Procaine

Identification

Summary

Procaine is a local anesthetic used for anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal nerve block.

Brand Names
Novocain
Generic Name
Procaine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00721
Background

A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016). Procaine has also been investigated as an oral entry inhibitor in treatment-experienced HIV patients 2.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 236.3101
Monoisotopic: 236.152477894
Chemical Formula
C13H20N2O2
Synonyms
  • 2-Diethylaminoethyl p-aminobenzoate
  • 4-aminobenzoic acid 2-diethylaminoethyl ester
  • Novocaine
  • p-Aminobenzoic acid 2-diethylaminoethyl ester
  • Procaina
  • Procaine
  • Procainum
  • Vitamin H3
  • β-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
  • β-(diethylamino)ethyl p-aminobenzoate

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as a local anesthetic primarily in oral surgery

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Procaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia, particularly for oral surgery. Procaine (like cocaine) has the advantage of constricting blood vessels which reduces bleeding, unlike other local anesthetics like lidocaine. Procaine is an ester anesthetic. It is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is then excreted by the kidneys into the urine.

Mechanism of action

Procaine acts mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through voltage gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane of peripheral nerves. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is thus inhibited. The receptor site is thought to be located at the cytoplasmic (inner) portion of the sodium channel. Procaine has also been shown to bind or antagonize the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the serotonin receptor-ion channel complex.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
antagonist
Humans
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
antagonist
Humans
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Humans
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
antagonist
Humans
UCalcium-activated potassium channel
blocker
Humans
UCytosolic phospholipase A2
inhibitor
Humans
U60 kDa lysophospholipase
inhibitor
Humans
UMonoamine oxidase
inhibitor
Humans
UDNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1
inhibitor
Humans
UDNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

Not Available

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Hydrolysis by plasma esterases to PABA

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

With normal kidney function, the drug is excreted rapidly by tubular excretion.

Half-life

7.7 minutes

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Not Available

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Procaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-BenzodiazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with 1,2-Benzodiazepine.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Procaine is combined with Abciximab.
AcarboseProcaine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.
AcebutololProcaine may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Procaine is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenThe risk or severity of methemoglobinemia can be increased when Acetaminophen is combined with Procaine.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetohexamideProcaine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of extrapyramidal symptoms can be increased when Procaine is combined with Acetophenazine.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Acetylcholine.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Procaine hydrochloride95URV01IDQ51-05-8HCBIBCJNVBAKAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Procaine nitrateT824SI1PU16192-92-3XUXYDJABBYUMRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Procaine phosphateA18LHT9ZXJ54812-66-7NPBISBZNYVWJOL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
NovocainInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-04-16Not applicableUS flag
NovocainInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-04-16Not applicableUS flag
NovocainInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-04-16Not applicableUS flag
Novocain 20 mg/mlSolution2 %InfiltrationHospira Healthcare Ulc2001-06-012012-08-03Canada flag
Novocain Liq 2%Liquid2 %InfiltrationSanofi1920-12-312001-08-10Canada flag
NovocaineInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntraspinal; Intrathecal; SubarachnoidHospira, Inc.2006-09-12Not applicableUS flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
PROCANOL LOTION 2%Lotion2 %TopicalICM PHARMA PTE. LTD.1997-01-25Not applicable
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
DBL STERILE CARDIOPLEGIA CONCENTRATEProcaine hydrochloride (1 mmol/20mL) + Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (16 mmol/20mL) + Potassium chloride (16 mmol/20mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenousบริษัท ไฟเซอร์ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด2019-07-09Not applicableThailand flag
DBL STERILE CARDIOPLEGIA CONCENTRATEProcaine hydrochloride (1 mmol/20ml) + Magnesium chloride (16 mmol/20ml) + Potassium chloride (16 mmol/20ml)InjectionOtherHOSPIRA SINGAPORE PTE. LTD.1988-06-16Not applicable

