Thiamine

Identification

Summary

Thiamine is a vitamin used to correct vitamin B1 deficiency.

Brand Names
Alertonic, Concept Ob, Fortaplex, Infuvite, Infuvite Pediatric, Irospan 24/6 Kit, Mvc-fluoride, Mvi Pediatric, Natafort, Neo-bex, Pregvit, Tandem Plus, Vitafol-one
Generic Name
Thiamine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB00152
Background

Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with the chemical formula C12H17N4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. Thiamine decomposes if heated. Thiamine was first discovered by Umetaro Suzuki in Japan when researching how rice bran cured patients of Beriberi. Thiamine plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and it is thought that thiamine inhibits the effect of glucose and insulin on arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thiamine plays an important role in helping the body convert carbohydrates and fat into energy. It is essential for normal growth and development and helps to maintain proper functioning of the heart and the nervous and digestive systems. Thiamine cannot be stored in the body; however, once absorbed, the vitamin is concentrated in muscle tissue.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 265.355
Monoisotopic: 265.112306876
Chemical Formula
C12H17N4OS
Synonyms
  • Aneurin
  • Antiberiberi factor
  • Thiamin
  • Thiamine
  • thiamine(1+)
  • thiamine(1+) ion
  • thiaminium
  • Thiaminum
  • Tiamina
  • Vitamin B1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of thiamine and niacin deficiency states, Korsakov's alcoholic psychosis, Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome, delirium, and peripheral neuritis.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Thiamine is a vitamin with antioxidant, erythropoietic, cognition-and mood-modulatory, antiatherosclerotic, putative ergogenic, and detoxification activities. Thiamine has been found to protect against lead-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney. Thiamine deficiency results in selective neuronal death in animal models. The neuronal death is associated with increased free radical production, suggesting that oxidative stress may play an important early role in brain damage associated with thiamine deficiency. Thiamine plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and it is thought that thiamine inhibits the effect of glucose and insulin on arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation may also promote atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells in culture have been found to have a decreased proliferative rate and delayed migration in response to hyperglycemic conditions. Thiamine has been shown to inhibit this effect of glucose on endothelial cells.

Mechanism of action

It is thought that the mechanism of action of thiamine on endothelial cells is related to a reduction in intracellular protein glycation by redirecting the glycolytic flux. Thiamine is mainly the transport form of the vitamin, while the active forms are phosphorylated thiamine derivatives. Natural derivatives of thiamine phosphate, such as thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), that act as coenzymes in addition to their each unique biological functions.

TargetActionsOrganism
AThiamin pyrophosphokinase 1
substrate
Humans
Absorption

Absorbed mainly from duodenum, by both active and passive processes

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

90-94%

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Medicalerrors
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Toxicity

Thiamine toxicity is uncommon; as excesses are readily excreted, although long-term supplementation of amounts larger than 3 gram have been known to cause toxicity. Oral mouse LD50 = 8224 mg/kg, oral rat LD50 = 3710 mg/kg.

