Ferrous gluconate

Identification

Summary

Ferrous gluconate is a medication used to treat iron-deficiency anemia.

Generic Name
Ferrous gluconate
DrugBank Accession Number
DB14488
Background

Not Available

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 446.139
Monoisotopic: 446.035891
Chemical Formula
C12H22FeO14
Synonyms
  • D-gluconic acid, iron(2+) salt (2:1)
  • Ferric Gluconate
  • Ferrous gluconate anhydrous
  • Iron(2+) gluconate (1:2)
  • Iron(II) gluconate, anhydrous

Pharmacology

Indication

Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

The major activity of supplemental iron is in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Iron has putative immune-enhancing, anticarcinogenic and cognition-enhancing activities.

Mechanism of action

Iron is necessary for the production of hemoglobin. Iron-deficiency can lead to decreased production of hemoglobin and a microcytic, hypochromic anemia.

TargetActionsOrganism
UTransferrin receptor protein 1Not AvailableHumans
UEgl nine homolog 1Not AvailableHumans
UHistone deacetylase 8Not AvailableHumans
UAlpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing proteinNot AvailableHumans
UHemoglobin subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UFrataxin, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UFerritin heavy chainNot AvailableHumans
UFlap endonuclease 1Not AvailableHumans
UEndonuclease 8-like 1Not AvailableHumans
UEndonuclease 8-like 2Not AvailableHumans
UDNA polymerase betaNot AvailableHumans
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHumans
USerotransferrinNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

The efficiency of absorption depends on the salt form, the amount administered, the dosing regimen and the size of iron stores. Subjects with normal iron stores absorb 10% to 35% of an iron dose. Those who are iron deficient may absorb up to 95% of an iron dose.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Acute iron overdosage can be divided into four stages. In the first stage, which occurs up to six hours after ingestion, the principal symptoms are vomiting and diarrhea. Other symptoms include hypotension, tachycardia and CNS depression ranging from lethargy to coma. The second phase may occur at 6-24 hours after ingestion and is characterized by a temporary remission. In the third phase, gastrointestinal symptoms recur accompanied by shock, metabolic acidosis, coma, hepatic necrosis and jaundice, hypoglycemia, renal failure and pulmonary edema. The fourth phase may occur several weeks after ingestion and is characterized by gastrointestinal obstruction and liver damage. In a young child, 75 milligrams per kilogram is considered extremely dangerous. A dose of 30 milligrams per kilogram can lead to symptoms of toxicity. Estimates of a lethal dosage range from 180 milligrams per kilogram and upwards. A peak serum iron concentration of five micrograms or more per ml is associated with moderate to severe poisoning in many.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Alendronic acidFerrous gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alendronic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AlmasilateAlmasilate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous gluconate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminium phosphateAluminium phosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous gluconate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous gluconate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AsenapineAsenapine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferrous gluconate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CabotegravirThe serum concentration of Cabotegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous gluconate.
Calcium PhosphateFerrous gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Calcium Phosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium phosphate dihydrateFerrous gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Calcium phosphate dihydrate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CarbidopaFerrous gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Carbidopa resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CefdinirFerrous gluconate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cefdinir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid milk and dairy products. Take ferrous gluconate at least 2 hours before or after milk.
  • Limit caffeine intake. Food and beverages containing caffeine may reduce iron absorption.
  • Take at least 2 hours before or after calcium supplements.
  • Take separate from antacids. Take ferrous gluconate at least 2 hours before or after antacids.
  • Take with food. This reduces gastric irritation.
  • Take with foods containing vitamin C. Foods rich in vitamin C increase the absorption of iron.

