Identification

Name
Irinotecan
Accession Number
DB00762
Description

Irinotecan is an antineoplastic enzyme inhibitor primarily used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. It is a derivative of camptothecin that inhibits the action of topoisomerase I. Irinotecan prevents religation of the DNA strand by binding to topoisomerase I-DNA complex, and causes double-strand DNA breakage and cell death. It is a derivative of camptothecin. Irinotecan was approved for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer in October, 2015 (irinotecan liposome injection, trade name Onivyde).

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 586.678
Monoisotopic: 586.279134968
Chemical Formula
C33H38N4O6
Synonyms
  • (+)-Irinotecan
  • Irinotecan
  • Irinotecan lactone
  • Irinotecanum

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (first-line therapy when administered with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin). Also used in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of extensive small cell lung cancer. Irinotecan is currently under investigation for the treatment of metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer. Also used in combination with fluorouracil and leucovorin for the treatment of patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas after disease progression following gemcitabine-based therapy.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Irinotecan is an antineoplastic enzyme inhibitor primarily used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Irinotecan is a semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin. Camptothecins interact specifically with topoisomerase I, an enzyme in the cell nucleus that regulates DNA topology and facilitates nuclear processes such as DNA replication, recombination, and repair. During these processes, topoisomerase I relieves torsional strain in DNA by inducing reversible single-strand breaks, allowing single DNA strands to pass through the break. The 3'-DNA terminus of the broken DNA strands bind covalently with the topoisomerase enzyme to form a catalytic intermediate called a cleavable complex. After the DNA is sufficiently relaxed and the strand passage reaction is complete, DNA topoisomerase reattaches the broken DNA strands to form the chemically unaltered topoisomers that allow transcription to proceed. Irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 bind to the topoisomerase I-DNA complex and prevent religation of these single-strand breaks. Current research suggests that the cytotoxicity of irinotecan is due to double-strand DNA damage produced during DNA synthesis when replication enzymes interact with the ternary complex formed by topoisomerase I, DNA, and either Irinotecan or SN-38. Mammalian cells cannot efficiently repair these double-strand breaks. The precise contribution of SN-38 to the activity of irinotecan in humans is not known. Irinotecan is cell cycle phase-specific (S-phase).

Mechanism of action

Irinotecan inhibits the action of topoisomerase I. Irinotecan prevents religation of the DNA strand by binding to topoisomerase I-DNA complex. The formation of this ternary complex interferes with the moving replication fork, which induces replication arrest and lethal double-stranded breaks in DNA. As a result, DNA damage is not efficiently repaired and apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA topoisomerase 1
inhibitor
Humans
ADNA topoisomerase I, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) when a dose of 125 mg/m^2 is given to patients with solid tumours is 1660 ng/mL. The AUC (0-24) is 10,200 ng·h/mL. The Cmax when a dose of 340 mg/m^2 is given to patients with solid tumours is 3392 ng/mL. The AUC (0-24) is 20,604 ng·h/mL.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of terminal elimination phase is 110 L/m^2 when a dose of 125 mg/m^2 is given to patients with solid tumours. The volume of distribution of terminal elimination phase is 234 L/m^2 when a dose of 340 mg/m^2 is given to patients with solid tumours.

Protein binding

30%-68% protein bound, mainly to albumin.

Metabolism

Hepatic. The metabolic conversion of irinotecan to the active metabolite SN-38 is mediated by carboxylesterase enzymes and primarily occurs in the liver. SN-38 is subsequently conjugated predominantly by the enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) to form a glucuronide metabolite.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

The cumulative biliary and urinary excretion of irinotecan and its metabolites (SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide) over a period of 48 hours following administration of irinotecan in two patients ranged from approximately 25% (100 mg/m2) to 50% (300 mg/m2).

Half-life

The half life of irinotecan is about 6 - 12 hours. The terminal elimination half-life of the active metabolite, SN-38 is 10 - 20 hours.

