The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.

Article Details

Citation

Blattner FR, Plunkett G 3rd, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD, Rode CK, Mayhew GF, Gregor J, Davis NW, Kirkpatrick HA, Goeden MA, Rose DJ, Mau B, Shao Y

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.

Science. 1997 Sep 5;277(5331):1453-62.

PubMed ID
9278503 [ View in PubMed
]
Abstract

The 4,639,221-base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with respect to the local direction of replication; guanines, oligonucleotides possibly related to replication and recombination, and most genes are so oriented. The genome also contains insertion sequence (IS) elements, phage remnants, and many other patches of unusual composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer.

DrugBank Data that Cites this Article

Polypeptides
NameUniProt ID
30S ribosomal protein S4P0A7V8Details
Malate dehydrogenaseP61889Details
D-lactate dehydrogenaseP06149Details
Evolved beta-galactosidase subunit alphaP06864Details
Bifunctional protein FolCP08192Details
30S ribosomal protein S9P0A7X3Details
30S ribosomal protein S10P0A7R5Details
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit betaP0A8V2Details
30S ribosomal protein S12P0A7S3Details
Glutathione reductaseP06715Details
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alphaP0A7Z4Details
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferaseP0A749Details
Penicillin-binding protein 1BP02919Details
DNA polymerase IP00582Details
Fumarate reductase flavoprotein subunitP00363Details
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3P0A6R0Details
Penicillin-binding protein 1AP02918Details
Aminodeoxychorismate synthase component 1P05041Details
Oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductaseP17117Details
D-alanine--D-alanine ligase AP0A6J8Details
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacBP24228Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone]P07003Details
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit AP0AFI2Details
DNA gyrase subunit BP0AES6Details
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 2P0AAI5Details
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 1P0A953Details
Dihydropteroate synthaseP0AC13Details
[Citrate [pro-3S]-lyase] ligaseP77390Details
Malate synthase GP37330Details
Aspartate aminotransferaseP00509Details
Primary amine oxidaseP46883Details
Uridine phosphorylaseP12758Details
ATP phosphoribosyltransferaseP60757Details
Dephospho-CoA kinaseP0A6I9Details
Adenylate kinaseP69441Details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP]P08200Details
3-keto-L-gulonate-6-phosphate decarboxylase UlaDP39304Details
UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligaseP14900Details
2-methylisocitrate lyaseP77541Details
ATP-dependent dethiobiotin synthetase BioD 1P13000Details
2,3-diketo-L-gulonate reductaseP37672Details
Pantothenate kinaseP0A6I3Details
ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose-6-epimeraseP67910Details
Signal peptidase IP00803Details
Ferrichrome-iron receptorP06971Details
Putrescine-binding periplasmic proteinP31133Details
NH(3)-dependent NAD(+) synthetaseP18843Details
Alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase [UDP-forming]P31677Details
Ammonia channelP69681Details
L-asparaginase 2P00805Details
Beta-lactamaseP00811Details
Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolaseP06968Details
Putative hydroxypyruvate isomerase YgbMQ46891Details
Iron(3+)-hydroxamate-binding protein FhuDP07822Details
3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferaseP0A6D3Details
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenaseP37610Details
Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferaseP06986Details
Galactoside O-acetyltransferaseP07464Details
Isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomeraseQ46822Details
Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferaseP09148Details
Beta-galactosidaseP00722Details
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing]P17169Details
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimeraseP27828Details
Thermoresistant gluconokinaseP46859Details
Thymidylate synthaseP0A884Details
Adenylosuccinate synthetaseP0A7D4Details
Formate dehydrogenase HP07658Details
2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyldihydropteridine pyrophosphokinaseP26281Details
DihydroorotaseP05020Details