Products

Products2
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ferrous gluconate dihydrateU1B11I423Z6047-12-7OKGNXSFAYMSVNN-SYAJEJNSSA-L
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
IronunknownE1UOL152H77439-89-6XEEYBQQBJWHFJM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Ferrous cationionicGW89581OWR15438-31-0CWYNVVGOOAEACU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Ferrous GluconateTablet35 mgOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-05-312007-08-07Canada flag
Ferrous Gluconate Tab 300mgTablet300 mg / tabOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1973-12-312000-08-21Canada flag
Ferrous Gluconate Tab 300mgTablet300 mgOralVita Health Products Inc1957-12-312005-07-20Canada flag
Ferrous Gluconate Tab 300mgTablet300 mg / tabOralShoppers Drug Mart Inc.1977-12-311997-08-15Canada flag
Ferrous Gluconate Tablet 300mgTablet300 mgOralD.C. Labs Limited1969-12-312005-07-19Canada flag
Fertinic Syr 35mg/5mlSyrup35 mg / 5 mLOralDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1973-12-312000-09-06Canada flag
Fertinic Tab 300mgTablet300 mg / tabOralDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1939-12-311999-09-17Canada flag
Iron Dietary SupplementTablet35 mg / tabOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-222000-06-07Canada flag
Timed Release Iron 35mgTablet, extended release35 mg / srtOralNutricorp International1999-11-302009-08-05Canada flag
Timed Release Iron 50mgTablet, extended release50 mgOralNutricorp International2003-09-302009-08-06Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Alsimine W Vitamins A DFerrous gluconate (16 mg / amp) + Calcium (13 mg / amp) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg / amp) + Dexpanthenol (5 mg / amp) + Dexpanthenol (400 unit / amp) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (2 mg / amp) + Nicotinamide (40 mg / amp) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg / amp) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg / amp) + Vitamin A (10000 unit / amp)Capsule; LiquidOralAlsi Cie Ltee1978-12-312003-05-21Canada flag
ANFEZINC - G SURUPFerrous gluconate (40 mg/5mL) + Zinc gluconate (15 mg/5mL)SyrupOralBERAT BERAN İLAÇ SAN. VE TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Bev 29 TabFerrous gluconate (1 mg / tab) + Biotin (3 mcg / tab) + Choline (63 mg / tab) + Cyanocobalamin (50 mcg / tab) + Folic acid (.013 mg / tab) + Inositol (7 mg / tab) + Niacin (1 mg / tab) + Pantothenic acid (25 mg / tab) + Riboflavin (.025 mg / tab) + Thiamine (10 mg / tab)TabletOralBeverly International Nutrition1987-12-311998-08-01Canada flag
Children's Chew Multi & Min TabFerrous gluconate (2.5 mg / tab) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg / tab) + Beta carotene (1250 unit / tab) + Biotin (75 mcg / tab) + Calcium (100 mg / tab) + Choline bitartrate (5 mg / tab) + Copper (1 mg / tab) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg / tab) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (15 unit / tab) + Iodine (.075 mg / tab) + Magnesium (25 mg / tab) + Manganese (.5 mg / tab) + Nicotinamide (10 mg / tab) + Calcium pantothenate (6.25 mg / tab) + Potassium (.5 mg / tab) + Potassium chloride (5 mg / tab) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1.25 mg / tab) + Riboflavin (1.25 mg / tab) + Thiamine hydrochloride (1.25 mg / tab) + Vitamin A palmitate (1250 unit / tab) + Vitamin D (200 unit / tab) + Zinc (1.25 mg / tab)TabletOralNatrol, Inc.1995-12-312001-07-30Canada flag
Dynam Ampoule Et TabletFerrous gluconate (16 mg / 10 mL) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg / 10 mL) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg / 10 mL) + Dexpanthenol (5 mg / 10 mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (2 mg / 10 mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg / 10 mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg / 10 mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg / 10 mL) + Vitamin A (5000 unit / 10 mL) + Vitamin D (400 unit / 10 mL)Liquid; TabletOralCardinaux Enrg Les Produits Naturels1989-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