Clearance
  • 13.3 L/h/m^2 [Dose of 125 mg/m^2, patients with solid tumours]
  • 13.9 L/h/m^2 [Dose of 340 mg/m^2, patients with solid tumours]
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Gastrointestinal complications, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and infection.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Irinotecan Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Irinotecan Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1SLCO1B1*15(C;C) / (C;T)C Allele / G AlleleDirectly Studied EffectPatients with this genotype have reduced transport of the active metabolite of irinotecan resulting in increased plasma concentrations.Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1UGT1A1*28 or UGT1A 7/7Not Availableextra TA in promoterADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in UGT1A1 may indicate an increased risk of bone marrow toxicity when treated with irinotecan.Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7UGT1A7*2/*2(G;G) / (G;T) / (A;C) / (A;A) / (A;G)G allele / A allele  … show all ADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in UGT1A1 may indicate an increased risk of bone marrow toxicity when treated with irinotecan.Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1UGT1A1*93(A;A) / (A;G)A AlleleADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in UGT1A1 may indicate an increased risk of bone marrow toxicity when treated with irinotecan.Details
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1UGT1A1*28Not Availableextra TA in promoter, homozygousADR Directly StudiedPatients who carry this genotype in UGT1A1 are at increased risk for neutropenia following initiation of irinotecan treatment.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Irinotecan can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Irinotecan.
AbemaciclibAbemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Irinotecan which could result in a higher serum level.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Irinotecan can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acenocoumarol is combined with Irinotecan.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Irinotecan.
AclidiniumThe serum concentration of Aclidinium can be increased when it is combined with Irinotecan.
AdalimumabThe metabolism of Irinotecan can be increased when combined with Adalimumab.
AdenineThe risk or severity of neutropenia can be increased when Adenine is combined with Irinotecan.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Irinotecan hydrochloride06X131E4OE100286-90-6GURKHSYORGJETM-WAQYZQTGSA-N
Irinotecan hydrochloride hydrate042LAQ1IIS136572-09-3KLEAIHJJLUAXIQ-JDRGBKBRSA-N
Irinotecan sucrosofateOL741S3N8B1361317-83-0BCPSLKYBXGKPIW-RTXWKGGWSA-N
International/Other Brands
Biotecan / Campto (YakultHonsha Co. Ltd.)
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
CamptosarInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1996-06-142018-05-31US flag
CamptosarSolution20 mgIntravenousPfizer Canada Ulc1997-08-27Not applicableCanada flag
CamptosarInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1996-06-14Not applicableUS flag
IrinotecanSolutionIntravenousPfizer Canada Ulc2014-03-07Not applicableCanada flag
Irinotecan for InjectionSolutionIntravenousTEVA Canada Limited2008-10-31Not applicableCanada flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection20 mg/1mLIntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (USA)2008-11-282008-12-11US flag
Irinotecan Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousTeligent Ou2015-05-28Not applicableCanada flag
Irinotecan Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Irinotecan Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Irinotecan Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Irinotecan hydrochloideInjection20 mg/1mLIntravenousXiromed Llc2019-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Irinotecan hydrochloideInjection20 mg/1mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2019-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Irinotecan hydrochlorideInjection20 mg/1mLIntravenousXiromed Llc2019-11-18Not applicableUS flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection40 mg/2mLIntravenousSun Pharma Global FZE2008-04-212017-01-24US flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection20 mg/1mLIntravenousHikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.2010-12-20Not applicableUS flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousQilu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.2016-05-03Not applicableUS flag
Irinotecan hydrochlorideInjection20 mg/1mLIntravenousSindan-Pharma SRL2009-06-232011-02-02US flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2008-02-27Not applicableUS flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/5mLIntravenousJiangsu Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.2011-12-162013-03-08US flag
Irinotecan HydrochlorideInjection500 mg/25mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc2008-11-262010-02-11US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories

