Identification

Summary

Methotrimeprazine is a phenothiazine used in the management of psychosis, particular those of schizophrenia, and manic phases of bipolar disorder.

Brand Names
Nozinan
Generic Name
Methotrimeprazine
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01403
Background

A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both chlorpromazine and promethazine. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with central nervous system effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 328.472
Monoisotopic: 328.16093409
Chemical Formula
C19H24N2OS
Synonyms
  • (-)-(2R)-3-(2-methoxy-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropan-1-amine
  • (-)-10-(3-(Dimethylamino)-2-methylpropyl)-2-methoxyphenothiazine
  • 2-Methoxytrimeprazine
  • Levomepromazina
  • Levomepromazine
  • Lévomépromazine
  • Levomepromazinum
  • Methotrimeprazine
External IDs
  • CL 36467
  • CL 39743
  • N05AA02
  • RP 7044
  • RP-7044
  • SK&F 5116
  • XP-03
  • XP03

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of psychosis, particular those of schizophrenia, and manic phases of bipolar disorder.

Pharmacology
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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Contraindications
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Pharmacodynamics

Methotrimeprazine is a phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both chlorpromazine and promethazine. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with central nervous system effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)

Mechanism of action

Methotrimeprazine's antipsychotic effect is largely due to its antagonism of dopamine receptors in the brain. In addition, its binding to 5HT2 receptors may also play a role.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADopamine D2 receptor
antagonist
Humans
UDopamine D1 receptor
antagonist
Humans
UDopamine D5 receptor
antagonist
Humans
UDopamine D3 receptor
antagonist
Humans
UDopamine D4 receptor
antagonist
Humans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
antagonist
Humans
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
antagonist
Humans
UHistamine H1 receptor
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Humans
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
antagonist
Humans
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
UAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
UAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
UAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
UAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
UAlpha-2C adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Humans
Absorption

Methotrimeprazine has an incomplete oral bioavailability, because it undergoes considerable first-pass-metabolism in the liver. Oral bioavailability is approximately 50 to 60%.

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

Not Available

Metabolism

Hepatic. Methotrimeprazine is metabolized in the liver and degraded to a sulfoxid-, a glucuronid- and a demethyl-moiety.

Route of elimination

Not Available

Half-life

Approximately 20 hours.

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects
Adverseeffects
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include convulsions, spastic movements, and coma.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
1,2-Benzodiazepine1,2-Benzodiazepine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Methotrimeprazine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Methotrimeprazine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
AcebutololThe metabolism of Acebutolol can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenMethotrimeprazine may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Acetaminophen.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
Interactions
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Food Interactions
  • Take with food. Food reduces irritation.

Products

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Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Methotrimeprazine hydrochloride42BB1Y25861236-99-3ODLGFPIWRAEFAN-PFEQFJNWSA-N
Methotrimeprazine maleate5KN5Y9V01K7104-38-3IFLZPECPTYCEBR-VIEYUMQNSA-N
International/Other Brands
Levoprome / Neurocil / Nosinan / Nozinan
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
MethoprazineTablet2 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1998-07-20Not applicableCanada flag
MethoprazineTablet25 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1998-07-20Not applicableCanada flag
MethoprazineTablet5 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1998-07-20Not applicableCanada flag
MethoprazineTablet50 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1998-07-20Not applicableCanada flag
Methotrimeprazine-2Tablet2 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1999-05-102009-07-23Canada flag
Methotrimeprazine-25Tablet25 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1999-05-122011-07-27Canada flag
Methotrimeprazine-5Tablet5 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1999-05-122011-07-27Canada flag
Methotrimeprazine-50Tablet50 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1999-05-102011-07-27Canada flag
Nov Meprazine Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralNovopharm Limited1996-12-312005-08-10Canada flag
Nozinan 5mg TabTablet5 mgOralSanofi Aventis1958-12-312007-07-18Canada flag
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Novo Meprazine Tab 25mgTablet25 mgOralNovopharm Limited1996-12-312018-05-02Canada flag
Novo Meprazine Tab 5mgTablet5 mgOralNovopharm Limited1995-07-172018-05-02Canada flag
PMS-methotrimeprazineTablet25 mgOralPharmascience Inc1997-10-202017-09-30Canada flag
PMS-methotrimeprazineTablet5 mgOralPharmascience Inc1997-10-202017-11-14Canada flag
PMS-methotrimeprazineTablet50 mgOralPharmascience Inc1997-10-202017-09-30Canada flag
Riva-meprazine 25mg TabletsTablet25 mg / tabOralLaboratoire Riva Inc1999-11-222003-07-28Canada flag
Riva-meprazine 50mg TabletsTablet50 mg / tabOralLaboratoire Riva Inc1999-11-222003-07-28Canada flag
Riva-meprazine 5mg TabletsTablet5 mg / tabOralLaboratoire Riva Inc1999-11-222003-07-28Canada flag

Categories

ATC Codes
N05AA02 — Levomepromazine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzothiazines
Sub Class
Phenothiazines
Direct Parent
Phenothiazines
Alternative Parents
Alkyldiarylamines / Diarylthioethers / Anisoles / Alkyl aryl ethers / 1,4-thiazines / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Alkyl aryl ether / Alkyldiarylamine / Amine / Anisole / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound / Aryl thioether / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Diarylthioether / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenothiazines, tertiary amine (CHEBI:6838)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
9G0LAW7ATQ
CAS number
60-99-1
InChI Key
VRQVVMDWGGWHTJ-CQSZACIVSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N2OS/c1-14(12-20(2)3)13-21-16-7-5-6-8-18(16)23-19-10-9-15(22-4)11-17(19)21/h5-11,14H,12-13H2,1-4H3/t14-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
[(2R)-3-(2-methoxy-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-2-methylpropyl]dimethylamine
SMILES
COC1=CC2=C(SC3=C(C=CC=C3)N2C[C@H](C)CN(C)C)C=C1

References

Synthesis Reference

Christian Berger, "Process for preparing levomepromazine hydrogen maleate." U.S. Patent US4798895, issued January 17, 1989.