FERROZINC - G SURUP, 100 MLFerrous gluconate (40 mg) + Zinc gluconate (15 mg)SyrupOralBERKO İLAÇ VE KİMYA SAN. A.Ş.2020-08-14Not applicableTurkey flag
Floravit - SyrFerrous gluconate (19.1 mg / 20 mL) + Ascorbic acid (21.2 mg / 20 mL) + Cyanocobalamin (2 mcg / 20 mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1.7 mg / 20 mL) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg / 20 mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (1.6 mg / 20 mL)SyrupOralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.1995-05-282009-08-05Canada flag
GESTAFER®Ferrous gluconate (30 mg) + Folic acid (1000 mcg)Capsule, liquid filledOralPROCAPS S.A.2006-11-10Not applicableColombia flag
HEGLOBINA JARABEFerrous gluconate (0.3443 g) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.02 g) + Nicotinamide (0.115 g) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.115 g) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.06 g)SyrupOralLABORATORIO FRANCO COLOMBIANO - LAFRANCOL S.A.S.2006-11-102014-10-03Colombia flag
Iron IIFerrous gluconate (26 mg / tab) + Ferrous fumarate (75 mg / tab)TabletOralNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc1983-12-311996-09-09Canada flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BioFerr 90Ferrous gluconate dihydrate (13.2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (138 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (16.8 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (55 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.4 mg/1) + Iron (88.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralBiocomp Pharma, Inc.2014-07-01Not applicableUS flag
CitraNatal 90 DHAFerrous gluconate dihydrate (5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (159 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (85 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (4.54 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-11Not applicableUS flag
CitraNatal BloomFerrous gluconate dihydrate (13.2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (138 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (16.8 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (55 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.4 mg/1) + Iron (88.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMission Pharmacal Company2017-08-01Not applicableUS flag
CitraNatal BloomFerrous gluconate dihydrate (13.2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (138 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (16.8 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (55 mg/1) + Folic acid (1.4 mg/1) + Iron (88.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMission Pharmacal Company2017-08-012017-07-20US flag
CitraNatal Bloom DHAFerrous gluconate dihydrate (1.5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Crypthecodinium cohnii DHA oil (300 mg/300mg) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (88.5 mg/1)KitOralMission Pharmacal Company2018-01-18Not applicableUS flag
Foltabs PrenatalFerrous gluconate dihydrate (13 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (14 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (30 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)TabletOralMayne Pharma2009-01-012016-12-31US flag
Foltabs Prenatal Plus DHAFerrous gluconate dihydrate (13 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (14 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralMidlothian Laboratories, LLC2009-01-012011-04-30US flag
Natalvirt FLTFerrous gluconate dihydrate (90 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2013-04-012014-12-27US flag
Pnv Ob DHAFerrous gluconate dihydrate (0.1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (250 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (26.9 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)OralPureTek Corporation2011-06-012019-05-29US flag