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine--N-acetylmuramyl-(pentapeptide) pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferaseP17443Details
Pyridoxamine kinaseP77150Details
Vitamin B12 transporter BtuBP06129Details
Peptide deformylaseP0A6K3Details
Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferaseP08179Details
Vitamin B12-binding proteinP37028Details
Deoxycytidine triphosphate deaminaseP28248Details
Chorismate pyruvate-lyaseP26602Details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase GabTP22256Details
Cysteine desulfuraseP77444Details
Farnesyl diphosphate synthaseP22939Details
Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferaseP12995Details
8-oxo-dGTP diphosphataseP08337Details
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (quinone)P0A7E1Details
Methionine--tRNA ligaseP00959Details
UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate--2,6-diaminopimelate ligaseP22188Details
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate synthaseP0A794Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase YqhDQ46856Details
Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2P33221Details
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 2P45563Details
Tryptophan biosynthesis protein TrpCFP00909Details
DNA mismatch repair protein MutLP23367Details
Outer membrane protein FP02931Details
1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomeraseP45568Details
Membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase BP41052Details
4-hydroxythreonine-4-phosphate dehydrogenaseP19624Details
Gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenaseP77674Details
Acetylglutamate kinaseP0A6C8Details
ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecQP15043Details
Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylaseP52045Details
Protein YceIP0A8X2Details
Cytidylate kinaseP0A6I0Details
Allantoate amidohydrolaseP77425Details
Glycerol kinaseP0A6F3Details
Long-chain fatty acid transport proteinP10384Details
Methionine synthaseP13009Details
Oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductaseP38489Details
Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminaseP0A759Details
Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esteraseP13001Details
Tautomerase PptAP31992Details
Xaa-Pro aminopeptidaseP15034Details
DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase 1P05100Details
HTH-type transcriptional regulator MalTP06993Details
2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferaseQ46893Details
Sugar phosphatase YbiVP75792Details
D-allose-binding periplasmic proteinP39265Details
L-carnitine CoA-transferaseP31572Details
Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylaseP08244Details
L-arabinose-binding periplasmic proteinP02924Details
Molybdenum cofactor guanylyltransferaseP32173Details
Maltodextrin phosphorylaseP00490Details
Glucose-1-phosphataseP19926Details
UDP-galactopyranose mutaseP37747Details
Biotin synthaseP12996Details
Glutamate--cysteine ligaseP0A6W9Details
Formate acetyltransferase 1P09373Details
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferaseP31057Details
Histidinol dehydrogenaseP06988Details
Argininosuccinate synthaseP0A6E4Details
GDP-mannose mannosyl hydrolaseP32056Details
Porphobilinogen deaminaseP06983Details
Bifunctional protein PutAP09546Details
Bifunctional polymyxin resistance protein ArnAP77398Details
8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthaseP12998Details
Histidine--tRNA ligaseP60906Details
Deoxyribose-phosphate aldolaseP0A6L0Details
Isoaspartyl dipeptidaseP39377Details
N,N'-diacetylchitobiose-specific phosphotransferase enzyme IIB componentP69795Details
Multidrug efflux pump subunit AcrBP31224Details
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylaseP00864Details
Diaminopimelate decarboxylaseP00861Details
Cytosine deaminaseP25524Details
Fe(3+) dicitrate transport protein FecAP13036Details
HTH-type transcriptional regulator TreRP36673Details
N-succinylarginine dihydrolaseP76216Details
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase chain IP04391Details
Rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolaseP32169Details
L-rhamnose isomeraseP32170Details
Alkaline phosphataseP00634Details
Sulfite reductase [NADPH] hemoprotein beta-componentP17846Details
UDP-glucose 4-epimeraseP09147Details
GDP-L-fucose synthaseP32055Details
Fumarate hydratase class IIP05042Details
Alpha-xylosidaseP31434Details
Shikimate dehydrogenase (NADP(+))P15770Details
Outer membrane protein TolCP02930Details
Lactose permeaseP02920Details
