Chlordiazepoxide

Identification

Summary

Chlordiazepoxide is a benzodiazepine used to treat the withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, to treat preoperative anxiety, and to treat anxiety over a short term period.

Brand Names
Chlorax, Librax
Generic Name
Chlordiazepoxide
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00475
Background

An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 299.755
Monoisotopic: 299.082539792
Chemical Formula
C16H14ClN3O
Synonyms
  • 7-chloro-2-methylamino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-4-oxide
  • CDP
  • Chloradiazepoxide
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Chlordiazepoxidum
  • Clopoxide
  • Clordiazepóxido
  • Methaminodiazepoxide

Pharmacology

Indication

For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, and preoperative apprehension and anxiety.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Chlordiazepoxide has antianxiety, sedative, appetite-stimulating and weak analgesic actions. The drug seems to block EEG arousal from stimulation in the brain stem reticular formation. The drug has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses. Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses which did not cause sedation. Chlordiazepoxide revealed a "taming" action with the elimination of fear and aggression. The taming effect of chlordiazepoxide was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals.

Mechanism of action

Chlordiazepoxide binds to stereospecific benzodiazepine (BZD) binding sites on GABA (A) receptor complexes at several sites within the central nervous system, including the limbic system and reticular formation. This results in an increased binding of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to the GABA(A) receptor. BZDs, therefore, enhance GABA-mediated chloride influx through GABA receptor channels, causing membrane hyperpolarization. The net neuro-inhibitory effects result in the observed sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, and muscle relaxant properties.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGABA(A) Receptor
positive allosteric modulator
Humans
AGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Site
ligand
Humans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination

Chlordiazepoxide is excreted in the urine, with 1% to 2% unchanged and 3% to 6% as conjugate.

Half-life

24-48 hours

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

LD50=537 mg/kg (Orally in rats). Signs of overdose include respiratory depression, muscle weakness, somnolence (general depressed activity).