Categories

ATC Codes
B03AA03 — Ferrous gluconate
Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified
Affected organisms
Not Available

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
781E2AXH0K
CAS number
299-29-6
InChI Key
VRIVJOXICYMTAG-IYEMJOQQSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2C6H12O7.Fe/c2*7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2*2-5,7-11H,1H2,(H,12,13);/q;;+2/p-2/t2*2-,3-,4+,5-;/m11./s1
IUPAC Name
lambda2-iron(2+) bis((2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate)
SMILES
[Fe++].[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(O)C([O-])=O.[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(O)C([O-])=O

References

General References
  1. TITCK Product Information: Ferrozinc-G (ferrous gluconate/zinc gluconate) oral syrup [Link]
PubChem Compound
9291
ChemSpider
19953133
Wikipedia
Iron(II)_gluconate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnemia1
4CompletedDiagnosticIron Absorption / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Roux En Y Gastric Bypass1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
4CompletedTreatmentHemodialysis Treatment / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure1
4CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency (ID)1
4CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnemia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemia / Iron Deficiency (ID)1
3RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule; liquidOral
SolutionOral6.66 mg
SuspensionOral600 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
SolutionOral3.33 g
Powder, for solutionOral126 MG/10ML
Powder, for solutionOral126 mg
Powder, for solutionOral80 MG
TabletOral80 MG
TabletOral35 mg
TabletOral38 mg/1
TabletOral300 mg
TabletOral300 mg / tab
SyrupOral35 mg / 5 mL
TabletOral
KitOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Powder, for solutionOral300 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral650 MG
TabletOral35 mg / tab
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescentOral695.04 mg
TabletOral695 MG
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
SolutionOral
SyrupOral
CapsuleOral
Solution, concentrateIntravenous
Liquid; tabletOral
SolutionOral650 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral35 mg / srt
Tablet, extended releaseOral50 mg
LiquidOral
Tablet, effervescentOral695 mg
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
Capsule
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility36.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area141.28 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity49.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new insights and accelerate drug research.
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Cellular uptake of iron occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand-occupied transferrin receptor into specialized endosomes. Endosomal acidification leads to iron release. The apotransferri...
Gene Name
TFRC
Uniprot ID
P02786
Uniprot Name
Transferrin receptor protein 1
Molecular Weight
84870.665 Da
References
  1. Hemadi M, Ha-Duong NT, El Hage Chahine JM: The mechanism of iron release from the transferrin-receptor 1 adduct. J Mol Biol. 2006 May 12;358(4):1125-36. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN1
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 1
Molecular Weight
46020.585 Da
References
  1. Davidson TL, Chen H, Di Toro DM, D'Angelo G, Costa M: Soluble nickel inhibits HIF-prolyl-hydroxylases creating persistent hypoxic signaling in A549 cells. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jul;45(7):479-89. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC8
Uniprot ID
Q9BY41
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 8
Molecular Weight
41757.29 Da
References
  1. Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA: Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6170-8. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acts as a chaperone to prevent the harmful aggregation of alpha-hemoglobin during normal erythroid cell development. Specifically protects free alpha-hemoglobin from precipitation. It is predicted to modulate pathological states of alpha-hemoglobin excess such as beta-thalassemia.
Specific Function
Hemoglobin binding
Gene Name
AHSP
Uniprot ID
Q9NZD4
Uniprot Name
Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein
Molecular Weight
11840.325 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1.
Specific Function
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
Gene Name
FXN
Uniprot ID
Q16595
Uniprot Name
Frataxin, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23134.895 Da
References
  1. Bencze KZ, Kondapalli KC, Cook JD, McMahon S, Millan-Pacheco C, Pastor N, Stemmler TL: The structure and function of frataxin. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;41(5):269-91. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Has ferroxidase activity. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after ...
Gene Name
FTH1
Uniprot ID
P02794
Uniprot Name
Ferritin heavy chain
Molecular Weight
21225.47 Da
References
  1. Toussaint L, Bertrand L, Hue L, Crichton RR, Declercq JP: High-resolution X-ray structures of human apoferritin H-chain mutants correlated with their activity and metal-binding sites. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jan 12;365(2):440-52. Epub 2006 Oct 7. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structure-specific nuclease with 5'-flap endonuclease and 5'-3' exonuclease activities involved in DNA replication and repair. During DNA replication, cleaves the 5'-overhanging flap structure that is generated by displacement synthesis when DNA polymerase encounters the 5'-end of a downstream Okazaki fragment. It enters the flap from the 5'-end and then tracks to cleave the flap base, leaving a nick for ligation. Also involved in the long patch base excision repair (LP-BER) pathway, by cleaving within the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site-terminated flap. Acts as a genome stabilization factor that prevents flaps from equilibrating into structurs that lead to duplications and deletions. Also possesses 5'-3' exonuclease activity on nicked or gapped double-stranded DNA, and exhibits RNase H activity. Also involved in replication and repair of rDNA and in repairing mitochondrial DNA.
Specific Function
5'-3' exonuclease activity
Gene Name
FEN1
Uniprot ID
P39748
Uniprot Name
Flap endonuclease 1
Molecular Weight
42592.635 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NEIL1
Uniprot ID
Q96FI4
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 1
Molecular Weight
43683.625 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Has DNA glycosylase activity towards 5-hydroxyuracil and other oxidized derivatives of cytosine with a preferenc...
Gene Name
NEIL2
Uniprot ID
Q969S2
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 2
Molecular Weight
36826.285 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Microtubule binding
Specific Function
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5' sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that...
Gene Name
POLB
Uniprot ID
P06746
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase beta
Molecular Weight
38177.34 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [Article]

Drug created on July 09, 2018 16:47 / Updated on September 19, 2021 19:53