Ribose import binding protein RbsBP02925Details
DNA topoisomerase 1P06612Details
Aconitate hydratase BP36683Details
2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase [NADPH]P42593Details
Lipid A palmitoyltransferase PagPP37001Details
4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductaseP04036Details
Divalent-cation tolerance protein CutAP69488Details
Thymidine phosphorylaseP07650Details
Maltose-binding periplasmic proteinP0AEX9Details
RibokinaseP0A9J6Details
7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenaseP0AET8Details
Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrataseP0ACB2Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 componentP0AFG8Details
Phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase, Phe-sensitiveP0AB91Details
Penicillin-insensitive murein endopeptidaseP0C0T5Details
Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabIP0AEK4Details
5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidaseP0AF12Details
Xanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseP0A9M5Details
Dihydrofolate reductaseP0ABQ4Details
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase DeoD-typeP0ABP8Details
Methionine aminopeptidaseP0AE18Details
cAMP-activated global transcriptional regulator CRPP0ACJ8Details
Acyl-CoA thioesterase IP0ADA1Details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferaseP0AB80Details
Class B acid phosphataseP0AE22Details
Soluble lytic murein transglycosylaseP0AGC3Details
Coenzyme A biosynthesis bifunctional protein CoaBCP0ABQ0Details
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase class 2P0AB71Details
Phosphate-binding protein PstSP0AG82Details
Chemotaxis protein CheYP0AE67Details
Bifunctional protein GlmUP0ACC7Details
AMP nucleosidaseP0AE12Details
Cytochrome c-552P0ABK9Details
ATP synthase subunit bP0ABA0Details
Tyrosine--tRNA ligaseP0AGJ9Details
Spermidine/putrescine-binding periplasmic proteinP0AFK9Details
L-fuculose phosphate aldolaseP0AB87Details
Ribosomal small subunit pseudouridine synthase AP0AA43Details
Cytidine deaminaseP0ABF6Details
Glucarate dehydrataseP0AES2Details
Glycerol uptake facilitator proteinP0AER0Details
Acyl-CoA thioesterase 2P0AGG2Details
Arabinose operon regulatory proteinP0A9E0Details
Single-stranded DNA-binding proteinP0AGE0Details
Phospholipase A1P0A921Details
AmidophosphoribosyltransferaseP0AG16Details
Outer membrane protein AP0A910Details
Glycine betaine-binding periplasmic proteinP0AFM2Details
Hydrogen peroxide-inducible genes activatorP0ACQ4Details
Outer membrane protein XP0A917Details
2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligaseP0AB77Details
Release factor glutamine methyltransferaseP0ACC1Details
Lactaldehyde reductaseP0A9S1Details
D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase subunit KbaYP0AB74Details
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase AP0A9B2Details
D-galactose-binding periplasmic proteinP0AEE5Details
Nucleoside-specific channel-forming protein tsxP0A927Details
Glutathione S-transferase GstAP0A9D2Details
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacAP0AEB2Details
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductaseP0AEZ1Details
Pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidaseP0AFI7Details
Thioredoxin reductaseP0A9P4Details
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase FabGP0AEK2Details
Lipoprotein NlpIP0AFB1Details
Thiol:disulfide interchange protein DsbCP0AEG6Details
2-iminobutanoate/2-iminopropanoate deaminaseP0AF93Details
KHG/KDPG aldolaseP0A955Details
Aspartate ammonia-lyaseP0AC38Details
Osmolarity sensor protein EnvZP0AEJ4Details
Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseP0A9M2Details
Probable pyruvate-flavodoxin oxidoreductaseP52647Details
Peptidoglycan synthase FtsIP0AD68Details
DNA polymerase III subunit epsilonP03007Details
GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]P04079Details
Lactose operon repressorP03023Details
FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductaseP41407Details
Probable phosphatase YcdXP75914Details
Glutaminase 1P77454Details
Molybdopterin synthase catalytic subunitP30749Details
ADP compounds hydrolase NudEP45799Details
o-succinylbenzoate synthaseP29208Details
GlucokinaseP0A6V8Details
Adenine DNA glycosylaseP17802Details
Laccase domain protein YfiHP33644Details
Putative mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphataseP76329Details
3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferaseP31142Details