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Acetophenazine.
AclidiniumChlordiazepoxide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Aclidinium.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Alimemazine.
AlmotriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Almotriptan.
AlosetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Alosetron.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Chlordiazepoxide hydrochlorideMFM6K1XWDK438-41-5DMLFJMQTNDSRFU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Angirex / Elenium (Polfa Tarchomin) / Helogaphen / Klopoxid (Nycomed) / Libritabs / Multum / Napoton / Radepur (AWD) / Risolid (Actavis) / Silibrin / Sonimen / Tropium
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ChlordiazepoxideCapsule25 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
ChlordiazepoxideCapsule10 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
ChlordiazepoxideCapsule5 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Chlordiazepoxide Cap 10mgCapsule10 mg / capOralPro Doc Limitee1969-12-312010-07-13Canada flag
Chlordiazepoxide Cap 5mgCapsule5 mg / capOralPro Doc Limitee1976-12-312009-07-23Canada flag
Chlordiazepoxide HClCapsule10 mg/1OralWatson Pharmaceuticals2005-12-07Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide HClCapsule5 mg/1OralWatson Pharmaceuticals2005-12-07Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide HClCapsule25 mg/1OralWatson Pharmaceuticals2005-12-07Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule10 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-08-042011-12-28US flag49349 044920210527 18099 1ymcl5k
Chlordiazepoxyde 25 CapCapsule25 mg / capOralDuchesnay Inc.1981-12-312003-07-18Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ChlordiazepoxideCapsule, gelatin coated25 mg/1OralDirect Rx2016-03-04Not applicableUS flag
ChlordiazepoxideCapsule25 mg/1OralDirect Rx2016-03-042016-03-28US flag
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule, gelatin coated10 mg/1OralEpic Pharma LLC2021-05-11Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule25 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack1976-07-01Not applicableUS flag63629 402720180907 15195 1hz0gzm
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule5 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.1976-07-01Not applicableUS flag0555 015820180913 8702 clpngi
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule25 mg/1OralContract Pharmacy Services-PA2010-04-07Not applicableUS flag00555 0159 04 nlmimage10 b213593a
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule10 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-12-09Not applicableUS flag54868 007020180907 15195 u9hpz
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule, gelatin coated25 mg/1OralAvKARE, Inc.2011-03-142019-08-31US flag
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule10 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.1996-03-052021-11-30US flag
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideCapsule5 mg/1OralCardinal Health2011-04-012013-08-31US flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ChloraxChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg)CapsuleOralAa Pharma Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline HClChlordiazepoxide (10 mg/1) + Amitriptyline hydrochloride (25 mg/1)TabletOralPar Pharmaceutical1988-05-091999-07-16US flag
Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline HClChlordiazepoxide (5 mg/1) + Amitriptyline hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1)TabletOralPar Pharmaceutical1988-05-091999-07-16US flag
Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline HydrochlorideChlordiazepoxide (10 mg/1) + Amitriptyline hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-12-092010-09-30US flag
Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline HydrochlorideChlordiazepoxide (10 mg/1) + Amitriptyline hydrochloride (27.98 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1986-12-10Not applicableUS flag00378 0277 01 nlmimage10 74133a79
Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline HydrochlorideChlordiazepoxide (5 mg/1) + Amitriptyline hydrochloride (12.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-12-092010-09-30US flag
Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline HydrochlorideChlordiazepoxide (5 mg/1) + Amitriptyline hydrochloride (14 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1986-12-10Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralbryant ranch prepack1966-09-01Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralAvera McKennan Hospital2016-01-18Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralAscend Laboratories, LLC2021-04-27Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Chlordiazepoxide ClidiniumChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-06-022012-03-31US flag
Chlordiazepoxide HydrochlorideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (10 mg/1)CapsuleOralRemedy Repack2011-08-042011-12-28US flag49349 044920210527 18099 1ymcl5k
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralBi-Coastal Pharmaceutical Corporation2011-05-04Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralMacoven Pharmaceuticals2011-05-042015-06-04US flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-06-202013-01-15US flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride And Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC2011-05-262015-03-31US flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-02-012011-02-28US flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralBurel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2016-04-152017-03-24US flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-07-01Not applicableUS flag
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride and Clidinium BromideChlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Clidinium Bromide (2.5 mg/1)CapsuleOralBI-COASTAL PHARMA INTERNATIONAL LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY2011-05-04Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N05BA02 — Chlordiazepoxide
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzodiazepines
Sub Class
1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent
1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Imidolactams / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Aryl chlorides / Nitrones / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboxamidines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Organic zwitterions
show 2 more
Substituents
1,4-benzodiazepine / Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Amidine / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Carboxylic acid amidine / Hydrocarbon derivative
show 13 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organochlorine compound, secondary amino compound, N-oxide, benzodiazepine (CHEBI:3611)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
6RZ6XEZ3CR
CAS number
58-25-3
InChI Key
ANTSCNMPPGJYLG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H14ClN3O/c1-18-15-10-20(21)16(11-5-3-2-4-6-11)13-9-12(17)7-8-14(13)19-15/h2-9H,10H2,1H3,(H,18,19)
IUPAC Name
7-chloro-2-(methylamino)-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-4-ium-4-olate
SMILES
CNC1=NC2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C(C2=CC=CC=C2)=[N+]([O-])C1

References

Synthesis Reference

Sternbach, L.H.; US. Patent 2,893,992; July 7,1959; assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.