US4798895
General References
  1. Link [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015474
KEGG Drug
D00403
KEGG Compound
C07192
PubChem Compound
72287
PubChem Substance
46507223
ChemSpider
65239
BindingDB
50418049
RxNav
6852
ChEBI
6838
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1764
ZINC
ZINC000000020246
PharmGKB
PA164743234
Wikipedia
Levomepromazine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementia / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPsychosis Nos/Other1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychosis / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizophrenia Relapse1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral10 MG
TabletOral50 MG
SolutionOral40 MG/ML
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg
Tablet, coatedOral25 mg
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral25 MG
Tablet, film coatedOral
Solution / drops
SolutionOral5 mg / mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous25 mg / mL
Liquid; solution / dropsOral40 mg / mL
TabletOral25 mg / tab
TabletOral50 mg / tab
TabletOral5 mg / tab
TabletOral25 mg
SolutionOral40 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nozinan 25 mg/ml3.6USD ml
Apo-Methoprazine 50 mg Tablet0.4USD tablet
Apo-Methoprazine 25 mg Tablet0.27USD tablet
Apo-Methoprazine 5 mg Tablet0.1USD tablet
Apo-Methoprazine 2 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility20 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP4.68HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.22ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.19SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00525 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.84ALOGPS
logP4.25ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.42ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area15.71 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity99.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9857
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9935
Caco-2 permeable+0.6694
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6805
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8571
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5132
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7511
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.5363
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6056
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6953
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5432
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5633
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5562
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9182
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.5064 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.932
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8488
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-056r-9356000000-bb17e4980980d336d337
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0009000000-292add600a1d733c3662
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0319000000-9bcdb870e16f29c42cc7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-2920000000-f73fff6b08acc61ea5b7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zfr-6920000000-dc5968beb0d112813d55
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9410000000-0d1f6734452bedc68d3f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0910000000-10fe32fa41981fcda652

Targets

Drugtargets2
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Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new
insights and accelerate drug research.
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Use our structured and evidence-based datasets to unlock new insights and accelerate drug research.
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Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamin...
Gene Name
HRH1
Uniprot ID
P35367
Uniprot Name
Histamine H1 receptor
Molecular Weight
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  2. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  2. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  2. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  2. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM5
Uniprot ID
P08912
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Molecular Weight
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  2. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  3. Tsukamoto T, Asakura M, Hirata N, Imafuku J, Matsui H, Hasegawa K: Interaction of neuroleptics and antidepressants with rat brain alpha 2-receptors: a possible relationship between alpha 2-receptor antagonism and antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;19(9):1283-91. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  3. Tsukamoto T, Asakura M, Hirata N, Imafuku J, Matsui H, Hasegawa K: Interaction of neuroleptics and antidepressants with rat brain alpha 2-receptors: a possible relationship between alpha 2-receptor antagonism and antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;19(9):1283-91. [Article]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID
P18825
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [Article]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [Article]
  3. Tsukamoto T, Asakura M, Hirata N, Imafuku J, Matsui H, Hasegawa K: Interaction of neuroleptics and antidepressants with rat brain alpha 2-receptors: a possible relationship between alpha 2-receptor antagonism and antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;19(9):1283-91. [Article]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Yoshimura R, Ueda N, Nakamura J: Low dosage of levomepromazine did not increase plasma concentrations of fluvoxamine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000 Jul;15(4):233-5. [Article]
  2. Yukawa E, Hokazono T, Yukawa M, Ichimaru R, Maki T, Matsunaga K, Ohdo S, Anai M, Higuchi S, Goto Y: Population pharmacokinetics of haloperidol using routine clinical pharmacokinetic data in Japanese patients. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(2):153-9. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200241020-00006. [Article]
  3. Mannheimer B, von Bahr C, Pettersson H, Eliasson E: Impact of multiple inhibitors or substrates of cytochrome P450 2D6 on plasma risperidone levels in patients on polypharmacy. Ther Drug Monit. 2008 Oct;30(5):565-9. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e31818679c9. [Article]
  4. Sicras-Mainar A, Guijarro P, Armada B, Blanca-Tamayo M, Navarro-Artieda R: Influence of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme in patients treated with venlafaxine for major depressive disorder: clinical and economic consequences. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e90453. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090453. eCollection 2014. [Article]
  5. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Daniel WA, Syrek M, Rylko Z, Kot M: Effects of phenothiazine neuroleptics on the rate of caffeine demethylation and hydroxylation in the rat liver. Pol J Pharmacol. 2001 Nov-Dec;53(6):615-21. [Article]

Drug created at July 10, 2007 18:38 / Updated at October 26, 2021 21:40