Tetryzoline

Identification

Summary

Tetryzoline is an alpha-adrenergic agonist used in the temporary symptomatic relief of discomfort and redness of the eyes due to minor irritations, as well as alleviate nasal congestion.

Brand Names
Colirio Ocusan, Visine, Visine Ac, Visine Advanced Relief, Visine Maximum Redness Relief, Visine Totality
Generic Name
Tetryzoline
DrugBank Accession Number
DB06764
Background

Tetryzoline, also known as tetrahydrozoline, is a derivative of imidazoline with central and peripheral alpha (α)-adrenergic properties.4 Available since the 1950s, tetryzoline is a selective α1-receptor agonist 5 that is used as an ocular and nasal decongestant. Tetryzoline is found in a wide array of over-the-counter eye drops, including the most common brand, Visine.9 Tetryzoline is also found in combination products with other lubricants and anti-irritants, such as povidone, polyethylene glycol 400, dextran, and zinc sulfate.10,11,12 It is also used in combination with other drug classes, such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and glucocorticoids in other countries. Tetryzoline is also found in nasal spray under the trade name Tyzine, which is used for decongestion of nasal and nasopharyngeal mucosa.13

As it causes profound sedation in children and adults, tetryzoline is increasingly becoming scrutinized for possible drug overdose and toxicity from accidental ingestion.2,4 It has also been misused for non-therapeutic purposes as a causative drug for several cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault.3

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 200.285
Monoisotopic: 200.131348523
Chemical Formula
C13H16N2
Synonyms
  • (RS)-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
  • 2-(1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)-2-imidazoline
  • 2-Tetralin-1-yl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
  • 4,5-dihydro-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl)-1H-imidazole
  • Tetrahydrozoline
  • Tetrizolina
  • Tetryzolin
  • Tetryzolina
  • Tétryzoline
  • Tetryzoline
  • Tetryzolinum

Pharmacology

Indication

Tetryzoline is indicated for the temporary relief of discomfort and redness of the eye due to minor eye irritations as monotherapy 9 or in combination with other eye lubricants and anti-irritants.10,11,12

Tetryzoline is also indicated for decongestion of nasal and nasopharyngeal mucosa.13

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Tetryzoline is a sympathomimetic amine and an alpha-adrenergic agonist with vasoconstricting and decongestant properties. It works by constricting the smaller arterioles of the nasal passages 13 and conjunctival blood vessels to ameliorate allergic rhinitis, nasal congestion, and ocular irritation.3 Tetryzoline is known to cross the blood-brain barrier to work on alpha-2 adrenoceptors and imidazole receptors,3 causing effects like hypotension, bradycardia, analgesia, hypothermia, sedation, and hypnosis.3

Mechanism of action

Adrenergic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) that regulate vascular tone: stimulation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors leads to vasoconstriction. Ocular redness and nasal congestion often result from vasodilation of nasal, conjunctival, and corneal capillary blood vessels.5 Activation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors have been therefore associated with a reduction of symptoms of ocular irritation and nasal congestion.7 Tetryzoline is a selective agonist of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, causing vasoconstriction and alleviating ocular and nasal symptoms.5

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-1 adrenergic receptors
agonist
Humans
UAlpha-2 adrenergic receptors
agonist
Humans
Absorption

When consumed orally, tetryzoline is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and can cross the blood-brain barrier.3 Following ocular administration of 0.05% tetryzoline, Cmax ranged from 0.068 to 0.380 ng/mL.1

Volume of distribution

No information is available.

Protein binding

No information is available.

Metabolism

No information is available.