Pathways
PathwayCategory
Thiamine MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcyclovirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acyclovir is combined with Thiamine.
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Amantadine can be increased when it is combined with Thiamine.
ChlorpheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpheniramine is combined with Thiamine.
Choline salicylateThe serum concentration of Choline salicylate can be increased when it is combined with Thiamine.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Cimetidine can be increased when it is combined with Thiamine.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be increased when it is combined with Thiamine.
ClofarabineThe serum concentration of Clofarabine can be increased when it is combined with Thiamine.
ClopidogrelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Thiamine.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Thiamine.
DacomitinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dacomitinib is combined with Thiamine.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Products
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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Thiamine chlorideX66NSO3N3559-43-8MYVIATVLJGTBFV-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Thiamine hydrochlorideM572600E5P67-03-8DPJRMOMPQZCRJU-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Thiamine mononitrate8K0I04919X532-43-4UIERGBJEBXXIGO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
International/Other Brands
Betalin S (Eli Lilly) / Biamine
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
BetaxinSolution100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc2002-06-012018-11-29Canada flag
Betaxin Liq 100mg/mlLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSanofi1936-12-312001-08-10Canada flag
Thiamiject Injection - Liq Im IV 100mg/mlLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousOmega Laboratories Ltd1998-07-16Not applicableCanada flag
Thiamine HCl Inj 100mg/mlLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Thiamine HCl Injection - Liq 100mg/mlLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousFaulding Consumer, Inc.1998-04-302001-07-30Canada flag
Thiamine Hydrochloride Inj 100mg/mlLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscularSaanich Pharmacy1988-12-311997-02-20Canada flag
Thiamine Hydrochloride Injection USP, 100mg/mlLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousAlveda Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada flag
Thiamine Hydrochloride Injection, USPLiquid100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSterimax Inc2001-05-01Not applicableCanada flag
Vitamin B1Solution100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMylan Pharmaceuticals1994-12-312015-11-03Canada flag
Vitamin B1Solution100 mg / mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1989-12-31Not applicableCanada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
ThiamineInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousA-S Medication Solutions2000-09-01Not applicableUS flag
ThiamineInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2000-09-01Not applicableUS flag
ThiamineInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2000-09-012018-02-28US flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousA-S Medication Solutions2013-06-04Not applicableUS flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-09-012015-10-01US flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-06-04Not applicableUS flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.2021-02-12Not applicableUS flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2001-04-18Not applicableUS flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2021-01-20Not applicableUS flag
Thiamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2013-08-21Not applicableUS flag
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Acti-thiamine Caplet 100mgTablet100 mgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
ANEURINE TABLET 10MGTabletOralPHARMANIAGA MANUFACTURING BERHAD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
ANEURINE TABLET 3MGTabletOralPHARMANIAGA MANUFACTURING BERHAD2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
B-1 Caps 500mgCapsule500 mg / capOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada flag
B1 400mg Ctr TabTablet, extended release400 mg / tabOralBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada flag
B1 Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralVita Health Products Inc1979-12-312002-07-31Canada flag
Bewon ElixirLiquid.05 mg / mLOralLaboratoires Charton Laboratories1995-12-311999-01-16Canada flag
Bewon Elixir 0.05mg/mlElixir.05 mg / mLOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-311998-01-28Canada flag
PRIME-B1 TABLET 100MGTabletOralPRIME PHARMACEUTICAL SDN. BHD.2020-09-08Not applicableMalaysia flag
Thiamine HCl Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada flag
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
24 Multivitamins + MineralsThiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada flag
50 PlusThiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit) + Vitamin E (20 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada flag
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsThiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada flag
Acti-MN + B1 + C CapletThiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (100 mg) + Manganese (30.0 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada flag