ATC Codes
L01XX19 — Irinotecan
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as camptothecins. These are heterocyclic compounds comprising a planar pentacyclic ring structure, that includes a pyrrolo[3,4-beta]-quinoline moiety (rings A, B and C), conjugated pyridone moiety (ring D) and one chiral center at position 20 within the alpha-hydroxy lactone ring with (S) configuration (the E-ring).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Camptothecins
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Camptothecins
Alternative Parents
Quinolines and derivatives / Pyranopyridines / Piperidinecarboxylic acids / Aminopiperidines / Pyridinones / Benzenoids / Tertiary alcohols / Carbamate esters / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trialkylamines
show 11 more
Substituents
4-aminopiperidine / Alcohol / Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Camptothecin / Carbamic acid ester / Carbonic acid derivative
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
pyranoindolizinoquinoline (CHEBI:80630) / Quinoline alkaloids (C16641)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
7673326042
CAS number
97682-44-5
InChI Key
UWKQSNNFCGGAFS-XIFFEERXSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C33H38N4O6/c1-3-22-23-16-21(43-32(40)36-14-10-20(11-15-36)35-12-6-5-7-13-35)8-9-27(23)34-29-24(22)18-37-28(29)17-26-25(30(37)38)19-42-31(39)33(26,41)4-2/h8-9,16-17,20,41H,3-7,10-15,18-19H2,1-2H3/t33-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(19S)-10,19-diethyl-19-hydroxy-14,18-dioxo-17-oxa-3,13-diazapentacyclo[11.8.0.0^{2,11}.0^{4,9}.0^{15,20}]henicosa-1(21),2,4(9),5,7,10,15(20)-heptaen-7-yl [1,4'-bipiperidine]-1'-carboxylate
SMILES
CCC1=C2CN3C(=CC4=C(COC(=O)[[email protected]]4(O)CC)C3=O)C2=NC2=CC=C(OC(=O)N3CCC(CC3)N3CCCCC3)C=C12