Route of elimination

Following ocular administration of 0.05% tetryzoline, tetryzoline was detected in urine at 24 hours.1

Half-life

Following ocular administration of 0.05% tetryzoline, the mean serum half-life was approximately 6 hours.1

Clearance

No information is available.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

The Lowest published toxic dose (TDLo) of tetryzoline in children following oral administration is 175 mg/kg. Oral LD50 is 785 mg/kg in rats and 345 mg/kg in mice. Intraperitoneal LD50 is 122 mg/kg in rats and 110 mg/kg in mice. Subcutaneous LD50 is 500 mg/kg in rats.15

Overdose following accidental oral ingestion in children may lead to profound sedation, possibly accompanied by profuse sweating, hypotension, and shock. In adults, hypertension, bradycardia, drowsiness, and rebound hypotension may be observed, in addition to a shock-like syndrome with hypotension and bradycardia.13 In one case, cardiovascular effects persisted for 36 hours after unintentional ingestion of tetrahydrozoline.2 Profound sedation has occurred in adults following accidental oral ingestion due to poisoning.3

Overdose should be managed with supportive treatment, with the patient kept warm. Fluid maintenance therapy may be initiated if necessary. The respiratory rate dropping to 10 or below should be responded with oxygen therapy and respiratory assistance. Blood pressure should be carefully monitored to prevent a hypotensive crisis.13 There is no known antidote to tetryzoline overdose; however, one case report illustrates the successful use of naloxone in reversing the clinical signs and symptoms of tetryzoline overdose in a child. Naloxone has been used to revere clonidine overdose. The exact mechanism of action of naloxone as an antidote is not fully understood; however, it is understood that clonidine and tetryzoline work to inhibit central sympathetic outflow by activating alpha-2 adrenoceptors and inducing endogenous opiate release, which naloxone works to antagonize.6

