734
PubChem Substance
46505278
ChemSpider
5532
BindingDB
50028010
RxNav
39998
ChEBI
10127
ChEMBL
CHEMBL750
ZINC
ZINC000000004321
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000500
PharmGKB
PA451978
PDBe Ligand
ZON
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Zonisamide
PDB Entries
3po7
FDA label
Download (124 KB)
MSDS
Download (58.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependency1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies7
4CompletedTreatmentObesity1
4CompletedTreatmentPartial Epilepsy1
4CompletedTreatmentPartial-Onset Seizures1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPartial Epilepsy1
4SuspendedTreatmentDyskinesia / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonism1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
  • Alphapharm Party Ltd.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Eisai Inc.
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Eon Labs
  • Genpharm LP
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • InvaGen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral100 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral100 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral300 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral50 mg
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg
TabletOral
CapsuleOral50 mg
SuspensionOral100 mg/5mL
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
CapsuleOral
SuspensionOral20 MG/ML
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zonegran 100 mg capsule3.33USD capsule
Zonisamide 100 mg capsule2.24USD capsule
Zonegran 50 mg capsule1.22USD capsule
Zonisamide 50 mg capsule1.12USD capsule
Zonegran 25 mg capsule0.94USD capsule
Zonisamide 25 mg capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)161-163 °CDasgupta A. et al. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Data: A Concise Guide. Academic Press, 2019, 4th edition.
water solubility0.8 mg/mLFDA Label
logP0.5Not Available
pKa10.2FDA Label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.67ALOGPS
logP0.11ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity50.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9755
Caco-2 permeable-0.6385
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8681
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9258
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9513
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8463
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8828
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5419
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5762
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.697
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8081
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6007
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7315
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6276
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7572
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9708
Rat acute toxicity2.0592 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8549
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8937
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-c05ae650c884adcaba5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-477908537d156d43e3a9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-f537644668fbc9b2e02b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-6359b9c8e68ec5477b26
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-3900000000-db3cf8881465259c48ca
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-6900000000-cd4c8b86f36ce38b3a49
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0930000000-a0dd3941aea211aeb201
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-88938a9c69a2d4daf36a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-2900000000-3440f1648bff05d21a31
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-5900000000-a727755cf1e18764e9d0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-9600000000-aa8a18a9ab17508f689d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-9200000000-41d7e769a93444ba3751
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gx0-0940000000-22533c93dd06de52f6a8

Targets

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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN1A
Uniprot ID
P35498
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN2A
Uniprot ID
Q99250
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN3A
Uniprot ID
Q9NY46
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN9A
Uniprot ID
Q15858
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN11A
Uniprot ID
Q9UI33
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skele...
Gene Name
SCN1B
Uniprot ID
Q07699
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in ...
Gene Name
SCN2B
Uniprot ID
O60939
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target ...
Gene Name
SCN3B
Uniprot ID
Q9NY72
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modul...
Gene Name
SCN4B
Uniprot ID
Q8IWT1
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-4
Molecular Weight
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID
O43497
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
Molecular Weight
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [Article]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [Article]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID
O95180
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H
Molecular Weight
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [Article]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [Article]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID
Q9P0X4
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
Molecular Weight
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [Article]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [Article]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [Article]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [Article]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [Article]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [Article]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
Details
15. Carbonic anhydrase 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [Article]
  4. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [Article]
  5. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  6. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  7. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
  8. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
Details
16. Carbonic anhydrase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [Article]
  4. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [Article]
  5. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [Article]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  7. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  8. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
17. Carbonic anhydrase 3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA3
Uniprot ID
P07451
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 3
Molecular Weight
29557.215 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
  6. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [Article]
  7. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [Article]
  8. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [Article]
Details
18. Carbonic anhydrase 4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina an...
Gene Name
CA4
Uniprot ID
P22748
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Molecular Weight
35032.075 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
  6. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [Article]
  7. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [Article]
  8. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name
CA5A
Uniprot ID
P35218
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
34750.21 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [Article]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA5B
Uniprot ID
Q9Y2D0
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
36433.43 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [Article]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
21. Carbonic anhydrase 6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name
CA6
Uniprot ID
P23280
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 6
Molecular Weight
35366.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
22. Carbonic anhydrase 7
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA7
Uniprot ID
P43166
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 7
Molecular Weight
29658.235 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Does not have a carbonic anhydrase catalytic activity.
Gene Name
CA8
Uniprot ID
P35219
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein
Molecular Weight
32972.915 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
24. Carbonic anhydrase 9
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervic...
Gene Name
CA9
Uniprot ID
Q16790
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 9
Molecular Weight
49697.36 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name
CA10
Uniprot ID
Q9NS85
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10
Molecular Weight
37562.655 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name
CA11
Uniprot ID
O75493
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11
Molecular Weight
36237.885 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
27. Carbonic anhydrase 12
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA12
Uniprot ID
O43570
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 12
Molecular Weight
39450.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
28. Carbonic anhydrase 13
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA13
Uniprot ID
Q8N1Q1
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 13
Molecular Weight
29442.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Details
29. Carbonic anhydrase 14
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA14
Uniprot ID
Q9ULX7
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 14
Molecular Weight
37667.37 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [Article]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [Article]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [Article]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [Article]
  2. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [Article]
  3. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [Article]
  4. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [Article]
  5. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [Article]
  6. Okada M: [Effects of carbamazepine and zonisamide on dopaminergic system in rat striatum and hippocampus]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1994 Oct;14(5):337-54. [Article]
  7. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [Article]
  2. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
References
  1. Wilfong AA, Willmore LJ: Zonisamide - a review of experience and use in partial seizures. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2006 Sep;2(3):269-80. doi: 10.2147/nedt.2006.2.3.269. [Article]
  2. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONEGRAN (zonisamide) capsules for oral use [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Komiya M, Ohmori S, Rikihisa T, Kiuchi M, Kitada M: Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul;44(1):216-21. [Article]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [Article]
  3. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [Article]
  4. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [Article]
  5. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONEGRAN (zonisamide) capsules for oral use [Link]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONISADE (zonisamide) suspension for oral use [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [Article]
  2. Ragueneau-Majlessi I, Levy RH, Bergen D, Garnett W, Rosenfeld W, Mather G, Shah J, Grundy JS: Carbamazepine pharmacokinetics are not affected by zonisamide: in vitro mechanistic study and in vivo clinical study in epileptic patients. Epilepsy Res. 2004 Nov;62(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2004.06.008. [Article]
  3. Diaz RA, Sancho J, Serratosa J: Antiepileptic drug interactions. Neurologist. 2008 Nov;14(6 Suppl 1):S55-65. doi: 10.1097/01.nrl.0000340792.61037.40. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Bond based on UGT metabolism of zonisamide.
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Saruwatari J, Ishitsu T, Nakagawa K: Update on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Antiepileptic Drug Therapy. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Aug 20;3(8):2709-2732. doi: 10.3390/ph3082709. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal...
Gene Name
AOX1
Uniprot ID
Q06278
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde oxidase
Molecular Weight
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Sugihara K, Kitamura S, Tatsumi K: Involvement of mammalian liver cytosols and aldehyde oxidase in reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Feb;24(2):199-202. [Article]
  2. Kitamura S, Ohashi KNK, Sugihara K, Hosokawa R, Akagawa Y, Ohta S: Extremely high drug-reductase activity based on aldehyde oxidase in monkey liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jul;24(7):856-9. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONEGRAN (zonisamide) capsules for oral use [Link]
  2. FDA Approved Drug Products: ZONISADE (zonisamide) suspension for oral use [Link]

Drug created at June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated at September 02, 2022 17:58