References

Synthesis Reference
US4604463
General References
  1. Innocenti F, Undevia SD, Iyer L, Chen PX, Das S, Kocherginsky M, Karrison T, Janisch L, Ramirez J, Rudin CM, Vokes EE, Ratain MJ: Genetic variants in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene predict the risk of severe neutropenia of irinotecan. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Apr 15;22(8):1382-8. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [PubMed:15007088]
  2. O'Dwyer PJ, Catalano RB: Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and irinotecan: practical pharmacogenomics arrives in cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Oct 1;24(28):4534-8. [PubMed:17008691]
  3. Ramesh M, Ahlawat P, Srinivas NR: Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38: review of bioanalytical methods and recent update from clinical pharmacology perspectives. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Jan;24(1):104-23. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1345. [PubMed:19852077]
  4. Chabot GG: Clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Oct;33(4):245-59. [PubMed:9342501]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014900
KEGG Drug
D08086
KEGG Compound
C16641
PubChem Compound
60838
PubChem Substance
46505871
ChemSpider
54825
BindingDB
50128267
RxNav
51499
ChEBI
80630
ChEMBL
CHEMBL481
ZINC
ZINC000001612996
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001339
PharmGKB
PA450085
PDBe Ligand
CP0
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Irinotecan
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
PDB Entries
1u65
FDA label
Download (132 KB)
MSDS
Download (36.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMalignant Neoplasm of Colon / Unresectable Metastasis Originating in Colonic Cancer1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers2
4CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancer (MCRC)1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
4CompletedTreatmentTumors, Solid1
4CompletedTreatmentUpper Gastrointestinal Tumours1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Gastric Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIB Gastric Cancer / Stage IIIA Esophageal Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer / Stage IIIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer / Stage IIIC Esophageal Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancer (MCRC)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Pfizer inc
  • Accord healthcare inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals
  • Bedford laboratories
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Ebewe pharma ges mbh nfg kg
  • Fresenius kabi oncology plc
  • Hospira inc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Pliva lachema as
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharma global inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Cipla Ltd.
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • Fresenius Kabi AB
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. Ltd.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Sagent Pharmaceuticals
  • Sandoz
  • SC Sindan Pharma SRL
  • Sicor Pharmaceuticals
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection; injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Injection
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous40 mg/2ml
Injection, solution
SolutionIntravenous100 mg/5ml
SolutionIntravenous150 mg/7.5ml
SolutionIntravenous20 mg/ml
SolutionIntravenous300 mg/15ml
SolutionIntravenous40 mg/2ml
Solution, concentrateIntravenous100 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mg/ml
SolutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous; Parenteral20 MG/ML
InjectionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/5mL
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous40 mg/2mL
InjectionIntravenous500 mg/25mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous40 mg/2mL
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
SolutionIntravenous150 mg/7ml
SolutionIntravenous500 mg/25ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/25ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous100 mg/5ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous300 mg/15ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous500 mg/25ml
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous4.3 mg/1mL
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous4.3 mg/1mL
SuspensionIntravenous43 mg
SolutionIntravenous20 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Irinotecan hcl 40 mg/2 ml inj138.07USD ml
Camptosar 20 mg/ml vial36.0USD ml
Irinotecan hcl 40 mg/2 ml vial22.2USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
CA2202531No2005-05-032015-10-11Canada flag
CA2294031No2005-01-182018-07-27Canada flag
US6403569Yes2002-06-112020-10-28US flag
US6794370Yes2004-09-212020-11-01US flag
US8703181No2014-04-222025-05-02US flag
US8329213No2012-12-112025-05-02US flag
US8992970No2015-03-312025-05-02US flag
US8147867No2012-04-032028-08-29US flag
US9364473No2016-06-142033-06-12US flag
US9492442No2016-11-152033-06-12US flag
US9339497No2016-05-172033-06-12US flag
US9452162No2016-09-272033-06-12US flag
US9717724No2017-08-012033-06-12US flag
US9730891No2017-08-152025-05-02US flag
US9724303No2017-08-082025-05-02US flag
US9782349No2017-10-102025-05-02US flag
US10456360No2019-10-292036-10-15US flag
US10722508No2005-05-022025-05-02US flag
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)222-223 °CNot Available
water solubilitySolubleNot Available
logP3.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.107 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.94ALOGPS
logP2.78ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.71ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.47ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity161.33 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability65.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.969
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6284
Caco-2 permeable-0.6065
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7861
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7092
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5337
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8178
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8174
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8564
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7377
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7779
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6625
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.8295
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5081
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6977
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8045
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9956
Rat acute toxicity2.7960 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9457
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5413
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0091000000-b15811b1af58e71b3ec6
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0101190000-eed1a0e57a719811aa8e