Categories

ATC Codes
N01BA52 — Procaine, combinationsC05AD05 — ProcaineS01HA05 — ProcaineN01BA02 — Procaine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Benzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Aminobenzoic acids and derivatives / Benzoyl derivatives / Aniline and substituted anilines / Trialkylamines / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds
show 2 more
Substituents
Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives / Aniline or substituted anilines / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Benzoate ester / Benzoyl / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid ester / Hydrocarbon derivative
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, substituted aniline, benzoate ester (CHEBI:8430)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
4Z8Y51M438
CAS number
59-46-1
InChI Key
MFDFERRIHVXMIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H20N2O2/c1-3-15(4-2)9-10-17-13(16)11-5-7-12(14)8-6-11/h5-8H,3-4,9-10,14H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
2-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCOC(=O)C1=CC=C(N)C=C1

References

Synthesis Reference
US812554
General References
  1. Gentry CL, Lukas RJ: Local anesthetics noncompetitively inhibit function of four distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):1038-48. [Article]
  2. Clinical Trial NCT00299897 [Link]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Novocain Procain Hydrochloride Injection [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014859
KEGG Drug
D08422
KEGG Compound
C07375
PubChem Compound
4914
PubChem Substance
46507724
ChemSpider
4745
BindingDB
64452
RxNav
8701
ChEBI
8430
ChEMBL
CHEMBL569
ZINC
ZINC000001530757
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000296
PharmGKB
PA451110
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Procaine
MSDS
Download (73.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedTreatmentInfection / Neonatal Sepsis / Septic1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBacterial Infections / Newborn Infants / Septic1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNasopharyngeal Neoplasms / Stomatitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPulp Exposure, Dental1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
0TerminatedTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Consolidated pharmaceutical group inc
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Pfizer laboratories div pfizer inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Gd searle llc
  • Miles laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • King Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Smiths Medical ASD Inc.
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Torrance Co.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionOther
InjectionOther16 mmol/20ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
SolutionDental
Injection, solutionInterstitial
Injection, solutionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
SolutionInfiltration2 %
LiquidInfiltration2 %
Injection, solutionIntraspinal; Intrathecal; Subarachnoid100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
SolutionIntramuscular20 mg
InjectionParenteral10 mg
SolutionIntramuscular10 mg
SolutionIntramuscular1 g
CrystalNot applicable1 g/1g
LotionTopical2 %
SolutionInfiltration18 mg
SolutionInfiltration36 mg
SolutionParenteral0.036 g
SolutionInfiltration0.01 g
ConcentrateIntravenous drip
CreamTopical
SolutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous10 mg
SolutionParenteral20 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Novocain 10% ampul2.4USD ml
Novocain 1% ampul1.79USD ml
Procaine hcl crystals1.76USD g
Nesacaine-mpf 3% vial1.34USD ml
Nesacaine-mpf 2% vial1.28USD ml
Nesacaine 2% vial0.74USD ml
Nesacaine 1% vial0.72USD ml
Chloroprocaine 3% vial0.33USD ml
Chloroprocaine 2% vial0.26USD ml
Procaine hcl 2% vial0.15USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61 °CPhysProp
water solubility9450 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.14AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.4ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.05 (at 15 °C)PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.81 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.1ALOGPS
logP1.88ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.96ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.56 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity70.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9747
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9533
Caco-2 permeable+0.6291
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.587
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9492
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9884
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.684
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8646
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6643
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6456
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6308
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9312
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9294
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7918
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6165
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6462
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9449
Rat acute toxicity2.5160 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8728
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6234
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-9200000000-44eb49be9b2baedfebdd
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7c7d7173da9393c2d059
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0910000000-279febfbe258e2ce2807
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0900000000-997e743a0702a7a5b54f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-39c6b968e8d17c932e10
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9700000000-157dc94224e66c932ae8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-050d794abd6d3a7e685d
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01w0-1940000000-d4d5195f000d2d633df7
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Drugtargets2
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insights and accelerate drug research.
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Brau ME, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Fundamental properties of local anesthetics: half-maximal blocking concentrations for tonic block of Na+ and K+ channels in peripheral nerve. Anesth Analg. 1998 Oct;87(4):885-9. [Article]
  2. Katalymov LL: [The effect of inhibitors of sodium permeability (novocaine and tetrodotoxin) on the trace depolarization of myelinated nerve fibers]. Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Sep;81(9):127-33. [Article]
  3. Creveling CR, Bell ME, Burke TR Jr, Chang E, Lewandowski-Lovenberg GA, Kim CH, Rice KC, Daly JW: Procaine isothiocyanate: an irreversible inhibitor of the specific binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin-A benzoate to sodium channels. Neurochem Res. 1990 Apr;15(4):441-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Hahnenkamp K, Durieux ME, Hahnenkamp A, Schauerte SK, Hoenemann CW, Vegh V, Theilmeier G, Hollmann MW: Local anaesthetics inhibit signalling of human NMDA receptors recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: role of protein kinase C. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Jan;96(1):77-87. Epub 2005 Nov 18. [Article]
  2. Nishizawa N, Shirasaki T, Nakao S, Matsuda H, Shingu K: The inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel by local anesthetics in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Anesth Analg. 2002 Feb;94(2):325-30, table of contents. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Fan P, Weight FF: Procaine impairs the function of 5-HT3 receptor-ion channel complex in rat sensory ganglion neurons. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Dec;33(12):1573-9. [Article]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Sato T, Kitayama S, Mitsuhata C, Ikeda T, Morita K, Dohi T: Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;361(2):214-20. [Article]
  2. Wilcox KM, Kimmel HL, Lindsey KP, Votaw JR, Goodman MM, Howell LL: In vivo comparison of the reinforcing and dopamine transporter effects of local anesthetics in rhesus monkeys. Synapse. 2005 Dec 15;58(4):220-8. [Article]
  3. Kiyatkin EA, Brown PL: The role of peripheral and central sodium channels in mediating brain temperature fluctuations induced by intravenous cocaine. Brain Res. 2006 Oct 30;1117(1):38-53. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID
Q15822
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Wang H, Zhang Y, Li ST: The effect of local anesthetics on the inhibition of adult muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar 25;630(1-3):29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.12.028. Epub 2010 Jan 4. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Blocker
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activati...