Adeks - DpsThiamine (0.5 mg / mL) + Ascorbic acid (45 mg / mL) + Beta carotene (1 mg / mL) + Biotin (15 mcg / mL) + Cyanocobalamin (4 mcg / mL) + Nicotinamide (6 mg / mL) + Panthenol (3 mg / mL) + Phylloquinone (0.1 mg / mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.6 mg / mL) + Riboflavin (0.6 mg / mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 unit / mL) + Vitamin D (400 unit / mL) + Vitamin E (40 unit / mL) + Zinc (5 mg / mL)Solution / dropsOralAxcan Pharma1995-12-312007-10-01Canada flag
Adeks TabletsThiamine (1.2 mg) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg) + Beta carotene (3 mg) + Biotin (50 mcg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (12 mcg) + Folic acid (0.2 mg) + Niacin (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Phylloquinone (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine (1.5 mg) + Riboflavin (1.3 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (4000 unit) + Vitamin E (150 unit) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralAxcan Pharma1998-01-202011-04-20Canada flag
Adult Formula 50+Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Beta carotene (3000 unit) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (220 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Iodine (0.15 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Molybdenum (10 mcg) + Nicotinamide (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Potassium (37.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg) + Selenium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (3000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (60 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-252009-09-28Canada flag
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsThiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Folic acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz Manufacturing Inc2003-06-16Not applicableUS flag
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsThiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Folic acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz Manufacturing Inc2005-05-18Not applicableUS flag
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsThiamine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Folic acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 [iU]/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz Manufacturing Inc2005-05-18Not applicableUS flag
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Active FEThiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Folic acid (1250 ug/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUS flag
Active OBThiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31US flag
B-ComboThiamine chloride (1 mg/1mL) + Dexpanthenol (1 mg/1mL) + Mecobalamin (1 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (1 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine (1 mg/1mL) + Riboflavin (1 mg/1mL)InjectionIntramuscularPerdido Key Health And Wellness Inc2015-11-23Not applicableUS flag
B-plex 100Thiamine hydrochloride (100 mg/1mL) + Dexpanthenol (2 mg/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (2 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (100 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousMerit Pharmaceutical2012-01-01Not applicableUS flag
BacminThiamine mononitrate (20 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg/1) + Biotin (150 ug/1) + Chromium Cr-51 chloride (0.1 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (3 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Flavone (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Manganese gluconate (5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (100 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (20 mg/1) + Selenomethionine (50 ug/1) + Vitamin A acetate (2000 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (22.5 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Tablet, coatedOralMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-04-01Not applicableUS flag
Bal-Care DHAThiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron sucrose (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (430 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUS flag
Bal-Care DHA EssentialThiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2850 [iU]/1) + Calcium carbonate (219 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (840 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (.012 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (.223 mg/1) + Iron sucrose (1.35 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (374 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (25.65 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2012-05-01Not applicableUS flag
BiovitaThiamine mononitrate (0.3 mg/1g) + Ascorbic acid (5 mg/1g) + Bacillus subtilis (3 mg/1g) + Calcium phosphate dihydrate (20 mg/1g) + Nicotinamide (0.1 mg/1g) + Riboflavin (0.2 mg/1g)GranuleOralOASIS TRADING2018-12-25Not applicableUS flag
BiovitaThiamine mononitrate (0.3 mg/1g) + Ascorbic acid (5 mg/1g) + Bacillus subtilis (3 mg/1g) + Calcium phosphate dihydrate (20 mg/1g) + Nicotinamide (0.1 mg/1g) + Riboflavin (0.2 mg/1g)GranuleOralIldong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.2015-06-032019-09-13US flag
C-Nate DHAThiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (30 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (200 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralCenturion Labs, LLC2013-01-01Not applicableUS flag