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Releases the supercoiling and torsional tension of DNA introduced during the DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving and rejoining one strand of the DNA duplex. Introduces a singl...
Gene Name
TOP1
Uniprot ID
P11387
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 1
Molecular Weight
90725.19 Da
References
  1. Yoshikawa M, Ikegami Y, Hayasaka S, Ishii K, Ito A, Sano K, Suzuki T, Togawa T, Yoshida H, Soda H, Oka M, Kohno S, Sawada S, Ishikawa T, Tanabe S: Novel camptothecin analogues that circumvent ABCG2-associated drug resistance in human tumor cells. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jul 20;110(6):921-7. [PubMed:15170677]
  2. Yoshikawa M, Ikegami Y, Sano K, Yoshida H, Mitomo H, Sawada S, Ishikawa T: Transport of SN-38 by the wild type of human ABC transporter ABCG2 and its inhibition by quercetin, a natural flavonoid. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2004 Apr;4(1):25-35. [PubMed:15255290]
  3. Yang X, Hu Z, Chan SY, Chan E, Goh BC, Duan W, Zhou S: Novel agents that potentially inhibit irinotecan-induced diarrhea. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(11):1343-58. [PubMed:15975002]
  4. Nakagawa H, Saito H, Ikegami Y, Aida-Hyugaji S, Sawada S, Ishikawa T: Molecular modeling of new camptothecin analogues to circumvent ABCG2-mediated drug resistance in cancer. Cancer Lett. 2006 Mar 8;234(1):81-9. Epub 2005 Nov 23. [PubMed:16309825]
  5. Ishikawa T, Ikegami Y, Sano K, Nakagawa H, Sawada S: Transport mechanism-based drug molecular design: novel camptothecin analogues to circumvent ABCG2-associated drug resistance of human tumor cells. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(3):313-25. [PubMed:16454746]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Ramesh M, Ahlawat P, Srinivas NR: Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38: review of bioanalytical methods and recent update from clinical pharmacology perspectives. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Jan;24(1):104-23. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1345. [PubMed:19852077]
  8. Chabot GG: Clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Oct;33(4):245-59. [PubMed:9342501]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
Releases the supercoiling and torsional tension of DNA introduced during duplication of mitochondrial DNA by transiently cleaving and rejoining one strand of the DNA duplex. Introduces a single-str...
Gene Name
TOP1MT
Uniprot ID
Q969P6
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase I, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
69871.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Yoshikawa M, Ikegami Y, Hayasaka S, Ishii K, Ito A, Sano K, Suzuki T, Togawa T, Yoshida H, Soda H, Oka M, Kohno S, Sawada S, Ishikawa T, Tanabe S: Novel camptothecin analogues that circumvent ABCG2-associated drug resistance in human tumor cells. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jul 20;110(6):921-7. [PubMed:15170677]
  4. Yoshikawa M, Ikegami Y, Sano K, Yoshida H, Mitomo H, Sawada S, Ishikawa T: Transport of SN-38 by the wild type of human ABC transporter ABCG2 and its inhibition by quercetin, a natural flavonoid. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2004 Apr;4(1):25-35. [PubMed:15255290]
  5. Yang X, Hu Z, Chan SY, Chan E, Goh BC, Duan W, Zhou S: Novel agents that potentially inhibit irinotecan-induced diarrhea. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(11):1343-58. [PubMed:15975002]
  6. Nakagawa H, Saito H, Ikegami Y, Aida-Hyugaji S, Sawada S, Ishikawa T: Molecular modeling of new camptothecin analogues to circumvent ABCG2-mediated drug resistance in cancer. Cancer Lett. 2006 Mar 8;234(1):81-9. Epub 2005 Nov 23. [PubMed:16309825]
  7. Ishikawa T, Ikegami Y, Sano K, Nakagawa H, Sawada S: Transport mechanism-based drug molecular design: novel camptothecin analogues to circumvent ABCG2-associated drug resistance of human tumor cells. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(3):313-25. [PubMed:16454746]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  9. Ramesh M, Ahlawat P, Srinivas NR: Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38: review of bioanalytical methods and recent update from clinical pharmacology perspectives. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Jan;24(1):104-23. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1345. [PubMed:19852077]
  10. Chabot GG: Clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Oct;33(4):245-59. [PubMed:9342501]