Components:
References
  1. Benham CD, Bolton TB, Lang RJ, Takewaki T: The mechanism of action of Ba2+ and TEA on single Ca2+-activated K+ -channels in arterial and intestinal smooth muscle cell membranes. Pflugers Arch. 1985 Feb;403(2):120-7. [Article]
  2. Ahn HY, Karaki H: Inhibitory effects of procaine on contraction and calcium movement in vascular and intestinal smooth muscles. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Jul;94(3):789-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1988.tb11590.x. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory...
Gene Name
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID
P47712
Uniprot Name
Cytosolic phospholipase A2
Molecular Weight
85238.2 Da
References
  1. Kunze H, Nahas N, Traynor JR, Wurl M: Effects of local anaesthetics on phospholipases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Jul 20;441(1):93-102. [Article]
  2. Hendrickson HS: The penetration of local anesthetics into phosphatidylcholine monolayers. J Lipid Res. 1976 Jul;17(4):393-8. [Article]
  3. Hendrickson HS, van Dam-Mieras MC: Local anesthetic inhibition of pancreatic phospholipase A2 action on lecithin monolayers. J Lipid Res. 1976 Jul;17(4):399-405. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Exhibits lysophospholipase, transacylase, PAF acetylhydrolase and asparaginase activities (By similarity). Can catalyze three types of transacylation reactions: (1) acyl transfer from 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1-acyl-GPC) to the sn-1(3) positions of glycerol and 2-acylglycerol (sn-1 to -1(3) transfer), (2) acyl transfer from 1-acyl-GPC to the sn-2 positions of 1-acyl-GPC, 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (1-acyl-GPE), and other lysophospholipids (sn-1 to -2 transfer) and (3) acyl transfer from 2-acyl-GPC to the sn-1 position of 2-acyl-GPC and 2-acyl-GPE (sn-2 to -1 transfer) (By similarity). Mediates the synthesis of 1-arachidonoyl species of phospholipids by transferring the arachidonoyl residue from 2-arachidonoyl lysophospholipid to the sn-1 position of 2-acyl lysophospholipid (By similarity).
Specific Function
1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase activity
Gene Name
ASPG
Uniprot ID
Q86U10
Uniprot Name
60 kDa lysophospholipase
Molecular Weight
60882.4 Da
References
  1. Kawashima Y, Nakagawa M, Suzuki Y, Uchiyama M: The relationship between chain elongation of palmitoyl-CoA and phospholipid content in rat liver microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Aug 23;441(2):173-80. [Article]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...