Categories

ATC Codes
A11DA01 — Thiamine (vit b1)
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. These are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Thiamines
Alternative Parents
Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / 4,5-disubstituted thiazoles / Imidolactams / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Organic cations
Substituents
4,5-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole / Alcohol / Amine / Aminopyrimidine / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Azacycle / Azole / Heteroaromatic compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imidolactam
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
thiamine (CHEBI:18385) / Water-soluble vitamins (C00378) / a vitamin (THIAMINE)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
4ABT0J945J
CAS number
70-16-6
InChI Key
JZRWCGZRTZMZEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H17N4OS/c1-8-11(3-4-17)18-7-16(8)6-10-5-14-9(2)15-12(10)13/h5,7,17H,3-4,6H2,1-2H3,(H2,13,14,15)/q+1
IUPAC Name
3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium
SMILES
CC1=C(CCO)SC=[N+]1CC1=CN=C(C)N=C1N

References

Synthesis Reference

Nobuyuki Kitamori, Masaya Maeno, Seiji Izuhara, "Granules of thiamine salt and the production thereof." U.S. Patent US4702919, issued July, 1974.

US4702919
General References
  1. Slater PV: Multi-level preparation for nursing impact on nursing practice. Aust Nurses J. 1978 Jun;7(11):40-3. [Article]
  2. Kopriva V, Bilkovic R, Licko T: [Tumours of the small intestine (author's transl)]. Cesk Gastroenterol Vyz. 1977 Dec;31(8):549-53. [Article]
  3. Beissel J: [The role of right catheterization in valvular prosthesis surveillance (author's transl)]. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris). 1977 Dec;26(6):587-9. [Article]
  4. Lonsdale D, Shamberger RJ, Audhya T: Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a pilot study. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2002 Aug;23(4):303-8. [Article]
  5. Lonsdale D: A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. [Article]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000235
KEGG Drug
D08580
KEGG Compound
C00378
PubChem Compound
1130
PubChem Substance
46507321
ChemSpider
1098
BindingDB
50373877
RxNav
10454
ChEBI
18385
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1547
ZINC
ZINC000000049153
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000870
PharmGKB
PA451652
PDBe Ligand
VIB
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Thiamine
AHFS Codes
  • 88:28.00 — Multivitamin Preparations
  • 88:08.00 — Vitamin B Complex
PDB Entries
1ig0 / 1ig3 / 1sbr / 2hh9 / 2lh8 / 3lm8 / 3myu / 3rlb / 4kys / 4nmy
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MSDS
Download (73.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiopulmonary Bypass / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Thiamine Deficiency1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lactic Acidosis / Lipodystrophies1
4CompletedScreeningBMI >30 kg/m2 / Children / Thiamine Deficiency1
4CompletedSupportive CareHeart Failure / Lactic Acidosis / Thiamine Deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemia, Pernicious / Megaloblastic anemia1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (DPN)1
4CompletedTreatmentFatigue3
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnant State / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentPain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Dell laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
Packagers
  • Abbott Laboratories Ltd.
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • AG Marin Pharmaceuticals
  • Alba Pharmacal
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Bradley Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Clint Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Contract Pharm
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Gil Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Heel Inc.
  • Hillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa Inc.
  • Hurst Pharmaceutical
  • Hyrex Pharmaceuticals
  • International Ethical Labs Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • J T Baker
  • Jenahexal Pharma GmbH
  • JLM Pharmatech
  • Keene Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Laboratorios Magnachem International SA
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Llorens Pharmaceutical
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marlex Pharmaceuticals
  • Martica Enterprises Inc.
  • Martin Surgical Supply
  • Mason Distributors
  • McGuff Co. Inc.
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nephro-Tech Inc.
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Nnodum Pharmaceutical Corporation
  • Pamlab LLC
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmedix
  • Phoenix Labs Rising LLC
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Primedics Laboratories
  • Qualitest
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxmar Laboratories
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
  • Simildiet SL
  • Teral Laboratories
  • US Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • V Sab Medical Labs Inc.
  • Walgreen Co.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule
Capsule; liquidOral
Bar, chewableOral
CapsuleOral500 mg / cap
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg / tab
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Solution
Tablet, delayed release
Solution
Tablet, coated
Injection, solutionIntramuscular
Tablet, delayed release
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular
LiquidOral.05 mg / mL
ElixirOral.05 mg / mL
GranuleOral
Injection, powder, for solutionIntramuscular
SyrupOral
Injection, solutionParenteral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
CapsuleOral
Tablet, film coated
Capsule, coatedOral
Tablet
PowderTopical
Tablet, effervescentOral
LiquidOral
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
LozengeOral
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
GelOral
Capsule, delayed releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SolutionIntravenous
Tablet, coatedOral150 mcg
Tablet, coatedOral
PatchTopical
InjectionIntramuscular
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
KitIntravenous