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbaloparatideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetryzoline is combined with Abaloparatide.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of Tetryzoline can be decreased when used in combination with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Tetryzoline.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Tetryzoline is combined with Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Tetryzoline.
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Tetryzoline is combined with Aclidinium.
AdenosineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Adenosine is combined with Tetryzoline.
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Tetryzoline is combined with Alclofenac.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Tetryzoline.
AlfuzosinThe therapeutic efficacy of Tetryzoline can be decreased when used in combination with Alfuzosin.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride0YZT43HS7D522-48-5BJORNXNYWNIWEY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
TyzineSolution1 mg/1mLNasalPharma Derm, A Division Of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.1979-11-302017-01-31US flag
TyzineSolution1 mg/1mLNasalFougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.1979-11-302013-12-31US flag
Tyzine PediatricSolution0.5 mg/1mLNasalFougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.1979-11-302014-12-31US flag
Tyzine PediatricSolution0.5 mg/1mLNasalPharma Derm, A Division Of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.1979-11-302017-01-31US flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Assured Original Relief EyeSolution0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicGreenbrier International, Inc.2013-02-28Not applicableUS flag
CAREALL Eyedrops OriginalSolution / drops0.05 mg/1mLOphthalmicNew World Imports, Inc2014-06-01Not applicableUS flag
Circle K Eye Drops Redness RelieverSolution / drops0.5 mg/1mLTopicalLil' Drug Store Products, Inc.2016-05-04Not applicableUS flag
CVS Redness Relief OriginalSolution / drops0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicCVS Health2014-03-06Not applicableUS flag
Dg Health OriginalSolution0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicHANLIM PHARM. CO., LTD.2010-08-12Not applicableUS flag
DG Health Sterile Redness ReliefSolution0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicDolgencorp2014-11-25Not applicableUS flag
DG Original Eye DropsSolution0.05 g/100mLOphthalmicDolgencorp LLC2020-01-27Not applicableUS flag
Equate Eye DropsLiquid0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicAspen SVP (Pty) Ltd.2013-02-11Not applicableUS flag
Equate Eye DropsLiquid0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2013-02-11Not applicableUS flag
Equate Eye DropsLiquid0.5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPrestige Brands Holdings, Inc.2013-02-11Not applicableUS flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
4248 First Aid KitTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 g/100mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (110 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (162 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Caffeine (32.4 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Hydrocortisone acetate (1 g/100g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (1 g/100g) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Salicylamide (152 mg/1) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUS flag
8-symptom ReliefTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 %) + Zinc sulfate (0.25 %)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2016-07-22Not applicableCanada flag
Advance Relief Eye DropsTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (50 mg/100mL) + Dextran 70 (100 mg/100mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (1000 mg/100mL) + Povidone (1000 mg/100mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicWinCo Foods, LLC2015-01-09Not applicableUS flag
Advanced ReliefTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone (10 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicKareway Product, Inc.2018-05-30Not applicableUS flag
Advanced reliefTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone (10 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicSamchundang Pharm. Co., Ltd.2010-08-29Not applicableUS flag
Advanced reliefTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Dextran 70 (1 mg/1mL) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone (10 mg/1mL)LiquidOphthalmicAmerican Sales Company2011-09-07Not applicableUS flag
Advanced Relief Eye DropsTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 %) + Dextran 70 (0.1 %) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (1 %) + Povidone (1 %)SolutionOphthalmicKc Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Advanced Relief Eye DropsTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 %) + Dextran 70 (0.1 %) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (1 %) + Povidone (1 %)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2010-08-30Not applicableCanada flag
Allergy Eye DropsTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 %) + Zinc sulfate (0.25 %)Solution / dropsOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.2005-06-242009-04-24Canada flag
Allergy Eye DropsTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 %) + Zinc sulfate (0.25 %)SolutionOphthalmicTEVA Canada Limited2007-05-23Not applicableCanada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
4248 First Aid KitTetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 g/100mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (110 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (162 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Caffeine (32.4 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Hydrocortisone acetate (1 g/100g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (1 g/100g) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Salicylamide (152 mg/1) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
S01GA02 — TetryzolineS01GA52 — Tetryzoline, combinationsR01AB03 — TetryzolineR01AA06 — Tetryzoline
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetralins. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a tetralin moiety, which consists of a benzene fused to a cyclohexane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Tetralins
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Tetralins
Alternative Parents
Imidolactams / Imidazolines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Carboxamidines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
2-imidazoline / Amidine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Carboximidamide / Carboxylic acid amidine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidolactam / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carboxamidine, imidazolines (CHEBI:28674)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
P7M4KML3S8
CAS number
84-22-0
InChI Key
BYJAVTDNIXVSPW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H16N2/c1-2-6-11-10(4-1)5-3-7-12(11)13-14-8-9-15-13/h1-2,4,6,12H,3,5,7-9H2,(H,14,15)
IUPAC Name
2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
SMILES
C1CN=C(N1)C1CCCC2=CC=CC=C12