Components:
References
  1. MacFarlane MD: Procaine HCl (Gerovital H3): a weak, reversible, fully competitive inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Fed Proc. 1975 Jan;34(1):108-10. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is ...
Gene Name
DNMT1
Uniprot ID
P26358
Uniprot Name
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1
Molecular Weight
183163.635 Da
References
  1. Villar-Garea A, Fraga MF, Espada J, Esteller M: Procaine is a DNA-demethylating agent with growth-inhibitory effects in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;63(16):4984-9. [Article]
  2. Li YC, Wang Y, Li DD, Zhang Y, Zhao TC, Li CF: Procaine is a specific DNA methylation inhibitor with anti-tumor effect for human gastric cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2018 Feb;119(2):2440-2449. doi: 10.1002/jcb.26407. Epub 2017 Oct 27. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Required for genome-wide de novo methylation and is essential for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. It modifies DNA in a non-processive manner and also methylates non-CpG sites. May preferentially methylate DNA linker between 2 nucleosomal cores and is inhibited by histone H1. Plays a role in paternal and maternal imprinting. Required for methylation of most imprinted loci in germ cells. Acts as a transcriptional corepressor for ZBTB18. Recruited to trimethylated 'Lys-36' of histone H3 (H3K36me3) sites. Can actively repress transcription through the recruitment of HDAC activity.
Specific Function
Chromatin binding
Gene Name
DNMT3A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6K1
Uniprot Name
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A
Molecular Weight
101857.595 Da
References
  1. Li YC, Wang Y, Li DD, Zhang Y, Zhao TC, Li CF: Procaine is a specific DNA methylation inhibitor with anti-tumor effect for human gastric cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2018 Feb;119(2):2440-2449. doi: 10.1002/jcb.26407. Epub 2017 Oct 27. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Perez-Guillermo F, Delgado EM, Vidal CJ: Inhibition of human serum and rabbit muscle cholinesterase by local anesthetics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Nov 1;36(21):3593-6. [Article]
  2. Dorokhov KE, Grigorian GL: [Binding of reversible spin-labeled inhibitors with an butyrylcholinesterase active center]. Biofizika. 1986 Sep-Oct;31(5):746-51. [Article]
  3. Dhananjeyan MR, Trendel JA, Bykowski C, Sarver JG, Ando H, Erhardt PW: Rapid and sensitive HPLC assay for simultaneous determination of procaine and para-aminobenzoic acid from human and rat liver tissue extracts. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008 May 15;867(2):247-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.04.014. Epub 2008 Apr 29. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Sato T, Kitayama S, Mitsuhata C, Ikeda T, Morita K, Dohi T: Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;361(2):214-20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Sato T, Kitayama S, Mitsuhata C, Ikeda T, Morita K, Dohi T: Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;361(2):214-20. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Sato T, Kitayama S, Mitsuhata C, Ikeda T, Morita K, Dohi T: Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;361(2):214-20. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on August 07, 2021 00:37