ElixirOral
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionOral
TabletOral
LiquidIntravenous
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
SolutionParenteral
SolutionIntramuscular
Injection, solutionIntramuscular
Injection
Tablet; tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
Powder
Injection, solutionIntravenous
InjectionParenteral
Suspension / dropsOral
Solution / dropsOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Syrup
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous
Liquid; tabletOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Injection
TabletOral100 mg/1
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg / mL
TabletOral25 mg / tab
TabletOral50 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
LiquidIntramuscular100 mg / mL
Capsule, coatedOral300 mg
Tablet, coatedOral300 mg
SolutionParenteral30 mg
TabletOral0.3 g
TabletOral300 mg
SolutionIntramuscular1 g
SolutionIntramuscular200 mg
Tablet, coatedOral30 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral100 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral300 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Powder, for solutionOral
Injection, solution
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionParenteral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, solution
Injection, powder, for solutionParenteral
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg / tab
TabletOral
CapsuleOral100 mg / cap
Injection, solutionParenteral50 mg/mL
Injection, solutionParenteral25 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous
InjectionIntravenous
CapsuleOral100 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg / mL
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral2 mg / tab
SolutionIntramuscular100 mg
TabletOral100 mg / tab
KitOral
PowderOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Thiamine 100 mg/ml vial8.61USD ml
Infuvite pediatric vial2.58USD ml
Vitamin B-1 100 mg/ml1.64USD ml
Thiamiject 100 mg/ml1.24USD ml
Thiamine Hcl 100 mg/ml1.24USD ml
Thiamine hcl powder0.73USD g
Thiamine 100 mg tablet0.21USD tablet
Thiamine 500 mg tablet0.18USD tablet
Vitamin b-1 250 mg tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitamin b-1 100 mg tablet0.05USD tablet
Thiamine 250 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy vitamin b-1 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Vitamin b-1 50 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Thiamine hcl 50 mg tablet0.01USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)248 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility5E+005 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996); approx.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0153 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.91 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity73.4 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.14 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7976
Blood Brain Barrier+0.933
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5593
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9814
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8504
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7559
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.842
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7591
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7256
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.58
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7521
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7523
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7397
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8019
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7795
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8999
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.86
Rat acute toxicity2.4577 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9415
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6221
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0109000000-48864f31ba475645654b
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-05o1-9200000000-2ec0f3e9e364cffde16e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-0aou-9000000000-0184506492d9f5b68b97
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-872150be83cbd75d8ecf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0930000000-ecf71c75bdea859139d5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-4d9113fdc633fb1ccbb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-4a8016299623af0c3027
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-1900000000-773912c9f325c419c77d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0390000000-95f3ca57c95542bdc7e7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-e079d1fc1e06396dc524
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-ebb16d4f204f291b9a3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00e9-4900000000-ad4d4779d76b9edb7ec5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9600000000-b631eed5be831527fc17
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-50f2f613f576814eb627
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-0900000000-2f184bbfec6bc0ef00c6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-35bc744495a2570a565f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-d8a7ac327273c32b4524
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0920000000-ca80ef6513c61be5b5e9
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-872150be83cbd75d8ecf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0930000000-ecf71c75bdea859139d5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-4d9113fdc633fb1ccbb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-4a8016299623af0c3027
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-1900000000-773912c9f325c419c77d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0920000000-ca80ef6513c61be5b5e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0390000000-95f3ca57c95542bdc7e7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-e079d1fc1e06396dc524
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-ebb16d4f204f291b9a3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00e9-4900000000-ad4d4779d76b9edb7ec5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9600000000-c2e5c7c9870f8f37862a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-c22d0fe35bf57449634f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-d8a7ac327273c32b4524