DNA polymerase III subunit tauP06710Details
FlavohemoproteinP24232Details
EcotinP23827Details
Sulfite reductase [NADPH] flavoprotein alpha-componentP38038Details
Deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyaseP00914Details
L-aspartate oxidaseP10902Details
UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductaseP08373Details
Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit FP35340Details
Ferredoxin--NADP reductaseP28861Details
Protein UshAP07024Details
Flavodoxin-1P61949Details
Oxidoreductase YdhFP76187Details
Glutamate decarboxylase alphaP69908Details
Aminodeoxychorismate lyaseP28305Details
33 kDa chaperoninP0A6Y5Details
Free methionine-R-sulfoxide reductaseP76270Details
O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylaseP0A8D6Details
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 1 subunit betaP69924Details
Cystathionine gamma-synthaseP00935Details
MaltoporinP02943Details
RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclaseP46849Details
Transketolase 1P27302Details
Sensor protein PhoQP23837Details
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit BP20083Details
Potassium-transporting ATPase ATP-binding subunitP03960Details
Riboflavin synthaseP0AFU8Details
Aspartate carbamoyltransferase catalytic subunitP0A786Details
Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunitP0AC41Details
Bifunctional ligase/repressor BirAP06709Details
Ditrans,polycis-undecaprenyl-diphosphate synthase ((2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate specific)P60472Details
Penicillin-binding protein 2P0AD65Details
50S ribosomal protein L4P60723Details
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacCP08506Details
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta'P0A8T7Details
30S ribosomal protein S14P0AG59Details
30S ribosomal protein S13P0A7S9Details
30S ribosomal protein S19P0A7U3Details
Penicillin-binding protein 1CP76577Details
DNA polymerase III subunit betaP0A988Details
Respiratory nitrate reductase 1 alpha chainP09152Details
Respiratory nitrate reductase 1 beta chainP11349Details
Respiratory nitrate reductase 1 gamma chainP11350Details
Aquaporin ZP60844Details
Succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunitP07014Details
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b556 subunitP69054Details
Succinate dehydrogenase hydrophobic membrane anchor subunitP0AC44Details
Rhomboid protease GlpGP09391Details
Outer membrane protein GP76045Details
Fumarate reductase iron-sulfur subunitP0AC47Details
Fumarate reductase subunit CP0A8Q0Details
Fumarate reductase subunit DP0A8Q3Details
Outer membrane protein WP0A915Details
Cell division protein ZipAP77173Details
ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunitP0A6G7Details
3-hydroxydecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydrataseP0A6Q3Details
Protein TonBP02929Details
Ribosome-recycling factorP0A805Details
4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductaseP62623Details
tRNA dimethylallyltransferaseP16384Details
Lactaldehyde dehydrogenaseP25553Details
Methionyl-tRNA formyltransferaseP23882Details
Probable L-ascorbate-6-phosphate lactonase UlaGP39300Details
2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthaseP62617Details
Formate dehydrogenase, nitrate-inducible, major subunitP24183Details
Formate dehydrogenase, nitrate-inducible, iron-sulfur subunitP0AAJ3Details
Formate dehydrogenase, nitrate-inducible, cytochrome b556(Fdn) subunitP0AEK7Details
Regulatory protein SdiAP07026Details
Acyl carrier proteinP0A6A8Details
Biotin carboxylaseP24182Details
Colicin I receptorP17315Details
Probable N-acetylneuraminic acid outer membrane channel protein NanCP69856Details
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase AP0AFL3Details
Fatty acid metabolism regulator proteinP0A8V6Details
Outer-membrane lipoprotein LolBP61320Details
Leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA--protein transferaseP0A8P1Details
Aminopeptidase NP04825Details
P-proteinP0A9J8Details
Nickel-binding periplasmic proteinP33590Details
Thiol:disulfide interchange protein DsbAP0AEG4Details
Disulfide bond formation protein BP0A6M2Details
D-alanyl-D-alanine endopeptidaseP0AFI5Details
50S ribosomal protein L16P0ADY7Details
30S ribosomal protein S3P0A7V3Details
30S ribosomal protein S8P0A7W7Details
30S ribosomal protein S7P02359Details
DNA gyrase subunit AP0AES4Details
Medium-chain fatty-acid--CoA ligaseP38135Details
Catecholate siderophore receptor FiuP75780Details
Outer membrane porin CP06996Details