References

General References
  1. Carr ME, Engebretsen KM, Ho B, Anderson CP: Tetrahydrozoline (Visine(R)) concentrations in serum and urine during therapeutic ocular dosing: a necessary first step in determining an overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Nov;49(9):810-4. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2011.615064. Epub 2011 Oct 5. [PubMed:21972870]
  2. Spiller H, Griffith J: Prolonged cardiovascular effects after unintentional ingestion of tetrahydrozoline. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Feb;46(2):171-2. doi: 10.1080/15563650701258070. [PubMed:18259967]
  3. Stillwell ME, Saady JJ: Use of tetrahydrozoline for chemical submission. Forensic Sci Int. 2012 Sep 10;221(1-3):e12-6. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.04.004. Epub 2012 May 1. [PubMed:22554870]
  4. Daggy A, Kaplan R, Roberge R, Akhtar J: Pediatric Visine (tetrahydrozoline) ingestion: case report and review of imidazoline toxicity. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003 Aug;45(4):210-2. [PubMed:12882493]
  5. Hosten LO, Snyder C: Over-the-Counter Ocular Decongestants in the United States - Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Utility for Management of Ocular Redness. Clin Optom (Auckl). 2020 Jul 23;12:95-105. doi: 10.2147/OPTO.S259398. eCollection 2020. [PubMed:32801982]
  6. Holmes JF, Berman DA: Use of naloxone to reverse symptomatic tetrahydrozoline overdose in a child. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999 Jun;15(3):193-4. doi: 10.1097/00006565-199906000-00008. [PubMed:10389957]
  7. Eskiizmir G, Hircin Z, Ozyurt B, Unlu H: A comparative analysis of the decongestive effect of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;67(1):19-23. doi: 10.1007/s00228-010-0941-z. Epub 2010 Nov 11. [PubMed:21069518]
  8. Johnson DA, Hricik JG: The pharmacology of alpha-adrenergic decongestants. Pharmacotherapy. 1993 Nov-Dec;13(6 Pt 2):110S-115S; discussion 143S-146S. [PubMed:7507588]
  9. DailyMed Label: VISINE ORIGINAL REDNESS RELIEF (tetrahydrozoline) ophthalmic solution/ drops [Link]
  10. DailyMed Label: CAREONE ITCHY RELIEF (tetrahydrozoline and zinc sulfate) ophthalmic solution [Link]
  11. DailyMed Label: CLEAR EYES TRIPLE ACTION (polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, and tetrahydrozoline) ophthalmic solution [Link]
  12. DailyMed Label: COLIRIO OCUSAN (tetrahydrozoline, polyethylene glycol 400, povidone, and dextran 70) ophthalmic solution [Link]
  13. DailyMed Label (archived): TYZINE (tetrahydrozoline) NASAL SOLUTION [Link]
  14. Toronto Research Chemicals: Tetrahydrozoline Safety Data Sheet [Link]
  15. Cayman Chemical: Tetrahydrozoline Safety Data Sheet [Link]
KEGG Drug
D08578
KEGG Compound
C07912
PubChem Compound
5419
PubChem Substance
310264881
ChemSpider
5226
BindingDB
96559
RxNav
37935
ChEBI
28674
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1266
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Tetryzoline
AHFS Codes
  • 52:32.00 — Vasoconstrictors
FDA label
Download (134 KB)
MSDS
Download (60.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentContact Lens Dry Eye1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SprayNasal
Spray, suspensionNasal
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.05 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsTopical0.5 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic.05 %
SuspensionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic0.05 g/100mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
LiquidTopical0.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 mg/1mg
Solution / drops; suspension / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic; Topical
LiquidOphthalmic0.5 mg/1mL
Suspension / dropsConjunctival
LiquidOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.05 mg/1mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.05 g/100mL
Solution / dropsIntraocular
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.5 mg/10mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 ML
Solution / dropsOphthalmic8 ML
Solution / dropsConjunctival
SolutionNasal1 mg/1mL
SolutionNasal0.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsNasal
SprayNasal
SolutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
LiquidTopical
SolutionConjunctival; Ophthalmic
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic.05 mg/10mg
LiquidOphthalmic0.05 g/100mL
LiquidOphthalmic
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)>250https://www.trc-canada.com/prod-img/MSDS/T296100MSDS.pdf
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.239 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.11ALOGPS
logP2.24ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.17ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area24.39 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity61.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0390000000-8abf8ed167116d96cf2d

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...

Components:
References
  1. Spiller H, Griffith J: Prolonged cardiovascular effects after unintentional ingestion of tetrahydrozoline. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Feb;46(2):171-2. doi: 10.1080/15563650701258070. [PubMed:18259967]
  2. Hosten LO, Snyder C: Over-the-Counter Ocular Decongestants in the United States - Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Utility for Management of Ocular Redness. Clin Optom (Auckl). 2020 Jul 23;12:95-105. doi: 10.2147/OPTO.S259398. eCollection 2020. [PubMed:32801982]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...

Components:
References
  1. Holmes JF, Berman DA: Use of naloxone to reverse symptomatic tetrahydrozoline overdose in a child. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999 Jun;15(3):193-4. doi: 10.1097/00006565-199906000-00008. [PubMed:10389957]

Drug created on September 14, 2010 16:21 / Updated on May 06, 2021 06:19