Enzymes

Details
1. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Ramesh M, Ahlawat P, Srinivas NR: Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38: review of bioanalytical methods and recent update from clinical pharmacology perspectives. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Jan;24(1):104-23. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1345. [PubMed:19852077]
  2. Kuhn JG: Pharmacology of irinotecan. Oncology (Williston Park). 1998 Aug;12(8 Suppl 6):39-42. [PubMed:9726089]
  3. Santos A, Zanetta S, Cresteil T, Deroussent A, Pein F, Raymond E, Vernillet L, Risse ML, Boige V, Gouyette A, Vassal G: Metabolism of irinotecan (CPT-11) by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in humans. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 May;6(5):2012-20. [PubMed:10815927]
  4. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Santos A, Zanetta S, Cresteil T, Deroussent A, Pein F, Raymond E, Vernillet L, Risse ML, Boige V, Gouyette A, Vassal G: Metabolism of irinotecan (CPT-11) by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in humans. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 May;6(5):2012-20. [PubMed:10815927]
  2. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Potential CYP2B6 Substrates, Inhibitors, Inudcers (https://ctep.cancer.gov/protocoldevelopment/docs/cyp2b6.doc) [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Kuhn JG: Pharmacology of irinotecan. Oncology (Williston Park). 1998 Aug;12(8 Suppl 6):39-42. [PubMed:9726089]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Chabot GG: Clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Oct;33(4):245-59. [PubMed:9342501]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acy...
Gene Name
CES1
Uniprot ID
P23141
Uniprot Name
Liver carboxylesterase 1
Molecular Weight
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Chabot GG: Clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Oct;33(4):245-59. [PubMed:9342501]
  2. Ramesh M, Ahlawat P, Srinivas NR: Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38: review of bioanalytical methods and recent update from clinical pharmacology perspectives. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Jan;24(1):104-23. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1345. [PubMed:19852077]
  3. Kuhn JG: Pharmacology of irinotecan. Oncology (Williston Park). 1998 Aug;12(8 Suppl 6):39-42. [PubMed:9726089]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Methylumbelliferyl-acetate deacetylase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and ...
Gene Name
CES2
Uniprot ID
O00748
Uniprot Name
Cocaine esterase
Molecular Weight
61806.41 Da
References
  1. Sanghani SP, Quinney SK, Fredenburg TB, Davis WI, Murry DJ, Bosron WF: Hydrolysis of irinotecan and its oxidative metabolites, 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxycamptothecin and 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-amino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin, by human carboxylesterases CES1A1, CES2, and a newly expressed carboxylesterase isoenzyme, CES3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):505-11. [PubMed:15100172]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Shnitsar V, Eckardt R, Gupta S, Grottker J, Muller GA, Koepsell H, Burckhardt G, Hagos Y: Expression of human organic cation transporter 3 in kidney carcinoma cell lines increases chemosensitivity to melphalan, irinotecan, and vincristine. Cancer Res. 2009 Feb 15;69(4):1494-501. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2483. Epub 2009 Feb 3. [PubMed:19190342]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Minami H, Sugiura S, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Role of organic anion transporter OATP1B1 (OATP-C) in hepatic uptake of irinotecan and its active metabolite, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin: in vitro evidence and effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Mar;33(3):434-9. Epub 2004 Dec 17. [PubMed:15608127]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Furukawa T, Sumizawa T, Ono K, Ueda K, Seto K, Akiyama SI: ATP-Dependent efflux of CPT-11 and SN-38 by the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and its inhibition by PAK-104P. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):921-8. [PubMed:10220571]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, Okamoto M, Sugimoto Y, Akiyama S, Baba M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;63(1):65-72. [PubMed:12488537]
  2. Maliepaard M, van Gastelen MA, Tohgo A, Hausheer FH, van Waardenburg RC, de Jong LA, Pluim D, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Circumvention of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated resistance to camptothecins in vitro using non-substrate drugs or the BCRP inhibitor GF120918. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):935-41. [PubMed:11309344]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Kroetz DL: Role for drug transporters beyond tumor resistance: hepatic functional imaging and genotyping of multidrug resistance transporters for the prediction of irinotecan toxicity. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 10;24(26):4225-7. Epub 2006 Aug 8. [PubMed:16895999]
  2. Han JY, Lim HS, Park YH, Lee SY, Lee JS: Integrated pharmacogenetic prediction of irinotecan pharmacokinetics and toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2009 Jan;63(1):115-20. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2007.12.003. Epub 2008 Jan 24. [PubMed:18221820]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Kroetz DL: Role for drug transporters beyond tumor resistance: hepatic functional imaging and genotyping of multidrug resistance transporters for the prediction of irinotecan toxicity. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 10;24(26):4225-7. Epub 2006 Aug 8. [PubMed:16895999]
  2. Han JY, Lim HS, Park YH, Lee SY, Lee JS: Integrated pharmacogenetic prediction of irinotecan pharmacokinetics and toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2009 Jan;63(1):115-20. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2007.12.003. Epub 2008 Jan 24. [PubMed:18221820]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2020 01:55

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