General References
  1. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [Article]
  2. Oishi R, Nishibori M, Itoh Y, Saeki K: Diazepam-induced decrease in histamine turnover in mouse brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 May 27;124(3):337-42. [Article]
  3. Earley JV, Fryer RI, Ning RY: Quinazolines and 1,4-benzodiazepines. LXXXIX: Haptens useful in benzodiazepine immunoassay development. J Pharm Sci. 1979 Jul;68(7):845-50. [Article]
  4. Olive G, Dreux C: [Pharmacologic bases of use of benzodiazepines in pereinatal medicine]. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1977 Jan;34(1):74-89. [Article]
  5. Vozeh S: [Pharmacokinetic of benzodiazepines in old age]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1981 Nov 21;111(47):1789-93. [Article]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014618
KEGG Drug
D00267
PubChem Compound
2712
PubChem Substance
46505044
ChemSpider
10248513
BindingDB
50007664
RxNav
2356
ChEBI
3611
ChEMBL
CHEMBL451
ZINC
ZINC000019632917
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000084
PharmGKB
PA448932
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Chlordiazepoxide
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.08 — Benzodiazepines
MSDS
Download (74.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome2
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependency / Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChest Pain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Rachelle laboratories inc
  • Ascot hosp pharmaceuticals inc div travenol laboratories inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • John j ferrante
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • Mm mast and co
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Alra laboratories inc
Packagers
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • H and H Laboratories
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Legacy Pharmaceuticals Packaging LLC
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Merrell Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Solco Healthcare US LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Valeant Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral10 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
CapsuleOral5 mg
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral5 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet
Tablet, coatedOral
CapsuleOral10 mg / cap
CapsuleOral25 mg / cap
Pill
Tablet, film coated
PillOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
CapsuleOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral10 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral25 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral25 MG
CapsuleOral5 mg / cap
Solution / drops
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Librax 2.5-5 mg capsule6.5USD capsule
Librax capsule5.78USD capsule
Librium 25 mg capsule2.14USD capsule
Limbitrol DS 10-25 mg tablet1.93USD tablet
Librium 10 mg capsule1.61USD capsule
Librium 5 mg capsule0.84USD capsule
Chlordiazepoxide 25 mg capsule0.72USD capsule
ChlordiazePOXIDE HCl 25 mg capsule0.32USD capsule
ChlordiazePOXIDE HCl 10 mg capsule0.31USD capsule
ChlordiazePOXIDE HCl 5 mg capsule0.31USD capsule
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsule0.2USD capsule
Apo-Chlordiazepoxide 25 mg Capsule0.17USD capsule
Chlordiazepoxide 10 mg capsule0.14USD capsule
Apo-Chlordiazepoxide 10 mg Capsule0.11USD capsule
Apo-Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg Capsule0.07USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)236-236.5Sternbach, L.H.; US. Patent 2,893,992; July 7,1959; assigned to Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.
water solubility2000 mg/LYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.44HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.8MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0199 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.01ALOGPS
logP0.19ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity87.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.22 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9758
Caco-2 permeable+0.5868
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6705
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.521
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7434
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5502
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6991
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7564
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6038
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7862
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7067
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6372
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.593
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7108
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.8520 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9198
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8828
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0079000000-a3045f81d776a5127fe9
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-5590000000-a20477457b7e9f8a22ea
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-a293b353926a16c4d11a
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-2590000000-965415c5fb9e79098c6d

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Positive allosteric modulator
Curator comments
The GABA(A) receptor is pentameric (i.e. comprising 5 subunit proteins) and therefore has a multitude of potential isoforms. The above target is a collection of all possible GABA(A) subunits that may participate in the formation of the pentameric receptor and is not meant to imply direct a drug-protein interaction for each individual subunit.
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
References
  1. Zhu S, Noviello CM, Teng J, Walsh RM Jr, Kim JJ, Hibbs RE: Structure of a human synaptic GABAA receptor. Nature. 2018 Jul;559(7712):67-72. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0255-3. Epub 2018 Jun 27. [Article]
  2. Sigel E, Steinmann ME: Structure, function, and modulation of GABA(A) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 23;287(48):40224-31. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R112.386664. Epub 2012 Oct 4. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
Curator comments
Benzodiazepines modulate GABA(A) function by binding at the interface between alpha (α) and gamma (γ) subunits. Of the 6 α-subunits, only 4 (α-1, -2, -3, and -5) participate in the formation of this binding site. The above target is a collection of all α- and γ-subunits that are known to participate in the formation of the benzodiazepine binding site.
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
References
  1. Sigel E, Steinmann ME: Structure, function, and modulation of GABA(A) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 23;287(48):40224-31. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R112.386664. Epub 2012 Oct 4. [Article]
  2. Zhu S, Noviello CM, Teng J, Walsh RM Jr, Kim JJ, Hibbs RE: Structure of a human synaptic GABAA receptor. Nature. 2018 Jul;559(7712):67-72. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0255-3. Epub 2018 Jun 27. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Stolbach A, Paziana K, Heverling H, Pham P: A Review of the Toxicity of HIV Medications II: Interactions with Drugs and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Products. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Sep;11(3):326-41. doi: 10.1007/s13181-015-0465-0. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on June 13, 2021 16:24