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-94915e2f982d965cb1c6
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Drugtargets
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thiamine diphosphokinase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate. Can also catalyze the phosphorylation of pyrithiamine to pyrithiamine pyrophosphate.
Gene Name
TPK1
Uniprot ID
Q9H3S4
Uniprot Name
Thiamin pyrophosphokinase 1
Molecular Weight
27265.05 Da
References
  1. Pylypchuk SIu, Parkhomenko IuM, Protasova ZS, Vovk AI, Donchenko HV: [Interaction of rat brain thiamine kinase with thiamine and its derivatives]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2001 Mar-Apr;73(2):51-6. [Article]
  2. Melnick J, Lis E, Park JH, Kinsland C, Mori H, Baba T, Perkins J, Schyns G, Vassieva O, Osterman A, Begley TP: Identification of the two missing bacterial genes involved in thiamine salvage: thiamine pyrophosphokinase and thiamine kinase. J Bacteriol. 2004 Jun;186(11):3660-2. [Article]
  3. Bellyei S, Szigeti A, Boronkai A, Szabo Z, Bene J, Janaky T, Barna L, Sipos K, Minik O, Kravjak A, Ohmacht R, Melegh B, Zavodszky P, Than GN, Sumegi B, Bohn H, Than NG: Cloning, sequencing, structural and molecular biological characterization of placental protein 20 (PP20)/human thiamin pyrophosphokinase (hTPK). Placenta. 2005 Jan;26(1):34-46. [Article]
  4. de Jong L, Meng Y, Dent J, Hekimi S: Thiamine pyrophosphate biosynthesis and transport in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2004 Oct;168(2):845-54. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID
P13584
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4B1
Molecular Weight
58990.64 Da
References
  1. Liu S, Stromberg A, Tai HH, Moscow JA: Thiamine transporter gene expression and exogenous thiamine modulate the expression of genes involved in drug and prostaglandin metabolism in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2004 Aug;2(8):477-87. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thiamine diphosphokinase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate. Can also catalyze the phosphorylation of pyrithiamine to pyrithiamine pyrophosphate.
Gene Name
TPK1
Uniprot ID
Q9H3S4
Uniprot Name
Thiamin pyrophosphokinase 1
Molecular Weight
27265.05 Da
References
  1. Lonsdale D: A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Uridine diphosphatase (UDPase) that promotes protein N-glycosylation and ATP level regulation. UDP hydrolysis promotes protein N-glycosylation and folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as elevated ATP consumption in the cytosol via an ATP hydrolysis cycle. Together with CMPK1 and AK1, constitutes an ATP hydrolysis cycle that converts ATP to AMP and results in a compensatory increase in aerobic glycolysis. The nucleotide hydrolyzing preference is GDP > IDP > UDP, but not any other nucleoside di-, mono- or triphosphates, nor thiamine pyrophosphate. Plays a key role in the AKT1-PTEN signaling pathway by promoting glycolysis in proliferating cells in response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling.
Specific Function
Guanosine-diphosphatase activity
Gene Name
ENTPD5
Uniprot ID
O75356
Uniprot Name
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5
Molecular Weight
47516.985 Da
References
  1. Lonsdale D: A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Hydrolase highly specific for thiamine triphosphate (ThTP).
Specific Function
Hydrolase activity
Gene Name
THTPA
Uniprot ID
Q9BU02
Uniprot Name
Thiamine-triphosphatase
Molecular Weight
25565.685 Da
References
  1. Lonsdale D: A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. [Article]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Hosseinzadeh R, Khorsandi K: Interaction of vitamin B1 with bovine serum albumin investigation using vitamin B1-selective electrode: potentiometric and molecular modeling study. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2016 Sep;34(9):1903-10. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1094414. Epub 2016 May 4. [Article]
  2. Thom JY, Davis RE, Icke GC: Protein binding of thiamin in human plasma. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1986;56(2):189. [Article]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [Article]
  2. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [Article]
  2. Sinclair CJ, Chi KD, Subramanian V, Ward KL, Green RM: Functional expression of a high affinity mammalian hepatic choline/organic cation transporter. J Lipid Res. 2000 Nov;41(11):1841-8. [Article]
  3. Green RM, Lo K, Sterritt C, Beier DR: Cloning and functional expression of a mouse liver organic cation transporter. Hepatology. 1999 May;29(5):1556-62. [Article]
  4. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [Article]
  5. Chen L, Shu Y, Liang X, Chen EC, Yee SW, Zur AA, Li S, Xu L, Keshari KR, Lin MJ, Chien HC, Zhang Y, Morrissey KM, Liu J, Ostrem J, Younger NS, Kurhanewicz J, Shokat KM, Ashrafi K, Giacomini KM: OCT1 is a high-capacity thiamine transporter that regulates hepatic steatosis and is a target of metformin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 8;111(27):9983-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314939111. Epub 2014 Jun 24. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [Article]
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thiamine uptake transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity transporter for the intake of thiamine.
Gene Name
SLC19A2
Uniprot ID
O60779
Uniprot Name
Thiamine transporter 1
Molecular Weight
55399.49 Da
References
  1. Lonsdale D: A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thiamine uptake transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates high affinity thiamine uptake, propably via a proton anti-port mechanism. Has no folate transport activity.
Gene Name
SLC19A3
Uniprot ID
Q9BZV2
Uniprot Name
Thiamine transporter 2
Molecular Weight
55664.265 Da
References
  1. Lonsdale D: A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. [Article]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 13:24 / Updated on June 13, 2021 16:25